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© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute John D. Kasarda, Director Center for Air Commerce Kenan-Flagler Business School University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill The Aerotropolis Development Strategy Global Airport Leaders Forum Dubai, UAE May 12, 2014
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute What is an Aerotropolis? An aerotropolis can be defined as a … “a multimodal freight and passenger transportation complex which supports efficient, cost-effective, sustainable development in a defined region of economic significance centered around a major airport.” United States Congress H.R.658: Aerotropolis Act of 2011 But it is more than a transport complex: It is a strategy... That is, an aerotropolis is a constellation of physical, institutional, economic and policy interventions which upgrade airport infrastructure and facilities, reduce connecting ground-based transport times and costs, and expand air route connectivity to (1) improve operational efficiencies of the airport and metropolitan region and (2) leverage aviation-enabled trade in goods and services.
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute The Aerotropolis Model Primary objective: Enhancing airport, business, and regional competitiveness through improved multi-modal airport surface transportation access and planned, coordinated aviation-linked commercial development, making the airport and its surrounding areas more economically efficient, attractive, and sustainable. Key value proposition: Offers businesses located near or with good transport access to the airport with speedy connectivity to their suppliers, customers, and enterprise partners, nationally and worldwide. Contains the full set of cargo, logistics, and commercial facilities that support airlines and aviation-linked businesses as well as air travelers. An Airport City developed on and immediately around the airport serves as the multimodal, multi-functional commercial core of the Aerotropolis anchoring aviation-enabled trade in goods and services, driving them throughout the broader airport region. Represents the Fifth Wave
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Airports: Creating The Fifth Wave of Transit-Oriented Development First Wave: Seaports Second Wave: River & Canal- Based Development Third Wave: Railroads Fourth Wave: Highways Fifth Wave: Airports Transportation Infrastructure Has Always Shaped Business Location, Commercial Activity, and Urban Development Century 21 st 20 th 19 th 18 th 17 th
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Basic Drivers of the FIFTH WAVE Large jet aircraft (along with IT advances) Globalization (producers & consumers) Speed (time-based competition) Agility (customization & flexible response) Connectivity (worldwide enterprise networks) Perishability (pharma, fish, flowers, fashions) Tourism (especially international) See: John D. Kasarda and Greg Lindsay Aerotropolis: The Way We’ll Live Next (2011)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Tourist Arrivals by World Region Source: Tourism 2020 Vision, World Tourism Organization,
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Global Air Transport, Source: Airlines for America (A4A)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute The Coming Two Decades Between 2013 and 2032, world-wide commercial passenger traffic will likely increase from 5.4 billion to approximately 14 billion (nearly 40 million pax/day) Asia/Middle East fastest growing In the same period (2013 to 2032), world air cargo traffic is expected to nearly triple (Asia/Middle East also fastest growing) Between 2013 to 2032 commercial aircraft in service will rise from 20,310 to 41,240 During this period ( ) 35,280 new commercial aircraft will come into service with a new market value of US$4.8 trillion Source: IATA & Airports Council International (2013, Boeing Current Market Outlook )
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute The 21 st Century Economy is becoming an Aviation-Based Economy Air logistics and the new economy are inextricably interwoven Tuna, orchids, medications, iPhones, aerospace components all go by air Over one-third of the value of world trade already moves by air (versus just 1% by weight); even higher for business services exports and tourism Almost all high-tech global supply chains and business services exports are connected by aviation (the physical Internet) Source: John D. Kasarda and Greg Lindsay, Aerotropolis: The Way We’ll Live Next (2011) Proprietary and Confidential
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Global Supply Chain – Apple iPhone 5
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Source: Airline Route Mapper and UNC Kenan Institute ©2009 Jpatokal, Creative Commons, Wikimedia.org Aviation’s Global Physical Internet (59,036 Routes in 2012)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Airport Roles in the Physical Internet Routers of aviation’s Physical Internet Interfaces of the global meeting the local in people, product, and advanced service movements Business magnets Regional economic catalysts
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute As the Routers of the Physical Internet, Airports Have Become Business Magnets and Regional Economic Catalysts by Providing accessibility, speed and agility to global supply chains and perishables Connecting a region’s businesses to their customers and enterprise partners worldwide Attracting tourists and serving commercial needs of millions of air passengers and airport-area visitors annually Creating Airport Cities and the greater Aerotropolis
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Airport Cities and The Aerotropolis New Airport-Centered Urban Forms Are Evolving
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Rise of the Airport City Airports today: much more than aviation infrastructures They are multimodal, multifunctional enterprises generating considerable commercial development within and well beyond their boundaries All commercial functions of a modern metropolitan center are locating on and immediately around major airport sites – transforming them from “city airports” to “airport cities”
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute The Airport City Airside – Shopping mall concepts merged into passenger terminals · Retail (including streetscapes & upscale boutiques) · Restaurants (increasingly higher-end and themed) · Leisure (spas, fitness, recreation, cinemas, etc…) · Culture (museums, regional art, musicians, prayer) – Logistics and Air Cargo Landside – Hotels and entertainment – Office & retail complexes – Convention & exhibition centers – Free trade zones & SEZ’s – Time-sensitive goods processing
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Airport City’s Business Impact 1 Daily consumer population at major airports is larger than that of many mid-sized cities, and with higher incomes 2 Numerous airports achieve greater percentage of revenues from non-aeronautical sources than aeronautical sources 3 Rapid commercial development around many major airports makes them leading urban growth generators, as airport areas become significant employment, shopping, trading and business destinations in their own right 4 Airport area develops a “brand image” attracting even non- aviation linked businesses such as factory outlets & big box retail
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute The Rise of the Aerotropolis Spines, nodes, and clusters of aviation-linked business and residential complexes are forming along airport transportation corridors up to 30 km from some airports with significant economic impact measured up to 90 km. Office buildings and technology parks Logistics and distribution centers Industrial estates and light manufacturing Retail centers and wholesale merchandise marts Information and communications technology complexes Bioscience and medical facilities Higher education campuses Hotel, convention, tourism and entertainment complexes Large mixed-use residential developments Airport “Edge Cities” (e.g., Amsterdam, Zuidas; Las Colinas, Texas; New Songdo IBD) Just as you have Central Cities and the greater Metropolis, you now have Airport Cities and the greater Aerotropolis.
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Aerotropolis Schematic with Airport City Core (Compressed Version)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Airport City/Aerotropolis Spatial Development Paths From the airport out From the city out Along the main access corridor Washington Dulles Airport Washington DC
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Illustrations of Airport City & Aerotropolis Commercial Components
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Civic Plaza: Indianapolis Terminal (21 st Century Central Square)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Hotel & Meeting: Dallas-Ft. Worth Grand Hyatt (21 st Century Virtual Corporate Headquarters)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Frankfurt Airport’s “The Squaire” (21 st Century Multimodal Office Hub) Airrail Center is now “The Squaire” – photo courtesy of
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Helsinki Airport Technopolis
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Paris Charles de Gaulle (Roissypole: CDG’s Airport City)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Amsterdam Schiphol Airport City
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Taiwan Taoyuan Airport Farglory FTZ Complex
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Non-Aviation Based Airport Retail (Factory Outlets and Big Boxes) Athens International Airport Brisbane Airport
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Washington Dulles Aerotropolis Corridor (Strings & Clusters of ICT & Consulting Firms)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Dulles Access Highway Corridor Looking West from Fairfax County Parkway (Washington Dulles International Airport in background at top) © 2007 Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Photo by Eric Taylor Photo courtesy of Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute New Songdo, Airport Edge City Near Incheon International Airport
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Dubai World Central (Major Planned Aerotropolis)
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute Airport City, in Brief Summary An Airport City is most intensively used portion of an Aerotropolis, heavily leveraged by the passenger and cargo terminals of an airport A physical manifestation of the “airport economy” including: –Real estate development for travelers (Terminal retail inside and outside the security zone) –Real estate development for those providing air transport services (Airlines, freight forwarders, …) –Real estate development for those who are intensive users of air transport services (Hotels, offices, logistics parks, …) –Real estate development for those not intensively involved in aviation (Big-box retail, factory outlets) Airport cities are increasingly planned –Are architecturally designed and themed –Governed to maximize benefit to users, investors, and region –Supported by an appropriate business model to be profitable
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute The Aerotropolis, in Brief Summary Spatial and Functional: An airport city core surrounded by an extended airport-integrated economic region made up of transportation and commercial infrastructure which facilitates aviation-enabled trade in goods and services, including: –Goods shipped by air –Goods shipped by surface or sea but whose sale is facilitated by air travel –Services: Tourism Business services which depend on air travel Connectivity = Competitiveness: –The Aerotropolis efficiently connects its businesses to markets near and far –Improved surface transportation connects firms more efficiently to airport area and broader regional markets –Expanded air routes provide quick and efficient connectivity to international markets The fastest, best connected places will win in the 21 st century. This is the Aerotropolis strategy.
© Dr. John D. Kasarda, 2014, UNC Kenan Institute The 21 st Century Airport, Airport City, and Aerotropolis Planning for a Competitive Future Leveraging Speed and Connectivity for Commercial Advantage
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