2 Who were the Vikings?Eric the Red was the Viking who led Europeans to Greenland. He started a settlement there.Leif Ericson, the son of Eric the Red, led 35 Vikings to find a land he had heard about.Leif Ericson landed on Newfoundland and called it Vinland (Wine Land) because they found grapes there that they made into wine.The Vikings were the first Europeans to visit North America.
3 Christopher ColumbusChristopher Columbus convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to have three ships.The three ships were: Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.He saw people and named them “Indians” because he thought that he was in the East Indies.He got others explorers excited and curious about the fortunes they may find around the world.Picture Credit:
4 Columbian ExchangeAs a result of Columbus’s voyages to the New Word an exchange began between the North America and the rest of the world.
5 Columbian Exchange North America to Europe Europe to North America Potatoes & TomatoesSugar, Tea, CoffeeMaize, (Corn)Horses, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, ratsTobaccoDiseases (smallpox, measles, whooping cough, bubonic plague, malaria, yellow fever )ChocolateAsian cockroaches, Japanese beetle
6 John Cabot: English Explorer He was the first European explorer since the Vikings to explore the mainland of North America and the first to search for the Northwest Passage.
7 John Cabot Born: 1450 Died: 1499 He was born in Italy. He loved to watch sailors at the docks and hear their stories.At age 16, he began studying sailing and mapping.He moved to England and got the King to support his exploration.He is important because his exploration for England gave England the right to North America.Picture Credit:
8 Jacques Cartier Born: 1491 Died: 1557 Jacques Cartier was born in France. He studied navigation.In 1531, the King of France, Francis I, hired Cartier to look for the Northwest Passage, the short route to the Pacific Ocean.He sailed down the coast of Newfoundland, discovering Prince Edward islands.He crossed the Gaspe Peninsula and took possession of it for France before returning home. Unfortunately he had mistaken the mouth of the St. Lawrence River for a bay, and failed to investigate it.
11 Jacques Cartier: Second Expedition In 1535, the king sent him out again.He sailed up the St. Lawrence River and recognized it for what it was.He continued on, establishing Mont Real (Mount Royal) which is now Montreal, Canada.They spent the winter at an Indian village near Quebec, where Cartier watched 25 of his men die of scurvy.Cartier may have named Canada; "Kanata" meaning village or settlement in the Huron-Iroquois language.
12 Jacques Cartier: Takes Prisoners The Huron were generous to Cartier, but he betrayed them.He kidnapped 12 Indians, including their chief, and headed straight for France.Cartier hoped that his prisoners would tell him where their gold mine was located, but there really was no gold.An epidemic of scurvy killed many explorers and Indians. The Iroquois, were the first affected and were slow in giving up the secret of anedda, a white cedar tea which would save them – Vitamin C.
13 Jacques Cartier: Third Expedition In 1541, Cartier was hired to help Jean Roberval begin a colony in Canada.They could not find enough French colonists willing to give up the advantages of home for the uncivilized New World.They asked the French Government for help.They helped by giving them prisoners who were willing to join the expedition.Cartier left Roberval stranded in New France with a colony of robbers and murderers.Cartier never found the Northwest Passage.He died in England in 1499.
14 Samuel de Champlain French Explorer He was a French explorer and skilled mapmaker, who mapped much of northeastern North America.He started a settlement in Quebec and founded the city of Quebec as a center of the fur trade.Champlain explored the Ottawa River, and the eastern Great Lakes.Champlain was important in establishing the French colonies in the New World.
17 Champlain’s Final Years He wanted to convert the Indians to Christianity.Champlain headed the Quebec settlement for years, until the English attacked and took the Fort at Quebec.Champlain returned to France.After a French-British peace treaty in 1632, Quebec was once again French, and Champlain returned as its governor (1633).He died from a stroke on Dec. 25, 1635.
18 Henry Hudson: English Explorer He was an English explorer and navigator who sailed to northern North America four times.He had been hired to find a Northwest passage.A trip through the Hudson Strait and into Hudson Bay ended in a mutiny.The Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay are named for Hudson.
19 HENRY KELSEY: English Explorer Kelsey was a British explorer of inland Canada.He was only 17 years old when he explored Canada.Kelsey was the first European to see the Canadian prairies.Kelsey began the trade routes of the Hudson's Bay Company in Saskatchewan.He negotiated with various Indian tribes; he respected and enjoyed Indian culture.
20 Simon Fraser: English Explorer Fraser was a fur trader and explorer in British Columbia.He was hired by the Northwest Company to set up fur trading post out west.He explored what is now known as the Fraser River, which is named after him.He was the first European to establish permanent settlements in the area.
21 Samuel Hearne: English Explorer Samuel Hearne was an was an English explorer, fur-trader, and author.He was the first European to make an overland excursion across northern Canada to the Arctic Ocean.Hearne built Cumberland House for the Hudson’s Bay Company, its first interior trading post and the first permanent settlement in present Saskatchewan.
23 Mathieu de Costa: African Translator Mathieu de Costa is the first recorded black person in Canada.De Costa spoke many different languages and was able to communicate in Mi'kmaq, an Indian language.He was a translator for the Europeans.His translating skills helped close the cultural gap between early French explorers and the Mi'kmaq people.
24 Can you name the explorers? C_botV_k___K_ls__C__tierCh__plainH__rneF__serHud___Col__b__De C____
25 Can you name the explorers? VikingsCabotCartierKelseyChamplainHearneFraserHudsonColumbusDe Costa
26 What did each explorer contribute? What they did . . .Vikings______________________________________.ColumbusColumbian Exchange: ____________________ ______________________________________.CabotCabot’s exploration gave England the “right” to _________ ___________.Car_____________ may have named Canada; “________" meaning village or settlement.Champlain___________ was important in establishing the __________ colonies and converting the Indians to ________________.
27 What did each explorer contribute? What they did . . .Huds____The ________ River, ________ Strait, and _______ Bay are named for ____________.__________Kelsey began the trade routes of the Hudson's Bay Company in ________________.F_______He was the first European to establish permanent settlements in British Columbia.HearneHearne began the first permanent settlement in present __________________.De C______De Costa translated languages so that Europeans could communicate with the _________.
28 What did each explorer contribute? What they did . . .VikingsThe first Europeans to come to North America.ColumbusColumbian Exchange: began the trade between North America and the rest of the world.CabotCabot’s exploration gave England the “right” to North America.CartierCartier may have named Canada; "Kanata" meaning village or settlement.ChamplainChamplain was important in establishing the French colonies and converting the Indians to Christianity.
29 What did each explorer contribute? What they did . . .HudsonThe Hudson River, Hudson Strait, and Hudson Bay are named for Hudson.KelseyKelsey began the trade routes of the Hudson's Bay Company in Saskatchewan.FraserHe was the first European to establish permanent settlements in British Columbia.HearneHearne began the first permanent settlement in present Saskatchewan.De CostaDe Costa translated languages so that Europeans could communicate with the Indians.