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FVCC Fire Rescue Loss Control.

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Presentation on theme: "FVCC Fire Rescue Loss Control."— Presentation transcript:

1 FVCC Fire Rescue Loss Control

2 OBJECTIVES Identify the purpose of salvage and its value to the public and fire department. (3-3.13, 3-5.3) Identify the benefits of salvage. (3-3.13,3-5.3) Identify the considerations for planning salvage work. (3-3.13,3-5.3)

3 OBJECTIVES Identify the construction and uses of the following: (3-3.13, 3-5.3) Water chute Catchall Carryall Salvage covers (to remove debris) Identify the procedures for the covering or closing of building openings, including doors, windows, floors, and roofs. (3-3.13,3-5.3)

4 OBJECTIVES Identify two folds and rolls for salvage covers. (3-3.13, 3-5.3) Identify two methods of deploying salvage covers to cover property. (3-3.13, 3-5.3) Demonstrate two folds and rolls for salvage covers. (3-3.13(b), 3-5.3(b))

5 OBJECTIVES Demonstrate two methods of deploying salvage covers to cover property. (3-3.13(b), 3-5.3(b)) Demonstrate the construction and use of a water chute. (3-3.13(b), 3-5.3(b)) Demonstrate the construction and use of a water catchall. (3-3.13(b), 3-5.3(b)) Demonstrate the covering or closing of building openings, including doors, windows, floors and roofs. (3-3.18(b), 3-5.3(b))

6 OBJECTIVES Demonstrate the removal of debris, and the removal and routing of water from a structure. (3-3.13(b), 3-5.3(b)) Demonstrate the procedures of inspection, cleaning and maintaining salvage equipment. (3-3.13(b), 3-5.3(b))

7 OBJECTIVES 2-17.15 Identify the purpose of overhaul. (3-3.13, 3-5.3)
Identify the methods used to detect hidden fires. (3-3.7, ) Identify the precautions and procedures to be followed when overhauling. (3-3.7, )

8 OBJECTIVES Identify the procedures for restoration of the premises after a fire. (3-3.13) Identify the duties of firefighters left at the fire scene for fire and security surveillance. (3-3.13) Identify the procedures to expose hidden fires by opening ceilings, walls, floors, and pulling apart burned materials. (3-3.12, )

9 OBJECTIVES Identify the procedures to separate, remove and relocate charred material to a safe location while protecting the area of origin for determination or cause. (3-3.12, )

10 OBJECTIVES Demonstrate exposing hidden fires by opening ceilings, walls, floors, and by pulling apart burned materials. (3-3.12(b)) Demonstrate separation, removal and relocating charred material to a safe location while protecting the area of origin for determination of cause. (3-3.13(b)) IFSTA Essentials, 4th ed, Chapter 16 Delmar, Firefighter’s Handbook, 2000, Chapter 20

11 SALVAGE To aid in reducing fire, water and smoke damage during and after fires. Identify the benefits of salvage. Minimize losses Build goodwill with public

12 PLANNING SALVAGE WORK Equipment inventory Training Procedures
Timing of salvage operations

13 PLANNING SALVAGE WORK Arranging contents Close piles
Group in center of room Place high item in center May not be possible in commercial occupancies

14 PLANNING SALVAGE WORK Care and maintenance Synthetic salvage covers
Rinse off Dry (recommended, but not necessary) Fold

15 PLANNING SALVAGE WORK Canvas salvage covers Wet with hose
Scrub with a broom Rinse Dry Fold

Have 3 or 4 firefighters line up along one end of the salvage cover Have them pass the salvage cover over their heads and start walking towards the other end While walking, have the firefighters look up to detect any light shining through holes in the cover Have the firefighters mark any holes with chalk to be repaired

17 PLANNING SALVAGE WORK Cleaning of salvage equipment
Once cover is empty and brushed off, it must be washed using a mild soap solution, and hung to dry. Maintaining salvage equipment Salvage cover should be inspected for holes and tears Salvage cover should be repaired as needed Cover should then be folded and placed back on the apparatus or in storage


19 USES AND CONSTRUCTION Water chute Used to remove water
Create a water chute using salvage cover and pike poles Place chute on the lower floor under firefighting effort, utilizing a ladder Place one end of chute on ladder at an angle higher than window, doorway or down a stairwell Place other end of chute out window, doorway or down stairwell for runoff






Using catchall to catch water until water chute is created Create catchall Place on lower floor, under firefighter efforts, to catch water until water chute is created







32 USES AND CONSTRUCTION Carryall Using carryall to remove debris
Heavy canvas Approximately 6 foot square Has a rope strung through the grommets for handles

33 USES AND CONSTRUCTION Salvage covers to remove debris
Fold cover into a loose fold and roll By folding it on itself, debris will be trapped inside to remove it where it is to be dumped

Windows/doors Cover with plywood, heavy plastic or similar materials to keep out rain Plywood, hinges, a hasp and a padlock can make a temporary door.

Floors/roofs Cover with plywood, roofing paper, heavy plastic sheeting or tar paper, using appropriate nails where applicable Mark the “holes/hazards”

36 One Person Roll FOLDS & ROLLS
Lay cover flat on the floor with one person at each end

37 Grasp the cover with one hand midway between the center and the edge to be folded

38 Using the other hand as a pivot, pull tightly with the holding hand and bring the fold over toward the center

39 After the first fold has been placed at the center, grasp the open edge with the outside hand. Using the other hand as a pivot, stretch the cover

40 Bring this outside edge over to the center and place it on top and in line with the previously placed fold Fold the other half of the cover in the same manner by using steps 1, 2, 3 and 4

41 Fold over 12 inches at both ends

42 Start rolling at either end.
Compress the first few rolls as tightly as possible

43 Tuck in slack at center if wrinkles appear while rolling

44 FOLDS & ROLLS Two Person Roll

45 With the cover stretched lengthwise, both firefighters grasp opposite ends of the cover at the center grommet and then pull the cover tightly between them Raise the center fold high above the floor and shake out the wrinkles to form the first half fold

46 Spread the half fold upon the floor, and smooth it flat to remove the wrinkles

47 With a firefighter standing at each end of the half fold and facing the cover, grasp the open edge corners with the hand nearest to these corners. While in this position, place the corresponding foot at the center of the half fold and thus make a pivot for the next fold

48 Stretch that part of the cover being folded tightly between the firefighters
Make the quarter fold by folding the open edges over the folded edges

49 One firefighter should stand on one end of the quarter fold while the other firefighter grasps the opposite end and shakes out the wrinkles

50 The firefighter holding the end of the cover then folds the quarter fold into one hand and carries this end to the partner

51 Both firefighters then grasps the open ends and use their inside foot as a pivot for the next fold

52 Both firefighters bring these open ends over and place them just short of the folded center fold
The firefighters continue this folding process by bringing the open ends over and just short of the folded end. During this fold, the free hand may be used as a pivot to hold the cover straight

53 Both firefighters then crouch at each end of the lengthwise fold
Both firefighters then crouch at each end of the lengthwise fold. The one at the fold forms a pivot with his hands. The other firefighter places the upper end just short of the other end

54 The firefighters complete the operation by one more fold in the same manner. They bring the open ends over and to the folded end using the free hand as a pivot during the fold

One person with a rolled cover Start at one end of the object to be covered and while still holding the roll in the hands, unroll it sufficiently to cover the end

56 Lay the roll on the object and continue to unroll toward the opposite end

57 Let the rest of the roll fall into place

58 Stand at one end and grasp the open edges

59 Open the other end in the same manner
Open both sides by snapping both hands up and out Open the other end in the same manner Open both sides by snapping both hands up and out


Two person with a folded cover Stretch the cover along one side of the object to be covered and separate the last half fold by grasping each side of the cover near the ends

62 Make several accordion folds in the hand that is to make the throw and place the other hand about midway down the end hem

63 Pull the cover tightly between the operators and prepare to swing the folded part down, out and then up in one sweeping motion so as to pocket as much air as possible

64 When the cover is as high as the operators can reach, the accordion folds may either be pitched or carried across the object; an action which causes the cover to float over the object

65 As the cover is floated over the object, guide it into position and straighten for better run off

66 OVERHAUL Overhaul is the practice of searching a fire scene to detect hidden fires or sparks, which may rekindle, and to note the possible point of origin and cause of fire.

Sight Discoloration Peeling paint Smoke emitting from cracks Cracked plaster Rippled wallpaper Burned areas Sound Popping or cracking noises Hissing of steam

Touch Feel walls with the back of hand Electronic sensors Thermal detection Infrared detection

Wear proper PPE with SCBA where applicable Should be supervised by an officer not directly involved in the overhaul operations Charged hose lines available Evaluate structural integrity Weakened floors Spalled concrete Weakened steel Weakened trusses Weakened walls

Make the building safe Make the contents safe Make the area safe

Insure fire protection systems have been restored to operational status by a qualified technician Sprinkler systems Standpipe systems Alarm systems

Insure utility services are not restored until inspected and deemed safe by the appropriate utility representative or qualified repairperson Secure the building Cover roof openings Cover doors and windows Release the premises to the owner Done in front of witness

Guard the evidence where it is found, untouched and undisturbed, to preserve the chain of custody Properly identify, remove and safeguard evidence that cannot be left at scene of fire Control access

Position yourself between the area to be opened and an escape route Break plaster in the area to be pulled Use a pike pole or similar tool to hook and pull the lath or wire mesh Pull down and away

Determine the approximate location for the hole based on need Sound for floor joists to decide the exact location Cut one side of the finished floor by using angle cuts Cut the other side of the finished floor in a like manner

76 EXPOSING HIDDEN FIRES Walls Masonry/Veneer
Remove the flooring or floor covering with the pick of the axe Cut all sides of the sub-floor using the same technique and angle cuts Remove the boards from the sub-floor Walls Masonry/Veneer Use power tools to cut an opening Use battering ram to knock away material

77 EXPOSING HIDDEN FIRES Metal Wood frame Select location for the opening
Position saw or other metal cutting tool next to studs Make opening as neat as possible Wood frame Remove the siding Sound the wall for the studs Cut along the stud Remove the sheathing Watch for electrical wiring and pipes

78 EXPOSING HIDDEN FIRES Partition walls
Select the location of the opening Check for electric wall plugs and switches Select the appropriate tools Locate the studs by sounding Cut along the studs with a fire axe or other cutting tool

Separate materials to check for embers Use hose line or hand can to cool materials

80 Determine that removal of materials will not affect cause and origin investigation

81 Remove larger items from building
If items may be salvageable, or contain contents that may be salvageable, place off to the side away from pile of debris

Shovel or place smaller debris into tubs, garbage cans or carryalls Remove debris from building Take care to prevent damage to walls, doors Place in safe place Avoid placing on lawn, sidewalks, if possible Do not place on adjacent property

83 Homework Select facts about salvage planning and procedures. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 1. When should salvage work begin? a. After fire extinguishment c. During overhaul b. Before or during fire attack d. After arson investigation 2. Which of the following best describes how building contents should be arranged when preparing them to be covered? a. In small, isolated stacks to prevent weight and scratch damage b. In their normal positions to save time c. Away from the wall in close piles that can be covered with a minimum of salvage covers d. In a square or rectangular grouping to fit the shape of the cover 3. How many average-sized salvage covers will usually protect the contents of one room? a b 3.c 4. d 4. Where should a dresser, chest, or high object be placed when arranging bedroom furnishings to be salvaged? a. On its side on the bed b. At the foot of the bed c. Beside the bed on the floor d. On end at the head of the bed

84 Homework 5. Where should pictures, curtains, lamps and clothing be placed when arranging a bedroom to be covered? a. On the bed b. On the dresser or bureau c. Between the mattress and springs d. At the head of the bed on the floor 6. What is the purpose of rolling a rug and placing it on top of gathered contents? a. Protective cover to provide additional water protection to the contents beneath it b. Ridge pole to elevate the salvage cover and provide drainage c. End weight to hold the contents in a compact grouping d. Support member to bear the weight of higher stacked items 7. What presents the biggest challenges for firefighters who are trying to perform salvage functions? a. Expensive furniture b. Commercial occupancies c. Residential occupancies d. Large area rugs

85 Homework 8. What construction feature makes it difficult to cover display shelving in commercial occupancies? a. Built-in electrical lighting b. Glass doors and shelves c. Center-aisle support columns and posts d. Against-wall-to-ceiling design 9. What is a common obstacle to efficient salvage work in commercial occupancies? a. Low, wide display shelves b. Wide aisles between shelves c. Built-in, nonmovable stock d. Lack of skids or pallets under stock 10. Which of the following best describes the reason firefighters should be cautious around high-piled stock such as boxed materials or rolled paper? a. Stacked materials are heavy and present lifting hazards. b. Stacked materials of paper and cardboard present a spontaneous combustion hazard. c. Stacked materials present a collapse hazard when wet at the bottom. d. Stacked materials are difficult to extinguish so may smolder in an unseen area and reignite suddenly.

86 Homework Select facts about salvage tools, equipment, and materials. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 11. Why is it usually better to let synthetic salvage covers dry before folding them? a. The folds will stick together when the salvage cover has dried. b. They will mildew if they are folded wet. c. Water weakens the material and causes cracks. d. They will be stiffer and more difficult to unfold after they have dried. 12. What happens when canvas salvage covers are allowed to dry while dirty? a. Carbon and ash dry to a flake state and can be cleaned from the covers with a stiff broom. b. Carbon and ash react chemically and rot the fibers in the covers. c. Carbon and ash particles penetrate the cover increasing its waterproof properties. d. Carbon and ash residue penetrate the covers’ fibers, decreasing their waterproof properties. 13. Which of the following is not a method of repairing canvas covers? Covering with duct tape or mastic tape b. Sealing and joining with a heat sealer c. Applying iron-on patches d. Sewing on fabric patches

87 Homework 14. Whose policies dictate which apparatus the salvage equipment is carried on? a. U.S. Department of Transportation b. Individual fire department c. State Department of Safety d. IFSTA 15. What tools are commonly found in an automatic sprinkler kit? a. Sprinkler tongs b. Screwdrivers c. Hammers d. Ratchet sets 16. What is the primary purpose of a floor runner? a. To protect floor coverings from falling debris b. To protect floor coverings from grime and mud tracked by firefighters c. To protect floor coverings from fire damage d. To reduce water damage to floor coverings

88 Homework 17. What kind of pumps are best suited for salvage operations? a. Booster pumps c. Two-cycle pumps b. Trash-type pumps d. Centrifugal pumps 18. Which type of water removal equipment can also be used to remove dirt and small debris from floor coverings? a. Trash-type pump b. High-pressure flushing system c. Jet siphon device d. Water vacuum 19. How should roofing, tar paper, or plastic be attached to cover an opening in a structure? a. With duct tape b. With roofing nails, and with lath between the nails and the material c. With roofing nails, and with lath between the material and the structure d. With staples

89 Homework Match to their correct uses tools and equipment used in overhaul. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 20. Moving baled or loose materials 21. Carrying debris to or providing a basin for immersing smoldering material 22. Opening walls and floors 23. Opening ceilings to check on fire extension 24. Searching for hidden fires a. Electronic sensor b. Carryall c. Shovel, hook, or fork d. Pike pole or plaster hook e. Axe

90 Homework Select facts about overhaul safety and methods. Write the correct letters on the blanks. 25. Firefighter A says that most of the equipment used for overhaul work is different from that used for salvage and extinguishment operations. Firefighter B says that salvage operations performed during fire fighting will directly affect any overhaul work that may be needed later. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 26. What are the two primary factors that determine the condition of a building after fire extinguishment? a. The type of water application and the amount of water used b. The intensity of the fire and the area covered by the fire c. The size of the structural members and their flammability rating d. The intensity of the fire and the amount of water used 27. What happens to concrete exposed to high temperatures? a. Spalling occurs b. Cracks and fissures develop c. It hardens, becoming stronger d. The surface softens and wrinkles 28. What should firefighters look for when trying to detect hidden fires? a. Cracked plaster c. Bent steel members b. Charred wood d. Offset walls

91 Homework 29. What two types of electronic sensors detect hidden fires?
a. Thermal and X-ray c. Ultraviolet and infrared b. Thermal and infrared d. Ultrasound and X-ray 30. Which of the following items should be thoroughly checked as they are prone to harboring hidden fires for a prolonged period? a. Floor spaces b. Voids in walls c. Insulation materials d. Spaces around windows 31. How do firefighters overhaul ends of floor beams that enter a party wall? a. Remove the wall sheathing with a pike pole and apply water directly to the beams. b. Flood the floor space with water. c. Remove flooring with an axe and apply water to beams. d. Flush the voids in the wall with water. 32. What action should be taken when fire has burned around windows or doors? a. Seal the window or door with plastic sheeting. b. Close the window or door to prevent re-ignition and flashover. c. Pull off the molding to expose the inner parts of the frame or casing. d. Remove the door from its hinges and any glass or window covering from the window.

92 Homework 33. Firefighter A says that charged hoselines of the same size that brought the fire under control should be used to extinguish hidden fires. Firefighter B says that pumpers can be disconnected from hydrants while overhaul crews are extinguishing hidden fires. Who is right? a. Firefighter A b. Firefighter B c. Both A and B d. Neither A nor B 34. How are small, burning articles discovered during overhaul best extinguished? a. Drenching with a booster line b. Submerging in a container of water c. Drenching with an attack line d. Moving outside for extinguishment

93 Homework Select from a list indicators of hidden fires. Mark an “A” before each indicator of hidden fire or “B” if it is not an indicator of hidden fire. 35. __ Discoloration of materials 36. __ Peeling paint 37. __ Spalled concrete 38. __ Smoke issuing from cracks 39. __ Charred wall coverings 40. __ Cracked plaster 41. __ Ash accumulation 42. __ Blackened windows 43. __ Rippled wallpaper 44. __ Smell of burning 45. __ Hot spots behind walls, floors, or ceilings 46. __ Roaring burning sounds 47. __ Popping or crackling sounds 48. __ Hissing steam

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