Presentation on theme: "How a Bill Becomes a Law Stand Alone Instructional Resource (StAIR) CIVICS Structure and Function of Government in the United States of America Mr. Brumbelow."— Presentation transcript:
How a Bill Becomes a Law Stand Alone Instructional Resource (StAIR) CIVICS Structure and Function of Government in the United States of America Mr. Brumbelow
Audience This resource is intended for all high school Civics student’s.
Purpose: This is a Stand Alone Instructional Resource aimed at leading students through the formal governmental process of transforming an idea into a bill and then making it a law. Objectives: 1.From this StAIR, the student will identify and understand the formal governmental process for a bill to become a law with 100% accuracy. 2.By the beginning of the next class period, the students will have viewed and participated in the on-line resource and be prepared for an in-class discussion and large-group project aimed at reinforcing the material covered in this StAIR. 3.Using their new understanding of this governmental process and building upon the class discussion and large-group project covering the citizen’s role in identifying social needs for laws, each student will create a blog post identifying and explaining their own idea for an issue that should be considered for a future law.
Press the photo to watch a short video before continuing
Let’s Propose a Bill to Congress
We’ll begin in the U. S. House of Representatives
Quick Facts HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES The lower chamber, or larger branch, of the U.S. Congress Forms one of the two branches of the U.S. Congress. Comprises 435 members who are elected to two-year terms. According to Article I, Section 2, of the U.S. Constitution, a member of the House must be at least twenty-five years of age and a U.S. citizen for seven years before his or her election. Representatives must reside in the state that they represent. Members of the House are generally called congressmen, congresswomen, or representatives.
Introducing a Bill into the House of Representatives It all begins with a simple idea!
Next, tell your Congressman or Congresswoman about your idea
Our U.S. Representative for the Michigan 6 th District Rep. Fred Upton (R) How to find your U.S. Representative:
They Liked It ! ! ! If your U.S. Representative likes your idea and feels that it should be a law, they will introduce it as a bill: Any Member in the House of Representatives may introduce a bill at any time while the House is in session by simply placing it in the "hopper.“ The sponsor's signature must appear on the bill. A public bill may have an unlimited number of co-sponsoring Members. The bill is assigned its legislative number by the Clerk and referred to the appropriate committee by the Speaker of the House.
House of Representatives Committees Click on the picture to explore the different committees The Bill is reviewed in Committee and if approved is assigned to a Subcommittee
House of Representatives Subcommittees Click on the picture to explore the different subcommittees An important phase of the legislative process is the action taken by committees and subcommittees. It is during committee and subcommittee action that the most intense consideration is given to the proposed measures; this is also the time when the people are given their opportunity to be heard. Each piece of legislation is referred to the committee that has jurisdiction over the area affected by the measure. Once it has been referred to the proper committee and subcommittee, they must hold public hearings.
Public Hearings Usually the first step in this process is a public hearing, where the committee members hear witnesses representing various viewpoints on the measure. Each committee makes public the date, place and subject of any hearing it conducts. Once the hearings are completed, the bill is returned to the subcommittee and committee for “Markup.” The Committee Meetings scheduled for today are available along with other House Schedules. Public announcements are also published in the Daily Digest portion of the Congressional Record.Committee MeetingsHouse Schedules Congressional Record
Markup in Committee and Subcommittee What does Markup mean? Click me to find out
Vote by Full Committee Once the bill has been through markup it is then voted on by the full committee. The fate of the bill can go one of two ways. Click on the two possibilities before proceeding: YAY NAY
Bill is Passed A YAY vote means that the bill has passed through committee and is now ready to be presented to the entire U.S. House of Representatives for review and a Floor Vote
Bill is Defeated A NAY vote means that the bill was defeated in committee and will not go any further in the process. The bill is now “dead” and will have to be reintroduced at another time and go through the entire process again if it is to become a law.
Floor Action Once the bill has been passed through committee, it is put on the House calendar for Floor Action. Floor Action is where the bill, as written in committee, is formally introduced to the full U.S. House of Representatives for House reading and debate. It is during this time that Representatives can add amendments to the bill. Once this process is complete, the bill is voted on by the entire House.
The 3 Fates of Floor Action YAYNAY Filibuster Click on the 3 options before continuing:
Bill is Passed A YAY vote means that the bill has passed in the U.S. House of Representatives and is now ready to be presented to the Senate.
Bill is Defeated A NAY vote means that the bill was defeated and will not go any further in the process. The bill is now “dead” and will have to be reintroduced at another time and go through the entire process again if it is to become a law.
Filibuster A filibuster is a type of parliamentary procedure. Specifically, it is the right of an individual to extend debate, allowing a lone member to delay or entirely prevent a vote on a given proposal. It is cynically referred to as talking out a bill, and characterized as a form of obstruction in a legislature or other decision- making body. (Wikipedia) (Wikipedia)
On to the Senate… where the process starts all over again!
So…let’s see if you can complete the process and move Bill through the Senate!
What do you think is the proper order of steps for Bill to be introduced to the Senate? A.Bill is referred to Committee, assigned a number, and then sent to the appropriate SubcommitteesBill is referred to Committee, assigned a number, and then sent to the appropriate Subcommittees B.Bill is assigned a number, referred to committee and then sent to the appropriate SubcommitteesBill is assigned a number, referred to committee and then sent to the appropriate Subcommittees C.Bill is introduced in Subcommittee, assigned a number, and then referred to CommitteeBill is introduced in Subcommittee, assigned a number, and then referred to Committee D.Bill keeps his assigned number from the House and is referred to CommitteeBill keeps his assigned number from the House and is referred to Committee Click the response (A, B, C, or D) you feel is correct
Sorry…Wrong Answer Let’s Review!
Correct…Nice Job!!! Bill is assigned a Senate number He is then referred to the appropriate Senate committee Finally, he is sent to the necessary Subcommittees
Senate Hearings If the House held public hearings on the proposed Bill, is it required that the Senate also hold public hearings? Choose One
CORRECT ! ! ! Even though the U.S. House of Representatives held public hearings on their proposed bill, the Senate’s bill is it’s own entity and therefore it is required that the Senate hold public hearings.
Sorry…Wrong Answer Even though the U.S. House of Representatives held public hearings on their proposed bill, the Senate’s bill is it’s own entity and therefore it is required that the Senate hold public hearings.
Once the Senate has held public hearings, what is the next step? A.Committee and Subcommittee MarkupCommittee and Subcommittee Markup B.Floor ActionFloor Action C.Rules CommitteeRules Committee D.Send it to the PresidentSend it to the President Click the response (A, B, C, or D) that you feel is correct
Correct!!! Once the Senate has completed public hearings the bill is sent back to committee and subcommittees for markup.
Senate Rules Committee The Rules Committee considers all bills reported from policy and fiscal committees and determines whether, and in what order, to schedule their consideration on the Senate floor by the full Senate. The Rules Committee then schedules appropriate bills for Floor Action
Floor Action Once the bill has been passed through the Senate Rules Committee, it is put on the calendar for Floor Action. Just as in the House, Floor Action is where the Senate’s version of the bill, as written in committee, is formally introduced on the Senate floor for reading and debate. It is during this time that Senator’s can add amendments to the bill. Once this process is complete, the bill is voted on.
Senate Floor Vote YAY VoteNAY Vote Click each thumb to see what happens before continuing
YAY Vote If the members of the Senate vote to pass the Bill, it is then forwarded to Conference Committee
NAY Vote A NAY vote means that the bill was defeated and will not go any further in the process. The bill is now “dead” and will have to be reintroduced at another time and go through the entire process again if it is to become a law.
Conference Committee A temporary, ad hoc panel composed of House and Senate conferees which is formed for the purpose of reconciling differences in legislation that has passed both chambers. Conference committees are usually convened to resolve bicameral differences on major and controversial legislation.
Almost There… Once the Bill is passed in both the House and the Senate, the Conference Committee works to write one piece of legislation that reflects the views of both sides of Congress. Once the Conference Committee completes a joint House and Senate Bill, it is sent to the President for his signature.
The White House Once the Bill is sent to the President, one of three things can happen:
It’s a Law!
The President can refuse to sign the Bill… The procedure established under the Constitution by which the President refuses to approve a bill or joint resolution and thus prevents its enactment into law. A regular veto occurs when the President returns the legislation to the house in which it originated. The President usually returns a vetoed bill with a message indicating his reasons for rejecting the measure. The veto can be overridden only by a two-thirds vote in both the Senate and the House.
The President can also choose to Pocket Veto a Bill The Constitution grants the President 10 days to review a measure passed by the Congress. If the President has not signed the bill after 10 days, it becomes law without his signature. However, if Congress adjourns during the 10-day period, the bill does not become law.
VETO If the President chooses either to Veto or Pocket Veto the Bill: A.The Bill is dead and will never become a law.The Bill is dead and will never become a law. B.The Bill must return to the House or Senate where it originated and begin the process all over again.The Bill must return to the House or Senate where it originated and begin the process all over again. C.The Bill must return to the House or Senate where it originated and pass by a 2/3 majority voteThe Bill must return to the House or Senate where it originated and pass by a 2/3 majority vote D.The Bill must return to both the House and the Senate and pass by a 2/3 majority vote in both the House and the SenateThe Bill must return to both the House and the Senate and pass by a 2/3 majority vote in both the House and the Senate Click the response (A, B, C, or D) that you feel is correct
Correct!!! If the House and Senate both override the President’s Veto with a 2/3 majority vote, the Bill becomes a Law!