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Traditional Construction Locally established actions of construction project organizations.

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Presentation on theme: "Traditional Construction Locally established actions of construction project organizations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Traditional Construction Locally established actions of construction project organizations

2 Fundamental Traditional Construction Customer employs craft teams to construct a building Some customers also employ an architect

3 Fundamental Traditional Construction CUSTOMER TRADE CONTRACTOR CUSTOMER TRADE CONTRACTOR ARCHITECT

4 Fundamental Traditional Construction Depends on locally established technologies being used in ways expected and understood by craft teams Has produced many fine buildings Fails if designs require craft teams to go beyond the limits of their established technologies

5 Pantheon in Rome

6 Salisbury Cathedral

7 Fundamental Traditional Construction Unable to cope with new technologies or customers demanding greater efficiency

8 New Technologies Structural engineering Services engineering Research and development Manufactured products Leading to large numbers of specialised construction teams

9 Demanding Customers Fast construction Firm completion date Reliable quality No defects Good value Fixed costs

10 Developed Traditional Construction The industry’s response to new technologies and demanding customers

11 Developed Traditional Construction CUSTOMER GENERAL CONTRACTOR DESIGN CONSULTANT TRADE CONTRACTOR OTHER CONSULTANTS SPECIALIST DESIGNERS

12 Developed Traditional Construction Strengths Works well when customer provides a clear brief Designer relies on technologies within the competence of local general contractors Competent teams undertake manufacturing, production and commissioning Teams complete their own work and do not leave problems for others

13 Developed Traditional Construction Weaknesses CONSTRUCTION TEAM CONSTRUCTION TEAM DESIGN AND PRODUCTION FAILURES BOUNDARY RELATIONSHIP INHERENT DIFFICULTY

14 Project using Developed Traditional Construction The project is to construct a new hotel on a virgin site. The hotel has 300 guest rooms and the other spaces expected in a 5* hotel The building is 10 stories high with a steel structural frame, concrete beam floors and roofs, and high quality, pre-fabricated external cladding.

15 TeamsTeam-days Brief180 Design18730 Plan 3200 Procurement14750 Manufacturing5150 Production Commissioning7140 TOTALS

16 For a project with 115 teams (N=115) Possible relationships = 115 x 114/2 = of these do not occur Actual relationships = 2909

17 Largest number of teams in one time interval is 47 in 21 st time interval They are constructing the external envelope, service cores, risers and main plant, the main entrance and vertical circulation Externally there is landscaping and external services are being installed The work is supervised by design teams 47 x 46/2 = 1081 possible relationships

18 During the 21 st time interval the following teams work simultaneously 3 out of 6 external envelope teams 5 out of 6 service core teams 5 out of 5 risers and main plant teams 4 out of 12 entrance and vertical circulation teams 2 out of 6 landscaping and external services teams 2 out of 3 contracts and payment system teams 2 out of 4 general contractor’s plan and control teams This gives a total of 23 teams with 253 relationships

19 Established Relationships 2 Structure with 3 External envelope teams 6 Service core with 5 Risers and plant teams This is 65 established relationships Established Relationships Indicator E R =65/2909=0.022

20 The relationship fluctuation indicator F E = There is an overwhelming influence of boundary relationships throughout the project because of the small number of established relationships This is common with Traditional Construction Particularly when teams are provided by the lowest bidders

21 Relationship Quality Indicator for established relationships ranges from 0.01 to 0.85 Total Relationship Quality Indicator 28.85/2909= The few high values for individual relationships are hardly significant because there are only 65 established relationships out of 2909 actual relationships

22 The project organisation is not overly complex There are 29 time intervals out of a potential maximum of 229 This is balanced by the congestion in the 21 st time interval when 23 teams are working Relationships configuration complexity indicator = 0.88

23 The past performance of the 115 teams over their previous 10 projects provides team Performance Variability Indicators which range from 0.10 to 0.50 Performance Variability Indicator Rp=0.24

24 Historical records for projects using Developed Traditional Construction gives External Interference Indicator = 0.45

25 Established Relationships E R =0.022 Relationship Fluctuation F E =0.985 Relationship Quality Q R = Relationship Configuration C R =0.88 Performance Variability R p =0.24 External Interference I=0.45 Developed Traditional Construction

26 Varieties of Developed Traditional Construction UK Architect design USA Specialist contractor design European Architect and Engineer design

27 UK Architect Design Design stage CUSTOMERARCHITECT STRUCTURAL SPECIALIST HEATING SPECIALIST ELECTRICAL SPECIALIST VENTILATION SPECIALIST CLADDING SPECIALIST

28 UK Architect Design Production stage CUSTOMER ARCHITECT STRUCTURAL SPECIALIST HEATING SPECIALIST ELECTRICAL SPECIALIST VENTILATION SPECIALIST CLADDING SPECIALIST GENERAL CONTRACTOR

29 UK Architect Design Architect control of complete design Nominated subcontractors Quantity Surveyor role Bills of Quantities Cost control Innovative design but inefficient projects

30 USA Specialist Contractor Design - Design stage CUSTOMER ARCHITECT STRUCTURAL SPECIALIST HEATING SPECIALIST ELECTRICAL SPECIALIST VENTILATION SPECIALIST CLADDING SPECIALIST GENERAL CONTRACTOR

31 USA Specialist Contractor Design – Production stage CUSTOMER ARCHITECT STRUCTURAL SPECIALIST HEATING SPECIALIST ELECTRICAL SPECIALIST VENTILATION SPECIALIST CLADDING SPECIALIST GENERAL CONTRACTOR

32 USA Specialist Contractor Design Overall design by architect Detail design by specialists Specialists sort out problems quickly Stylish building spoilt by awkward junctions between technologies Poor at dealing with innovative designs

33 European Architect and Engineer Design - Design stage CUSTOMER ARCHITECT STRUCTURAL SPECIALIST HEATING SPECIALIST ELECTRICAL SPECIALIST VENTILATION SPECIALIST CLADDING SPECIALIST GENERAL CONTRACTOR

34 European Architect and Engineer Design - Production stage CUSTOMER ARCHITECT STRUCTURAL SPECIALIST HEATING SPECIALIST ELECTRICAL SPECIALIST VENTILATION SPECIALIST CLADDING SPECIALIST GENERAL CONTRACTOR

35 European Architect and Engineer Design Scheme design by Architect Engineer contractor selects specialist contractors Detail design by specialist contractors Clashes between architect’s and specialist contractors’ designs

36 Developed Traditional Construction Works well if customers and construction companies use well established technologies and contractors have effective coordination systems This is difficult to achieve so developed traditional construction often fails and is being replaced by more developed approaches


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