class 2: ACADEMIC WRITING watercolor by Charlotte Zoller Narrative II INTRODUCTION play!
literature classes by vera ceccon LITERATURE & ACADEMIC WRITING 3 One of the most challenging aims in an ESL undergratuation program is – in linguistic terms – to establish efficient connections among the various aspects of the living language, ie, the language as used by its native speakers in the present day. reading writing listeningspeaking receptive skills active skills oral skills written skills click me!
literature classes by vera ceccon 4 The ultimate goal of an ESL undergraduation course is to help students acquire competence in the 4 language skills. In Literature classes, therefore, the focus should go mostly – but not exclusively – to the written skills, ie, reading and writing. reading writing listeningspeaking receptive skills active skills oral skills written skills click me twice!
literature classes by vera ceccon 5 Like with Language classes, the basic aim in Literature classes is to communicate effectively in the target language (English). However, the main difference between the two types of classes is that: in Literature classes, as we get in contact with some of the most sophisticated achievements of the language, 1we are allowed to stop thinking about the language barrier and 1concetrate on the issues the authors arise
literature classes by vera ceccon The reason for that is that the literary texts we study were not written specifically for ESL students : they were written by native speakers to their contemporaries 1both writers and readers shared a specific context in time the texts responded to the issues of their days with philosophical, political and/or aesthetical approaches 1many of the issues ultimately concern our human condition 1and therefore do not depend so much on our sharing the same set of values and/or contextual environment 6
literature classes by vera ceccon Therefore, literary texts can’t be easily “instrumentalized “and squeezed into the didactic bubble necessary for the proper process of foreign language learning. Literary texts can’t be separated from the real world : they are connected with real lives of real people and therefore they affect our real lives and our world views 7 play!
literature classes by vera ceccon 8 That’s why the major purposes of studying literary texts are mostly ethical and aesthetical, rather than linguistic. They include, among other purposes: an enlargement of student’s cognitive horizons and aesthetic sensibility the establishment of new affective bonds with the language contact with a variety of modes of written expression and not only the standard contact with the History of the language and of the various people who speak it and more
literature classes by vera ceccon 9 One of the beneficial “side effects” of this exposure to literary texts is that students do improve their writing skills. After all, receptive skills are primary and trigger the develpment of the active skills in 1native language acquisition and 1foreign language learning. reading writing listeningspeaking receptive skills active skills oral skills written skills click me twice!
literature classes by vera ceccon 10 This is particularly crucial to undergraduate students of Humanities. Along their studies, they are assessed by their ACADEMIC WRITING skills. So, the purpose of this module of classes is to connect LITERATURE READING to ACADEMIC WRITING in a bidirectional way. reading writing ACADEMIC LITERATURE click me!
watercolor by Chris Gentes SECTION 1: working with “OWL’S” resources class 2: ACADEMIC WRITING Narrative II 11 play!
literature classes by vera ceccon SECTION 1: using “OWL’S” resources The source of the materials in this section is found at the website of OWL: Online Writing Laboratory at Purdue University, Nevada, USA. It is used in this class with the explicit authorization of the authors. From now on, please refer to Purdue University’s OWL (Online Writing Lab) at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ 13
literature classes by vera ceccon OWL project: back to rhetoric 14 OWL Project is not designed to ESL students, but to regular undergraduate students in the English speaking world who wish to improve their academic writing skills. They base their guidelines on the principles of modern rhetoric which assume that both activities, ie, RHETORIC & (ACADEMIC) WRITING aim at COMMUNICATING EFFECTIVELY and PERSUADING
literature classes by vera ceccon visiting OWL’s website (offline) at the HOME PAGE 1check GENERAL WRITING under GENERAL WRITING 1check ACADEMIC WRITING > SECTION 1. OWL’S RESOURCES 15 click 1 click 2 click 3 click 4
literature classes by vera ceccon under “ACADEMIC WRITING” 16 > SECTION 1. OWL’S RESOURCES we’ll focus today on... 1. RHETORICAL SITUATION 2. ESTABLISHING ARGUMENTS click me!
literature classes by vera ceccon a brief overview of “ACADEMIC WRITING” menu 1. The Rhetorical Situation (to be seen today) This presentation is designed to introduce your students to a variety of factors that contribute to strong, well-organized writing. This presentation is suitable for the beginning of a composition course or the assignment of a writing project in any class. 2. Establishing Arguments (to be seen next class) These OWL resources will help you develop and refine the arguments in your writing. 17 play!
literature classes by vera ceccon 3. Logic in Argumentative Writing (to be seen next class) This resource covers using logic within writing-- logical vocabulary, logical fallacies, and other types of logos-based reasoning. 4. Paragraphs and Paragraphing (to be seen next week) The purpose of this handout is to give some basic instruction and advice regarding the creation of understandable and coherent paragraphs. 5. Essay Writing (to be seen next week) This resource begins with a general description of essay writing and moves to a discussion of common essay genres students may encounter across the curriculum. Note: The Modes of Discourse: Description, Narration, Exposition, Argumentation (EDNA) 18
literature classes by vera ceccon ATTENTION! The following topics will not be covered in class but are strongly recommended! 6. Conciseness This resource will help you write clearly by eliminating unnecessary words and rearranging your phrases. 7. Paramedic Method: A Lesson in Writing Concisely This handout provides steps and exercises to eliminate wordiness at the sentence level. 8. Reverse Paramedic Method This resource will help you write clear, concise sentences while remaining in the passive voice. Passive voice is used quite often in scientific writing. 19
literature classes by vera ceccon 9. Adding Emphasis This handout provides information on visual and textual devices for adding emphasis to your writing including textual formatting, punctuation, sentence structure, and the arrangement of words. 10. Sentence Variety This resource presents methods for adding sentence variety and complexity to writing that may sound repetitive or boring. Sections are divided into general tips for varying structure, a discussion of sentence types, and specific parts of speech which can aid in sentence variety. 20
literature classes by vera ceccon 11. Using Appropriate Language This handout will cover some of the major issues with appropriate language use: levels of language formality, deceitful language and Euphemisms, slang and idiomatic expressions; using group-specific jargon; and biased/stereotypical language. 12. Active and Passive Voice This handout will explain the difference between active and passive voice in writing. It gives examples of both, and shows how to turn a passive sentence into an active one. Also, it explains how to decide when to choose passive voice instead of active. 21
literature classes by vera ceccon 13. Email Etiquette Although instant and text/SMS messaging is beginning to supplant email for some groups' primary means of Internet communication, effective and appropriate email etiquette is still important. This resource will help you to become an effective writer and reader/manager of email. 14. Email Etiquette for Students This presentation was designed in response to the growing popularity of email and the subsequent need for information on how to craft appropriate email messages. This presentation will help you send resumes and cover letters via email, and it will help you communicate with teachers / professors. 22
literature classes by vera ceccon movie 1: introduction to Rhetoric In movie 1 – INTRODUCTION TO RHETORIC - you’ll be introduced to the main ideas of the project. 23
literature classes by vera ceccon main topics of movie 1 1. initial idea : rhetoric ~ an awareness of language choice 2. there is a history to rhetoric negative view: politicians using language to get what they want Greek tradition of preparing speeches 1Greek elders teaching young boys limited to upper classes 1“there was a belief that only certain classes of people were allowed to do this” 1“then came the sophists” 24
literature classes by vera ceccon the shophists were popularizers of rhetoric 1“they believed anybody could use rhetoric strategies to be an effective speaker” many people disagreed with the purposes of the sophists 1“that’s when rhetoric came to be seen as negative” − “people thought that if everybody used rhetoric, the strategies would become meaningless and empty” − and people wouldn’t be concerned with the morality or proofs of their arguments fortunately, that didn’t happen 25
literature classes by vera ceccon 3. but still, how does an understanding of rhetoric strategies make writing more effective ? writing ≈ a process of making an argument argument ≈ persuasion rhetoric: using the available means of persuasion 1concepts (=tools) : audience, pathos, logos, ethos 26 introduction to RHETORIC
SECTION 1: working with OWL’S resources general writing > academic writing > 1. THE RHETORICAL SITUATION
literature classes by vera ceccon under “ACADEMIC WRITING” refreshing: under “ACADEMIC WRITING” class 2: ACADEMIC WRITING 28 we’ll focus today on... 1. RHETORICAL SITUATION
literature classes by vera ceccon text 1: the rhetorical situation The complete text is to be found online and in your booklet class 2: ACADEMIC WRITING 29
literature classes by vera ceccon for NEXT CLASS(ES)... Please prepare the following readings under OWL’S ACADEMIC WRITING: 2. Developing Strong Thesis Statements 3. Logic in Argumentative Writing 4. Paragraphs and Paragraphing 5. Essay Writing class 2: ACADEMIC WRITING 30 class 3 class 4
literature classes by vera ceccon see you, then!