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Moving All Students to Literacy Proficiency:

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1 Moving All Students to Literacy Proficiency:
Five Goals for Success Scott Warren SREB This session will serve as an introduction to the five literacy goals as described in the literacy guide. Participants should have a copy of the guide for the activities. The workshop can run from 2 to 6 hours, based on the amount of time you devote to the activities. The amount of time will also be different if you present the workshop for a single school or for teams from multiple schools.

2 Guiding Questions Why do we need a literacy focus?
Why do we not expect kids to read and write often? What can all teachers do to focus on literacy? What can English/Language Arts Teachers do?

3 Scott Warren Former Mathematics and P.E. teacher Basketball Coach A.D.
Assistant Principal Principal Highly Skilled Educator for Kentucky Current Director of HSTW State Contracted Services Parent of a child with a Learning Disability

4 Literacy Across the Curriculum
SREB’s literacy guide. Each chapter written by an expert in literacy. Contact SREB at to order copies. ($6.95)

5 How do high literacy skills affect future success?
Today’s technology focus requires greater literacy skills. It pays to be educated. Higher literacy equates to more education. This information is from the first chapter of the literacy guide. ACT says that students with higher literacy scores are more likely to graduate from college. Virtually every job requires technology and technology is all about literacy—reading and writing s, for instance.

6 The 21st Century Challenge
DOL estimates that 70% of fastest growing jobs will require postsecondary education and 40% of all jobs projected to 2008 will need at least an associate’s degree 90% Fortune 1000 executives have stated that low employee literacy is hurting their business 71% of 300 executives surveyed listed basic written communication training as critical to their companies’ success These surveys are cited in the first chapter of the literacy guide and in the preface to Getting Ready for College-prep English.

7 International Center for Leadership in Education found:
“the readability levels of workplace documents, forms and text sources are higher than many people would have imagined.” reading materials in the workplace determined the following data for the 16 USDOE Career Clusters: 9 of the 16 clusters require entry level employees to read material written at a higher level that the highest ranking employees. 4 other clusters require entry level employees to read material written at the same level This is a good place to reference Lexile levels if you are familiar with that work. Many workplace documents require higher literacy skills than novels considered to be at high levels, such as War and Peace.

8 Where are we now? Less than half of high school seniors read at levels high enough to be ready for college, but two-thirds attempt to go and over three-fourths enter high school planning to attend college. About one-third of seniors and one-fourth of 8th graders are proficient readers nationally. 73% of Illinois 8th graders are proficient in reading on state assessments compared with 31% on NAEP.

9 Why must we commit to a literacy initiative for older students?
Students need: access to a wide variety of reading material that appeals to their interests instruction that builds the skill and the desire to read increasingly complex material Classroom libraries are important part of literacy. A new study indicates that students at schools with good libraries have higher reading scores. It’s not enough to ask students to read more; we have to help them develop strategies to use reading and writing to learn the content of all classes. Too often, we quit teaching reading at grade 3 or 4 and never help students develop the skills they need for more complicated texts. Early reading instruction focuses on narrative text and little text in middle and high schools is organized in that way. Assessment must move beyond selected response pencil-and-paper tests. It has to be focused on evaluating whether students have met the standards. In appropriate assessments, students must be able to comprehend and to communicate their answers in a logical, deliberate way.

10 Five school-wide goals will make a difference
Read 25 book equivalents (2500 pages) per year Write weekly Use reading and writing strategies to learn the content of all courses Write research(ed) papers in all classes Teach all ELA classes to the rigorous levels of honors/gifted These are the short versions of the goals. Each will be discussed in detail. The list is contained on a single page in chapter 1.

11 All students will read the equivalent of 25 books per year across the curriculum to increase their understanding of the content of all classes. Goal one—the foundation

12 Reading is the single most important social factor in American life today.
The more you read, the more you know. The more you know, the smarter you grow. The smarter you are, the longer you stay in school. The longer you stay in school, the more diplomas you earn and the longer you are employed—thus the more money you earn in a lifetime. The more diplomas you earn, the higher your children’s grades will be in school. The more diplomas you earn, the longer you live. The following slides are not all in the literacy guide. They are from Jim Trelease’s The Read-Aloud Handbook. They catch attention, but can be eliminated if needed because of time.

13 The opposite is also true.
The less you read, the less you know. The less you know, the sooner you drop out of school. The sooner you drop out, the sooner and longer you are poor. The sooner you drop out, the greater your chances of going to jail.

14 Poverty and illiteracy are the parents of desperation and imprisonment.
82% of prison inmates are school dropouts. Inmates are twice as likely to be in bottom levels of literacy. 60% of inmates are illiterate. In the 1990’s, Indiana used the literacy level of second graders to estimate the number of prison cells needed in this decade.

15 To raise their reading skills and to increase understanding of the content of all classes,
Students must read more and a wider range of materials. read both fiction and non-fiction, including technical manuals and journal and magazine articles. prepare written reports. make oral presentations. perform tasks that are described in the text. Teachers should assign reading appropriate to the course content. expect students to demonstrate understanding of what they read. give students choice in the selection of materials. There is a comparable slide to this for each of the five goals. It gives an overview of how practice must change if we are to reach the goal.

16 Reading more = scoring higher
High School (NAEP-Referenced Assessment): Seniors who read an assigned book outside class and report on the main ideas several times during the year score 26 points higher than those who don’t. Students who read at least two hours outside class each week score 11 points higher. Students who read at least five books in English scored 15 points higher. HSTW data from 2002.

17 Literacy Practices and Higher Achievement
Students frequently: Read technical materials; revise written work to improve quality; write in-depth explanations; and complete short writing assignments. Students have higher achievement if they have opportunities across the curriculum to reflect on what they are learning and to put it into their own words. Getting faculty to take ownership for stressing literacy across the curriculum involves changing mindsets. Teachers must understand that literacy is not just the responsibility of language arts teachers; all faculty must give assignments that engage students in reading, writing and speaking in the language of the field. These successful practices include having students frequently: use word processors to complete assignments; revise essays or other written work to improve quality; write in-depth explanations about assignments completed and how they completed them; and complete short writing assignments of 1-3 pages in all classes at least weekly.

18 Literacy Practices and Higher Achievement
Students frequently: discuss readings with other students; read books outside of class and demonstrate understanding; read outside of class each week; and read books/manuals to complete vocational assignments. Engaging students with reading and writing for learning across the curriculum means: giving students an opportunity to frequently discuss with other students what they have read; getting students to read books outside of class frequently and demonstrate understanding; having students read outside of class at least two hours or more each week; and giving students frequent assignments in career/technical classes that require them to read and interpret technical materials.

19 Reading more = scoring higher
Middle Grades Eighth-graders who read 11 or more books each year score 35 points higher than those who read none. Students who read an hour outside of school each day score 16 points higher. ½ hour = 12 points Those who read an assigned book outside class and demonstrated understanding only once per semester score 9 points higher. 300-point scale MMGW 2002 assessment

20 Literacy Experiences Completing short writing assignments of one to three pages at least monthly Doing a major research paper yearly Doing an oral presentation each semester Reading outside of school one hour or more daily To measure progress on implementing a rigorous and challenging reading/language arts curriculum, SREB uses clusters of assessment items to identify activities and experiences that relate to student achievement. The literacy cluster consists of eight items from the Middle Grades Assessment . Literacy items are grouped by frequency to measure the intensity of the experience. If students report three or fewer of the activities at the stated frequency, they are considered to have little literacy experience.

21 Literacy Experiences Reading at least 11 books or more each school year Writing sentences in mathematics at least monthly Using word processing to complete assignments sometimes Revising essays sometimes to meet standards If students report four or five of these activities, they are deemed to have had moderate literacy experiences; six or more of these tasks constitute an intensive literacy experience.

22 Effect of Literacy Experiences on Achievement
Reading – below basic (134 or lower); basic ( ); proficient ( ); advanced 222+ Math -- below basic (142 or lower); basic ( ); proficient ( ); advanced 210+ Science -- below basic (148 or lower); basic ( ); proficient ( ); advanced 212+ Students who have the kind of intensive experiences advocated by the MMGW reading/language arts curriculum guidelines have higher achievement in all subject areas. The pattern of significant improvement based on the level of intensity is the same for African-American students and for students whose mothers had a high school education or less. The MMGW-recommended literacy guidelines state that: students should read 10 – 12 books of various types and lengths each year in English/language arts classes and a like number in other classes; write something every day; speak and present information in a variety of formats; and listen to presentations for a variety of purposes. They emphasize vocabulary development, comprehension skills, the writing process and appropriate use of the English language to communicate effectively, and research skills to locate, evaluate and organize information for different purposes. (See Getting Students Ready for College-preparatory High School Language Arts: What Middle Grades Students Need to Know and Be Able to Do)

23 Middle Grades High School 47% 33% 28% 36% 12% 18% 7% 5%
But teachers aren’t asking students to read… Number of Books Middle Grades High School None 47% 33% 1-2 28% 36% 3-5 12% 18% 6-8 7% 9+ 5% 2002 teacher surveys

24 Why don’t we ask students to read more?
Brainstorm in pairs Popcorn Sharing Give 2-3 minutes. Ask a handful of people to share. You will probably not have time for all to share. The following slide should match a lot of the answers you hear. These could be charted on flip charts or overhead.

25 Why don’t we ask students to read more?
Believe students aren’t good readers Believe students don’t have time Believe students won’t read Believe that reading detracts from teaching “my” content Lack of materials Teachers aren’t readers You will probably see a lot of head nods at these and they should mirror many of the ones you heard from the group. The last is about control. High school teachers don’t want to be the “coach on the side.” They know they know more than their students and often want to make sure that their students know that, too.

26 Do students have time to read?
High School 46% of the students watch TV three or more hours per day 9 percent watch over 6 hours! Middle Grades 51% watch TV or play computer games three or more hours each school day. 17% watch over 5 hours! HSTW and MMGW 2002 student survey. The more TV they watch, the lower their reading scores

27 less than 30 minutes per day
Do The Math Goal of 25 books Average reading rate 250 words per minute 500 words per page 100 pages per book 175 school days equals less than 30 minutes per day to reach goal! If time, have the mathematicians in the group do the math. More explanation is in chapter 4. Not all students will read250 words per minute, but most can, except for the most struggling readers. This is often a time that participants get sidetracked by their “worst” students. Make sure they are realistic about how many students really can’t read. More are aliterate—that is they choose not to read, rather than not being able to read pages per book would be for dense technical text. Most novels have more like 250 words per page. Most schools have more than 175 days, but this would allow for some absences. Actual time: minutes

28 What are some specific steps to raise the amount of reading?
Looking for ideas DEAR/SSR Summer reading Technology Motivational activities – Competitions, Challenges Media center strategies Book groups Divide group into five parts. Have all the 1’s read page 65, etc. Depending on time, they can meet as like groups to discuss main points. If not, they can simply share in their groups. If enough time, you can have groups share additional ideas from their schools or can identify the ones they are most likely to use.

29 Partner Talk and Planning
What are some specific steps to increase the amount of reading our students do? Partner Talk and Planning What strategies might we want to try? What training and support would teachers need to implement these strategies? How will we know if these strategies are working (e.g., assessment, analysis of student work, classroom observations)? These exercises in connection with each of the goals are critical.

30 All students will write weekly in all classes to help them understand and use the content of their classes. Goal 2—discussed in chapter 5

31 To raise their writing skills and use them to increase and demonstrate understanding of the content of all classes, Students must Complete short writing assignments weekly. Write something everyday. Write in multiple formats for different audiences and purposes. Revise their writing frequently. Understand the standards for good writing. Examine models of good writing. Use technology in the writing process. Teachers should assign writing appropriate to the course content. expect students to demonstrate good writing skills. These are changes for most teachers. Remember this is for all classes, not just English.

32 Why is this goal important?
Writing across the curriculum is about a method of discovering and uncovering knowledge. Nonfiction writing is the key to adult success. Writing is required in every postsecondary class. Writing is required in virtually all professions. Writing is the number one thinking skill. Our future is technology. 2. Quote from Doug Reeves.

33 Writing Strategies Entry/Exit Slips
Open Response Questioning on Assessments Writing of directions Real-world writing School-wide Writing Rubric

34 All students will use reading and writing strategies to help them understand and use the content of all classes. Goal 3

35 Close to 50% of students say their teachers never or seldom show strategies for understanding what they read HSTW 2002 surbey

36 I am not a reading teacher!
This is the most common statement heard when teachers are asked to have students read in their classes. Teachers are not asked to be reading teachers, but teachers who require students to read.

37 Americans Think Big When told that kids need to read and write in classes teachers think big: books and research papers. Think small: strategies that get students to read and write in small segments to learn content.

38 Reading - More Than Just Decoding Words
Content teachers tend to think reading is decoding and not extracting meaning from the written word.

39 Lucy’s Dilemma After checking the log it was obvious that I had been doing far too much LSD. As a result my max VO2 was bound to suffer. It was obviously a time to attempt some fartleking. I wondered if the Gore-tex and polypropylene would hinder my attempt at using speed. If so, perhaps a quick deuce would, just as well, serve the purpose of the day.

40 So What? Hopefully, you were all able to decode the words. The question: Is reading just decoding? The second reading will transform you into a student with poor decoding skills. CAN you extract meaning from the written word?

At a recent gathering at the Capitol here in Madison, a number of ledgusllaiteive yshoos wur dhyscust. All dellt with tuhrizuhm in Wisconsin. Klyph Kharlsuhn, who onze a small phische pharm nier Wabeno, lead the phyte for tacks braxe for stayt bisnusmuhn hooze prauphutz halve bin sclascht beakuz uv the enuhrjee chrysusse. Other cimullerlee kuhnsyrnde sytazunze joined hymm in demanding immediate rheleaph phor such pursonze.

42 Reading Decoding and garnering knowledge from the written word. Which one could you answer more questions about the content? Instructional strategies that focus on the second are the focus of this workshop. Students with severe decoding difficulties need specific training from a Reading Teacher.

43 Fifteen Literacy Strategies Any Teacher Can – and Should – Use
Session later today. Another jigsaw—see instructions on earlier jigsaw strategy. This section is the opening part of the chapter. Doug draws an extended analogy of reading to buying a car. He also points out common reading problems and how good readers approach the task of reading.

44 All students will write research(ed) papers in all classes.
Goal 4

45 Research involves a product!
Traditional Formal Research Paper “Researched” Piece * Feature Article * Proposal * Editorial * Fictional Story The chapter addresses this at length. Researched pieces are much more like what we produce and read in the real world. In fact, all adult writing is based on some type of research.

46 To be successful, schools must design…
Research continuum School-wide style guide (In handbook?) Shared papers across classes This continuum shows how research is different by grade levels. Differences might be in length, number of sources, types of sources, types of topics. Continuum should be from 6-12. English teachers may takethe lead on the style guide and rubric, but others should also be involved in developing, if we expect everyone to implement. Alternating schedule helps distribute resources in the library media center as well as helps teachers maintain sanity. Even if you teach English 10 five periods a day, don’t have all work on research papers at the same time.

47 All students will be taught as if they were in honors English classes.
Goal 5. Your audience will determine how much time you spend on this goal. If you have few English teachers, you may give this a brief treatment.

48 Who is in Honors English?
English is most tracked course in American high schools. Only 34% of seniors complete sequence of college-prep English even though over 60% go on to college and 80% say they want to go to college. Only 19% eighth-graders in advanced English Attribute Gene Bottoms and HSTW/MMGW surveys

49 Quartiles on 8th Grade Reading Assessment
The Most Common Statement Heard: Our kids can’t do that! Quartiles on 8th Grade Reading Assessment Earned a grade of D or F in: Low 25% 2nd 3rd Top 25% C-P English 9 21 16 10 3 Low-level English 9 47 31 32 8

50 What does this mean? Read 6-8 books annually, including assigned summer reading. Make an oral or written report on each book read. Participate in some type of writing-to-learn activity frequently. Complete at least one formal research paper annually. Demonstrate what they have learned in writing or in an oral or group presentations frequently. Develop a minimum of one piece of authentic writing addressed to an outside audience monthly. Notice summer reading idea—this has typically been given only to rising AP or honors students, but should be expanded to all students.

51 Pulling it all together . . .
Prioritize your school/district literacy needs. Make a scaffolded plan that can be accomplished. Get a commitment from your staff/district to do the work. Using all the notes from planning to meet all 5 goals, the groups now need to prioritize their work. They may decide to work on only a single goal or to emphasize a goal, including other aspects. Unless you have the entire faculty, make sure the team knows that they must enllst others if they plan to meet these goals.

52 Launching Your School’s Literacy Campaign
Form a literacy committee. Determine what students need to know and be able to do to meet literacy standards at each grade level. Assemble data about the current literacy skills of students. Develop a literacy plan for the school. Share plans with stakeholders. From chapter 3—so what do we do next. For the next three slides, there is extensive support in the guide.

53 Launching Your School’s Literacy Campaign
Employ a literacy coach (optional). Select appropriate professional development to prepare all faculty. Find necessary funding. Assess and celebrate progress.

54 Questions??? Scott Warren Good Luck with Your Campaign!

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