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Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about the parts of speech into your English notebook. Parts of.

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Presentation on theme: "Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about the parts of speech into your English notebook. Parts of."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about the parts of speech into your English notebook. Parts of Speech

3 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Parts of Speech O. k., s o w h a t a r e t h e y ? A r t i c l e s N o u n s A d j e c t i v e s V e r b s A d v e r b s C o n j u n c t i o n s P r o n o u n s P r e p o s i t i o n s I n t e r j e c t i o n s G e r u n d s

4 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Thats all I got.

5 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about the articles into your English notebook. Articles

6 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Articles Articles introduce nouns: the is the definite article, a and an are indefinite articles. Try using them in a sentence to understand the distinction between definite and indefinite.

7 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 A ferret could be any ferret, any- where. The ferret specifies definitelythe ferret in my jacuzzi, for example. Articles have a simple functionto point out, or introduce, a noun.

8 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Step off, aight?

9 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about nouns into your English notebook. Nouns

10 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Nouns Nouns, as we all know, are people, places, and things type of words. Its easy to see that objects are nounsthings such as pencils, uvulas, televisions, yo momma. But abstract things such as qualities and ideas can be nouns toolove is a noun, and egotism, and spoilage. Nouns can be...

11 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 singular, when you are talking about one thing (moco) and nouns can be plural, when youre talking about more than one thing (mocos). Being able to spot nouns is important because the subject of a sentence is always a noun or a pronoun (well cover pronouns in a little while).

12 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 That concludes todays studies!

13 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about adjectives into your English notebook. Adjectives

14 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Adjectives Adjectives are descriptive words. Gorgeous, hideous, smelly, crunk, baggy, and pathetic are all adjectives because they describe, or modify, nouns.

15 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Less obvi- ously descrip- tive are adjectives that show which one or how many: that player, her braids, enough chalupas, every ferret. See how the adjectives clarify which noun (or how many of each noun) is being talked about?

16 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Slow your roll!

17 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about verbs into your English notebook. Verbs

18 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Without a verb, you have no sentence. Verbs express either action, like burping, freaking, or touching, or state-of-being, like am, seems, will be. The first kind of verb is called an action verb, and the second is called a linking verb. Verbs

19 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Put another way, verbs tell what the subject is doing or what is being done to the subject, even if the subject is doing nothing more than existing, just like some of us in this class.

20 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Thank you, and goodbye!

21 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about transitive verbs into your English notebook. Transitive Verbs

22 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Transitive & A transitive verb takes a direct object (She bit me) as opposed to an intransitive verb, which doesnt (He swam home) or (He swam in the pool). In the dictionary, a tran- sitive verb is indicated by vt, and intransitive verb by vi. Intransitive Verbs

23 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 The direct object is not the subject of the sentence, its the noun receiving the action. The object isnt doing anything, its having something done to it. A sentence doesnt need a direct object to be a sentence. Example: Jenny threw the flowers. Direct Objects

24 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Explanation Jenny is the subject; shes the one doing the throwing. Flowers is the object; they arent doing anything, but something is being done to themthey are being thrown. Ya know what Im sayin?

25 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Im ghost!

26 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about adverbs into your English notebook. Adverbs

27 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Adverbs modify verbs (kiss passionately), adjectives (often happy), or other adverbs (too quickly). Adverbs frequently end in –ly, but the –ly isnt a requirement. A test for determining adverbs is to think about function: adverbs tend to tell where, when, or how: Adverbs

28 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Adverbs showing where: Oscars over there. Adverbs showing when: Lyneal! Come here, now! Adverbs showing how: Hillary flatulated loudly.

29 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 See ya!

30 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about conjunctions into your English notebook. Conjunctions

31 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Conjunctions connect words or parts of sentencesconjoin means to join together. Coordinating conjunctions (or matchmaking conjunctions): connect equal parts of sentences. In other words, they connect words to words, phrases to phrases, clauses to clauses. Conjunctions

32 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 A clause contains a noun and a verb. An independent clause contains a subject and a predicate and can stand as a sentence by itself. A dependent clause contains a verb and a noun but cannot stand as a sentence by itself. A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject and a verb.

33 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Correlative conjunctions (or seesaw conjunctions) also connect equal parts together (they are really a subcategory of match- making conjunctions). The difference is that seesaw conjunctions are really two conjunctions in one.

34 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Yes, were done, now!

35 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about subordinating conjunctions into your English notebook. Subordinating Conjunctions

36 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Subordinating conjunctions (or linking conjunctions) connect dependent, or subordinate, clauses with the independent or main, clause. The subordinate clauses act as nouns or as adverbs. Subordinating Conjunctions

37 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Chill!

38 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Subordinating Conjunctions

39 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Chill!

40 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about prepositions into your English notebook. Prepositions

41 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Prepositions express relationships between other words, nouns usually, including relation- ships of time or space. In, of, to, and with are all prepositions. A helpful trick to determine whether a word is a preposition is to place it before the phrase the fence. Prepositions

42 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Beyond the fence, past the fence, over the fence, under the fence, of the fence, across the fenceall of these constructions make some kind of sense, so all the opening words are prepositions, just doing their job: defining relationships. The fence is the object of the preposition.

43 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Any questions?

44 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about prepositional phrase into your English notebook. Prepositional Phrases

45 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Prepositional Phrases A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition and ends with a noun. Look at the following prepositional phrase: Because he was in a bad mood (the Lakers lost, again), Joey walked quickly with a frown to class.

46 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Explanation with a frown also describes Joey; it, too, is an adjective phrase. to class describes where Joey walked. So it is an adverb phrase in a bad mood, describes Joey; so in a bad mood is an adjective phrase.

47 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Explanation All of these phrases are still prepositional phrases, and prepositional phrases usually act either as adjectives or adverbs. Makes sense, doesnt it?

48 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Daaaang!

49 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about prepositions into your English notebook. Prepositions

50 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Prepositions As we know, prepositional phrases can act as adjectives or adverbs.Occasion- ally prepositional phrases act as a noun.

51 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Before dinner is a good time to do homework. Identify the Subject Before dinner is the subject of the verb is. Remember, Before dinner is a prepositional phrase.

52 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Lets Bounce!

53 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about interjections into your English notebook. Interjections

54 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Wow! Shut up! Hijole! Interjections are the most fun part of speech! Cursesat least the ones we can print hereare in this category: Damn! Hey! are interjections that function as filler, or as a kind of introductory word, often to show emphasis. And the good news is: no rules apply, except possibly good taste. Cool! Interjections

55 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Fo Sheezy!

56 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

57 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Pronouns are a subgroup of nouns they act as stand-ins for nouns. There are eight categories of pronouns, but a few simple rules govern their use. First, some terms: Pronouns

58 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Case concerns the function of the pronoun in the sentence. The three cases are nominative, objective, and possessive. It might be easier, by specific- ally describing function, to think of these as subject pronouns, object pronouns, and ownership pronouns. Pronoun Terms

59 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

60 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Number makes a pronoun either singular or plural. Genderspecifies whether the person a pronoun refers to is a man or woman. An Antecedentis the noun (usually appearing earlier in the sentence) that the pronoun stands in for. Pronouns

61 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Isnt learning fun?

62 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

63 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Subject Pronouns (nominative case): I, you, he, she, it, we, and they. All of these will be the subject of a verb. Example: It is alive! It is the subject of the verb is. Example: Jenna knew exactly what she should do. She is the subject of the verb should do. Categorical Pronouns

64 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Chill, dawg!

65 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

66 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Ownership Pronouns (possessive case): my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, our, ours, their, theirs. They are used to show ownership and answers the question Whose? Example: Amanda loved her iguana like crazy. Ask yourself, Whose iguana? Answer: Her iguana. Ownership Pronouns

67 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Well that was cogent!

68 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

69 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Object Pronouns (objective case): me, you, him, her, it, us, them. These are always the object of a verb, preposition, or infinitivenever the subject. In other words, object pronouns are having something done to them, rather than doing the action them- selves. Categorical Pronouns

70 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Josh showered him with insults. The him isnt doing anythinghes receiving the insults, not showering them. Example: He wanted her to go to a movie with him. He is the subject of wanted; her is the object of wanted; him is the object of the preposition with. Whoa! Examples

71 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 So much learning; so little time.

72 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

73 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Rules for Pronouns Subject pronouns follow the verb to be. Example: It is I. Explanation: I follows is. Example: It was they who ate all the cookies. Explanation: They follows was.

74 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 C a s u a l l y t a l k i n g t o e a c h o t h e r w e w o u l d n a t u r a l l y s a y, I t s m e o r I t w a s t h e m t h i s r u l e a p p l i e s m o s t l y t o f o r m a l w r i t i n g. A g a i n, b a s e y o u r c h o i c e o n t h e s i t u a t i o n. A u d i e n c e i s e v e r y t h i n g. Explanation

75 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 H e w a n t e d h e r t o g o t o a m o v i e w i t h h i m. E x p l a n a t i o n : H e i s t h e s u b j e c t o f w a n t e d ; h e r i s t h e o b j e c t o f w a n t e d ; h i m i s t h e o b j e c t o f t h e p r e p o s i t i o n w i t h. Examples

76 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 We done!

77 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

78 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 If you are having trouble deciding whether to use a subject or object pronoun, ignore parts of the sentence that get in the way. Example: The website was paid for by Jennifer and (I, me). Read as: The website was paid for by (I, me). Rules for Pronouns

79 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Now your ear should help you out: The website was paid for by me. Therefore:The website was paid for by Jennifer and me. The main difficultly arises when another person gets between the preposition and the pronounso get the other person out of the way, and you will choose correctly. Rules for Pronouns

80 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Fortuitous, was it not?

81 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about pronouns into your English notebook. Pronouns

82 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Rules for Relative Pronouns These pronouns link a subordinate, or relative, clause to the main clause of the sentence. They also act as stand-ins for nouns, just as all pronouns do. The definite relative pronouns are which, that, and who (or whom, if youre using the objective form of who). The indefinite relative pronouns are...

83 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 … w h a t, w h i c h, w h o, w h a t e v e r, w h o m, a n d w h o m e v e r. T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n d e f i n i t e a n d i n d e f i n i t e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n s i s t h a t i n d e f i n i t e p r o n o u n s a r e n t c l e a r l y s t a n d i n g i n f o r a n o u n a l r e a d y i n t h e s e n t e n c e t h e y h a v e n o a n t e c e d e n t. T h i s i s n o t a d i s t i n c t i o n y o u n e e d t o l o s e s l e e p o v e r.

84 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Dont worry, the end is near. I dont mean that in a cataclysmic sense, Im referring to our review of the parts of speech.

85 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Please copy the following info about gerunds into your English notebook. Pronouns

86 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 Simple stuff, really. A gerund alwaysyes, always ends with -ing. It may seems verby, but it acts like a noun. Example: Valeries smiling unnerves me. Example: Writing is difficult, but so is grading. Gerunds

87 Written and Oral English-Language Convention Standard 1.0 This concludes our rather lengthy but informative study regarding the parts of speech. I thank you for your time.


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