2Data Transcripts Observations of nonverbals Contextual information Specifics of contactHistorical infoVerbatim of written material, speeches, etc.Info on observer
3The problem with qualitative data Often a mass of data with no rules for the researcher to applyThere are no pre-defined categories, dimensions, etc. to tally upThe language used by interviewees, etc. has multiple meanings and interpretationsAnalysis is inherently subjective
4Types of analysis Dialectical analysis Metaphor analysis Search for the most powerful conflicts in the dataMetaphor analysisIdentifiy metaphors and how they varyFantasy theme analysisLooks at the stories shared among people
5Grounded theory and analysis Grounded theory is the most common form of organized qualitative data analysisDeveloped as a means to bring rigor and therefore greater acceptance of qualitative methods in social science (sociology)
6Grounded theory is:“An inductive, comparative, and interactive approach to inquiry that offers several open-ended strategies for conducting emergent inquiry.”Charnaz
7How did grounded theory develop? 1967 Glaser and Strauss book The Discovery of Grounded Theory1990, 1998 Strauss and Corbin prescriptive form with predetermined categories and concerns about reliability and validity2000 Charmaz introduces “Constructivist” methodEducational Research 2e: Creswell
8Key characteristics of grounded theory designs A process approachTheoretical samplingConstant comparative methodSeries of coding and recoding dataMemorandaTheory generationEducational Research 2e: Creswell
9Role of the researcherThe researcher serves as both data collection instrument and analysis methodThe two are linked—adjust data collection as analysis leads in certain waysThe researcher is trying to develop theory—inductionTheory built upward from the data (“grounded”), not downward from premises to theory to hypotheses to testingKeeps theory close to the dataAvoids imposing inappropriate theory on ‘reality’
10Coding Three stages: Open coding Axial coding Restricted coding Coding line-by-line original data into codes that the researcher determines to be valuableExtremely subjectiveAxial codingCombining original codes into major categories and defining subcategories and their relations to the majorsRestricted codingIdentifying relationships among codes and categories
11Zig-zag approach to data collection and analysis Data AnalysisClose to SaturatedCategoriesMore RefinedCategoriesThirdInterviewTowardSaturation ofCategoriesRefinedCategoriesSecondInterviewFirstInterviewPreliminaryCategoriesEducational Research 2e: Creswell
12Coding for what is happening So part of it has been good because I can see that I'm not the only one that has good days and bad days, everybody does.They might not be physical, as much as psychological, but everybody has kind of good days and bad days, as moods and things too.Identifying a positiveRecognizing other people’s good and bad daysQualifying their good and bad daysViewing good and bad days as universalExample from Charnaz
13Comparing Statements: Sara Shaw— Taking a broader view beyond self So part of it has been good because I can see that I'm not the only one that has good days and bad days, everybody does.They might not be physical, as much as psychological, but everybody has kind of good days and bad days, as moods and things tooSeeing beyond selfDiscerning the content of good and bad days
14Comparing statements: Nancy Swensen dealing with her illness on a bad day and her mother with Alzheimer’s—Being caught in chaosAnd if I’m trying to get dinner ready and I’m already feeling bad, she’s in front of the refrigerator. Then she goes to put her hand on the stove and I got the fire on. And then she’s in front of the microwave and then she’s in front of the silverware drawer. And-and if I send her out she gets mad at me. That’s when I have really a really bad time.Making a bad day worseEscalating chaosSee also,Arthur Frank (1995): “The Chaos Nar-rative
15Comparing responses to bad days: Marty— Dealing with bad days We’re [a friend who has multiple sclerosis] kind of like mutual supporters for each other. And when she has her bad days or when we particularly feel “poor me,” you know, “Get off your butt!” You know, we can be really pushy to each other and understand it.Reciprocal supportingHaving bad daysDisallowing self-pityIssuing reciprocal ordersTaking the criticism
16Realizing that once bad days have become good days—John What used to be bad days [laughing] now are good days …but the quality of things, I think, is declining, you know, from , say a couple of years ago when I didn’t think about it that much. And there would be isolated days when I had a lot of congestion and things like that. But that’s all.Shifting criteria of good and bad daysDefining declining healthComparing past and present
17“Eventually, new data add little to the development of new descriptive categories. At this point, the categories are considered “saturated.” The researcher then reviews the theoretical memoranda and conceptualizes higher level (more abstract) generalizations that subsume the initial set of categories yet are grounded in them.”P. 282
18Memoranda“Memos are notes the researcher writes throughout the research process to elaborate on ideas about the data and the coded categories. In memos, the researcher explores hunches, ideas, and thoughts, and then takes them apart, always searching for the broader explanations at work in the process.”Educational Research 2e: Creswell
19The grounded theory generated in this manner reflects the researcher’s development of categories of meaning and the relationships she perceives among them. It should also provide some explanation for those relationships.Usually not “higher-order” theory, but “mid-level” theory
20One test of the theory is to have the interviewees react to it One test of the theory is to have the interviewees react to it. Does it make sense to them? Do they think it reflects the world as they see it?
21The theory developed through this method should be compared to the scholarly literature to see how it fits within the field. Does it add, support, contradict? The researcher should provide his thoughts about how the grounded theory should be interpreted with regard to existing theory.
22Write-upWrite-up of a grounded theory study follows more of a narrative format than traditional quantitative research reports. While the concerns of the researcher that led to the study usually open the piece, they are often more closely tied to the researcher, personally, than in quantitative studies.
23The discussion of the scene to be studied is often quite detailed, while a theoretical literature review is limited or absence. The methods and results are more integrated and the author will often discuss the evolution of her thinking over time, tying it to particular findings in narrative format—over time.
24Evidence is often provided in direct quotes and examples, and the development of the researcher’s thinking over time is commonly revealed.The latter portion may discuss a comparison of the grounded theory with existing theory to a greater extent than is often the case.
25Write-up and presentation Provide a detailed description of the data collection methodsDescribe the subjects and context carefully
26Evaluating a grounded theory study Does the researcher gather extensive data so as to develop a detailed conceptual theory as well saturated in the data?Does the model emerge through phases of coding? (e.g. initial codes to more theoretically oriented codes or open coding to axial coding to selective coding)?Educational Research 2e: Creswell
27Does the study show how the researcher validated the evolving theory by comparing it to the data, examining how the theory supports or refutes existing theories in the literature, or checking theory with participants?Creswell
28Evaluating a grounded theory study Is there an obvious connection between the categories and the raw data?Is the theory useful as a conceptual explanation for the process being studied?Does the theory provide a relevant explanation of actual problems and a basic process?Can the theory be modified as conditions change or further data are gathered?Educational Research 2e: Creswell