Presentation on theme: "Successful Writing Book 1 Todays lecture is an introductory one."— Presentation transcript:
Successful Writing Book 1 Todays lecture is an introductory one
Coverage for Today 1. Who is this guy?Who is this guy? 2. The Importance of WritingThe Importance of Writing 3. What should I do to become a good writer?What should I do to become a good writer? 4. About the bookAbout the book 5. SyllabusSyllabus 6. Lecture One DictionLecture One Diction
Who is this guy? 667003 email@example.com I love English and teaching writing
The Importance of Writing 1. Highest Level of Language Learning 2. Contributes to the way we learn and reinforce what we have learned 3. Leads to personal growth 4. Good writing leads to success in college and career. Back
To Become a Good Writer Know the right things to do, and DO IT!!! Extensive Reading Emulation (imitation) Thinking Writing They should be done simultaneously. Back
About Book One Not a writing instruction textbook; starting point. But important It will help you solve the common problems you commit or meet in your writing and lay a solid foundation of becoming a good writer. Two focuses: Diction & Sentence Building Back
Syllabus I. 13 lectures (12 book-based, 3 or 4 about the TEM4) II. Intended coverage of the book: all plus other materials III. Assignments (I will grade) + work (not grade)+ the exercises
Syllabus IV. Printouts available and to work on. V. Units of Book 1 may not be followed accordingly. VI. About the Final: book content + ppt + printouts account for 50%; an essay and a note (50%)
Suggested References Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Publisher: Foreign language Teaching and Research Press Collins Co-build Advanced Learner's English Dictionary Publisher: Foreign language Teaching and Research Press Oxford Collocations for Students of English Publisher: Foreign language Teaching and Research Press A good thesaurus is preferable.
Dos and Donts Hand in the assignment in time; Dont plagiarize, or youll regret. Make full preparation before going into the classroom (thinking about the topic, reading relevant books or consulting other resources, forming questions) Challenge me if you want to and have questions. I am not afraid of admitting my ignorance. Work hard, harder and hardest to write well, better and best.
Lecture One Diction Choice and use of words in speech or writing.
Intro to Diction Words -----the building blocks of writing----the basics However, if you dont know how to choose the right word, where to use it despite your large vocabulary, youll risk misrepresentation of your message. For example: Intimate friends fast; cute
Intro to Diction Diction ------a complex system of selecting and using words. This lecture is just to give us a brief and introductory glimpse of it. Divided into following sections.
Intro to Diction Diction MeaningsLevelsconcisenessPrecisenessDictionary
Meanings The meaning of word is multi-faceted-----Words that refer to the same thing always have different meanings; and the same word in different contexts may vary tremendously in meaning. Father, dad, daddy, papa, the old man Who uses which at what time and where, and what is relationship?
Four Types of Meanings Denotation Connotation Affective (attitude) Collocation
Denotation & Connotation Denotation: A words denotation is what it literally means, as defined by the dictionary Connotation: A words connotation is the feeling or idea implied or suggested by it. Example Official, statesman, politician
Denotation & Connotation What are the connotations for these words: country, nation, state, land country ---- refers to an area of land and its population and government. E.g. an island country; neighboring countries In area China is the third largest country in the world. nation ---- the people of a country. E.g. a peace-loving nation; the awakening nations of Africa state ---- the government or political organization of a country. E.g. state organs; state-owned enterprises land ---- more literary and emotive China is my native land.
Denotation & Connotation big, large, huge big ---- a common word large ---- slightly more formal and may be used to describe things that are unusually big, so it is more emphatic than big huge ---- more literary than these two words, means extremely large and is more emphatic than large Which can modify success, problem, number, amount?
Denotation & Connotation Work with your partner and others on P3-2 Work alone on 3 and below 1. After all, he is just a boy. 2. Teachers are human.
Affective (Attitude) Like connotation, the choice of diction contributes to the attitude. Words of this kind are also called slanted, or loaded words. Some words contain affective load themselves. For example, Coward, cheat, love, hope; others sometimes obtain it according to their context: Money-loving, communism---the red thread or the communist menace
Affective (Attitude) Types of Attitudes: Favorable (laudatory), unfavorable (derogatory) and neutral: Similarly, the three kinds of meanings are conditional, not absolute.
Affective (Attitude) Which is laudatory, derogatory and neutral? mob gathering crowd old person senior citizen fossil naked nude unclothed unique unusual bizarre bookworm student scholar writer literary artist hack copy replica counterfeit
Collocation The meaning a word has in a set combination with other words. E.g. a suspicious woman---- a suspicious character. Tremble and quiver: with fear or with excitement. Collocation has long been a big problem for Chinese learners. Advice: Be on the alert and accumulate.
Meaning and Context Meaning is context-bound. Ill give you a ring. Perfect! Neighbor: neutral Here is a joke: Teacher: How do you spell the word neighbour, Tom? Tom: N-E-I-G-H-B-O-U-R. Teacher: Yes. And what does it mean? Tom: Its the woman that comes to borrow things on Sundays.
False Friends Words that are misused because of the surface meanings ; Sweet water Guinea pig Dry goods Thick-faced, thin-faced
False Friends To best ones opponent; to worst ones opponent Unloosen; unfasten Valuable ; invaluable Flammable; inflammable Shameful; shameless A good scare; a bad scare Inheritable; heritable Slim chance; a fat chance In short, English Is a Crazy Language
Coverage for Today 1. Review what we went through last time and do the exercises provided in the book. 2. Levels of Diction 3. Conciseness
Levels of Diction Pop Quiz Would you speak to your friends in the same way as to your parents, teachers or strangers? Scenario: Your friend did you a favor. To show your thankfulness, you would say Thanks Frank or I really appreciate your help, Mr.Smith? Why should we be concerned about levels of diction. Appropriateness
Levels of Diction (Styles) Different audiences and situations call for different levels of diction. Non-standard language (informal) Slang Colloquial Standard (general) Formal diction
Levels of Diction Standard – language grammatically correct, but conversational. Formal diction–language appropriate for more formal occasions; often more abstract and more figurative.
Levels of Diction Levels of Diction Non-standard (informal) Colloquial – are nonstandard, and language of everyday speech. Contractions, clipped forms, placeholders, utility words, verbal phrase. Contractions, clipped forms, placeholders, utility words, verbal phrase Slang – refers to recently coined words; slang is ephemeral and exclusive (understandable to a specific group of people)
Colloquial Contractions Clipped forms exam, intro., doc., prof. Placeholders : kind of, you know Utility words: great, nice, good Verbal phrase: get across= communicate, come up with=find, check out=investigate
Slang A-yo: "What' up?" "Hey!" Freaky: weird Jerk: idiot Pissed off: mad, irritated Suck: to be annoying
A Word of Warning Avoid non-standard language in your college writing unless you want to give your writing a strong conversational tone.
Conciseness Cut out all unnecessary, redundant, wordy expressions. Conciseness is a virtue and the soul of wit. because of the fact that because in spite of the fact that although Mary is a girl who is beautiful. He said he would draft a plan which was appropriate to his clients needs. Mary is a beautiful girl. He said he would draft a plan appropriate to his clients needs.
Conciseness Watch for those words that are just needless, only taking up space--- adding nothing to meaning. Emission allowances are issued every year on an annual basis. Open wells in hard-rock formations are usually rectangular in shape. A wide variety of inhaled corticosteroids are now currently available.
Conciseness 1. Eliminate unnecessary determiners and modifiers Wordy Any particular type of dessert is fine with me. Balancing the budget by Friday is an impossibility without some kind of extra help. More Concise Any dessert is fine with me. Balancing the budget by Friday is impossible without extra help.
Conciseness 2. Change phrases into single words Wordy The employee with ambition... The department showing the best performance... More Concise The ambitious employee... The best-performing department...
Conciseness 3. Change unnecessary that, who, and which clauses into phrases Wordy The report, which was released recently... All applicants who are interested in the job must... More Concise The recently released report... All job applicants must...
Conciseness 4. Avoid overusing expletives( ) at the beginning of sentences Wordy It is the governor who signs or vetoes bills. There are four rules that should be observed... More Concise The governor signs or vetoes bills. Four rules should be observed:...
Conciseness Some familiar expressions that are Deadwood I feel I think It seems to me All things considered Without a doubt It is important to note In my opinion The reason why
Conciseness Avoid Some Common Adverbs Denoting Degree Basically Very Definitely Quite Really Simply
Coverage for Today Review what we discussed last time and do the exercises in the book. Preciseness Dictionary Use Note-writing (if we have the time)
What Is Wrong with the Following? something smells fishy, big shot, chick Its cool. TV, dorm He is sort of pathetic.
There are many farmers in the area who are planning to attend the meeting which is scheduled for next Friday. Many area farmers plan to attend next Friday's meeting. He dropped out of school on account of the fact that it was necessary for him to help support his family. He dropped out of school because he needed to help support his family.
Preciseness A way to guarantee a successful writing. Preciseness in word use can interest your audience, inspire their imagination, which makes your writing worthy.
General and Specific Professionals, for instance, is more general than scientists, doctors, teachers, lawyers, journalists, etc., all of which are more specific. "When the officer ran past the gate, the dog turned on him" is vague compared with "The officer sprinted past the gate when the Chihuahua turned on him. He stunned me agape: His eyes protruded like headlights of a tractor, scanning me head to toe; the scarred face, when he was opening his disproportionately thick lipped mouth, was distorted as if it was stretched by two strong hands on both cheeks.
General and Specific(1) GENERAL a good man SPECIFIC kind, honest, just, generous, sympathetic, warm-hearted, selfless, honorable
General and Specific(3) GENERAL laugh SPECIFIC smile, grin, beam, giggle, titter, chuckle, guffaw, chortle
General and Specific They seem to make the reader see, hear, or feel what the writer wishes to describe. Dont tell your reader what it is. SHOW them !!!
General and Specific General affection sorrow violence happiness Specific kiss, embrace weep, silent punch, shove smile
General and Specific 1. I have a tool in my hand. I have an axe in my hand. 2. A man is walking down the street. A man is strolling down the street. 3. That was a very wonderful movie. That was a very instructive movie.
General and Specific On a fine afternoon in New York, I got into a taxi. From the drivers expression and the way he slammed in his gears, I could tell that he was upset. I asked him what the trouble was. Ive got good reason to be sore, he growled. One of my fares left a wallet in my cab this morning. Nearly three hundred bucks in it. I spent more than an hour trying to trace the guy. Finally I found him at his hotel. He took the wallet without a word and glared at me as though Id meant to steal it He didnt give you a reward? I exclaimed. Not a cent. But it wasnt the dough I wanted… he fumbled, then exploded. If the guy had only said something…
General and Specific It used to be clean and clear, and teeming with water creatures- frogs, carps, shrimps, crabs, and those we kids couldn't name but were so happy with when we were swimming in it. It was a summer paradise, our kingdom where there were no homework, no dos and don'ts from parents. We, boys mostly of my age, would rush to the bank, got undressed (sometimes naked if there was no sight of the opposite sex), and with a string of loud splashes all were in it and in a split second floated up flashing our white-toothed, happy smile. Tired of swimming? Drifting along on our DIY rafts would, beyond any doubt, give rise to a run of deafening Wows. Of course, it's a river, and it was. A river can't not be called a river if there are no longer care-free children playing with a roar of laughter; a river can't not be called a river if there is no sign of life.
Use of Dictionary Word Division Do you know? Color, withdraw col·or, with·draw Labels BrE, AmE, fml, infml, old use, not polite, taboo, spoken, literary, written. Etymology---a words history, its evolution over the years. Synonyms & Antonyms---use of word processor
Assignment Printouts ----The Connotative Power of Words, Exercise on word use hand in on Sept. 19th) & Description Next time---- preciseness and note-writing.
Note-writing: hand in next time we meet. 1. You missed a professors lecture on a subject you are interested in. Write him or her a note to see if you can get the handouts for the lecture. (I will grade) 2. you broke your friends favorite CD and write a note to make a apology.