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Reading Words: The Instructional Road to Automaticity Dr. Kathleen J. Brown Director: University of Utah Reading Clinic www.uurc.orgwww.uurc.org801-265-3951.

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Presentation on theme: "Reading Words: The Instructional Road to Automaticity Dr. Kathleen J. Brown Director: University of Utah Reading Clinic www.uurc.orgwww.uurc.org801-265-3951."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reading Words: The Instructional Road to Automaticity Dr. Kathleen J. Brown Director: University of Utah Reading Clinic

2 Expert Reading=Word Rec X Comp Word Recognition is Automatic accurate fast effortless Comprehension is both Automatic & Strategic accurate, fast, effortless know how to troubleshoot flexible persistent (Adams, 1990; Rayner, Foorman, Perfetti, Pesetsky, & Seidenberg, 2001)

3 Novice Reading=Word Rec X Comp Word Recognition is Necessarily Strategic often inaccurate slow effortful Comprehension is both Automatic & Strategic accurate, fast, effortless know how to troubleshoot flexible persistent (Adams, 1990; Rayner, Foorman, Perfetti, Pesetsky, & Seidenberg, 2001)

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5 Novice Reading=Word Rec X Comp Word Recognition is Necessarily Strategic: often inaccurate slow effortful Word Recognition Must Become Automatic. Most children need explicit, systematic instruction phonics & practice in text. Some need basic word rec. intervention! A few need intensive word rec. intervention!

6 Age is Almost Irrelevant… Phonics & Text Should Target the Child’s Instructional Level & Move as Mastery is Achieved!!!!

7 Identify Child’s Instructional Level: Text That Can Be Read With: at least 93% accuracy, and rate of: primer (mid G1)- at least 30 wpm end G1 - at least 40 wpm mid G2 – at least 60 wpm end G2 - at least 80 wpm mid G3 - at least 80 wpm end G3 – at least 110 wpm end G4 – at least 120 wpm

8 Three Questions to Ask Every Day about Every Child: 1. Right now, what is already “in this child’s head” for these words: - cup? - spurt? - skullduggery? a.k.a. representation in memory 2. Where should I go next with phonics to extend what is “in the head?” 3. What type of text is best for extending what is “in the head?”

9 IMPLICATION: Phonics and Text Type should change over the course of development to: 1. reinforce what is already known and 2. help the child progress as quickly as possible

10 Know the “Race Course” of Word Recognition Development STARTING LINE Learning About Print pre-alphabetic to partial alphabetic reader K students Breaking the Code (a.k.a. Glued to Print) **** partial alphabetic to full alphabetic reader early to midG1 (Ehri, 2005; Stanovich, 2000)

11 What Needs To Be In Place to “Break the Code?” Letter-sound correspondences (e.g., c = /k/) Concept of word (1-to-1 voice to print match) Identify and isolate first consonant phoneme in words Short vowel sounds

12 What Kind of Phonics? Text? Phonics: - explicitly teach blending a.k.a. “sound it out” with 3 letter, 1 syllable words with 1 short vowel - drill vowel sound cards - speed check for accuracy & fluency (no 2 errors) Text Type: interesting texts with repetition of easy high frequency words; most other words are decodable (e.g., A Present for Baby Bear, Bob Books) Text Levels: 4-8 (approximately) = oct-dec G1

13 Phonics: Short Vowels – Closed Syllables catwinmom

14 Phonics: Short Vowels – Closed Syllables catwinmom lap pig job

15 Phonics: Short Vowels – Closed Syllables catwinmom lap pigjob hit hop flat van chip rock

16 High Freq. Words for G1 Level Readers (beginners & strugglers) get a list (e.g., Dolch) start with easiest & gradually  complex use “flash” presentation read off the deck sort into 2 piles: automatic vs. wrong or >3 second hesitation re-do “trouble” pile when deck n=25, retire 15 and build up again for G1 readers, do not build “torture decks” every “trouble” word needs 5 fairly solid words

17 Three Questions to Ask Every Day about Every Child: 1. Right now, what is already “in this child’s head” for these words: - cup? - spurt? - skullduggery? a.k.a. representation in memory 2. Where should I go next with phonics to extend what is “in the head?” 3. What type of text is best for extending what is “in the head?”

18 Know the “Race Course” of Word Recognition Development STARTING LINE Learning About Print pre-alphabetic to partial alphabetic reader K students Breaking the Code (a.k.a. Glued to Print) **** partial alphabetic to full alphabetic reader early to midG1 Going for Fluency **** full alphabetic to early consolidated reader endG1 – endG2 PARTIAL FINISH LINE & onward…

19 What Needs To Be In Place to “Go for Fluency?” everything in the “learning about print” phase automaticity for high frequency words (e.g., the, said) ability to quickly blend unfamiliar 3-5 letter 1 syllable words

20 What Kind of Phonics? Text? Phonics: - explicitly teach chunking strategy with 4 and 5 letter 1 syllable words with most common phonograms (e.g., turn  spurt) - augment & drill vowel sound cards - speed check for accuracy & fluency (no 2 errors) Text Type: interesting “easy reader” texts that gradually increase in difficulty (e.g., Sammy the Seal  Frog and Toad  Nate the Great) Text Levels: 8-12/16 (approximately) = jan-june G1

21 Phonics: Vowel Patterns – Syllable Types catlakebarn lapgatepark brain sharp flame van tail flat rain paid

22 High Frequency Words for G2+ Level Struggling Readers get a list (e.g., Dolch) gradually build a word deck from oral reading errors & list use “flash” presentation read off the deck sort into 2 piles: automatic vs. wrong or >1.5 second hesitation re-do “trouble” pile when deck n=25, retire some and add as needed

23 Irregular & High Frequency Words For persistent “trouble” words, try: Letter-Sound-Trouble Analysis Make-n-Break 2,2,&2 For persistent “trouble” words, child must: Say word aloud as often as possible Ask “What word?” Spell word aloud Physical manipulatives can help! Visualization can help!

24 Three Questions to Ask Every Day about Every Child: 1. Right now, what is already “in this child’s head” for these words: - cup? - spurt? - skullduggery? a.k.a. representation in memory 2. Where should I go next with phonics to extend what is “in the head?” 3. What type of text is best for extending what is “in the head?”

25 What Kind of Phonics? Text? Phonics: - explicitly teach syllable types, division, & morphemic knowledge (e.g., skullduggery, disruptive) a.k.a. representation in memory Text Type: interesting texts with some control that gradually increase in difficulty (e.g., Marvin Redpost  Magic Tree House  ) Text Levels: 18 and up = end G1 and on

26 Types of Syllables: Driven by Orthography & Morphology cup, branch the, of, who, enough lake, barn, tail hopped, pretest, provoke, incandescent Closed syllables High Frequency & Irregular Vowel patterns Words with affixes and polysyllabic words (Henry, 1990; Moats, 2000; Morris, 2005; UURC, 2006; Wilson, 2006)

27 “Breaking Up” Big Words: Syllable Types & Morphemes velvetdecline hoborumple incandescentboisterous confirmatorydisruptive

28 Three Questions to Ask Every Day about Every Child: 1. Right now, what is already “in this child’s head” for these words (e.g., cup, burn, skullduggery)? a.k.a. representation in memory 2. Where should I go next with phonics to extend current representations? 3. What type of text is best practice for extending current representations?

29 Resources for Educators & Parents Discover Intensive Phonics Wilson Language/Fundations LETRS (Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading & Spelling) Texts by Louisa Moats, Marcia Henry, Isabel Beck, Words Their Way group University of Utah Reading Clinic (UURC) or


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