Presentation on theme: "Michael Trammer Danielle White Tiana L. Gilmore Derriyon Winns Austin Rogers Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early North America."— Presentation transcript:
Michael Trammer Danielle White Tiana L. Gilmore Derriyon Winns Austin Rogers Red, White, and Black: The Peoples of Early North America
Question 9 Why did none of the first English attempts at settlement fare well? None of the first English attempts at settlement fared well because the English adopted the more militaristic stance toward the Indians reconnected by John Smith following his voyage to the New England coast in 1614.
Question 9a. Who was Squanto? Squanto is a Wampanoag whom an English ship captain had kidnapped in 1614. Squanto abductor sold him in Spain, but somehow he had made his way to England where he joined an English captain on several trips to the New England.
Question 9b. The Wampanoags regarded the treaty with the Pilgrims as an alliance of equals. How did the English see it? The English, regarding themselves as culturally superior, saw it as submission by the Indians to English domination.
Question 9c. The charter of the Massachusetts Bay Company claimed to win the Indians to God. However, what did the orders to John Winthrop document? The instructions of the Company to John Winthrop reveal what was anticipated: all men were to be trained in the use of firearms; Indians were to be prohibited from entering the Puritan towns; and any colonists so reckless as to sell arms to the Indians or instruct them in their use were to be deported to England where they would be severely punished.
Question 9d. What did the smallpox epidemic that devastated the Indians mean to the Puritans? The colonized believed that this was proof that God has intervened on their behalf at a time when the land hunger of the settlers was causing friction over rights to land.
Question 10 What was the question of land? Puritan theories of land possession clarify this tendency to classify Indians in ways that privileged violence over assimilation or coexistence. Puritans claimed the land they invade by right of discovery. One theory derived from the ancient claim that Christians were everywhere entitled to dispossess non- Christians of their land. Another theory called vacuum domicilium that bolstered Puritan claims that land not “occupied” or “settled” went by forfeit to those who attached themselves to it in a “civilized” manner.
Question 10a. What is vacuum domicilium? Vacuum domicilium is a “vast and empty chaos.” It was used by Europeans to describe a land as one early settler called New England.
Question 10b. Because of this believe what was the position of the Puritans in regard to the Indians? The slender power of the disease- ravaged coastal tribes of the Massachusetts Bay region and the legal principles invoked under the concept of vacuum domicilium positioned the Puritans favorably to establish their beach bed in New World.
Question 11 What was the Puritan mission? The Puritans’ mission was to tame and civilize their new environment, to convert wilderness into sacred space, and to build a pious commonwealth that would “shine like a beacon” back to decadent England.
Question 11a. “Rather than convert the savages of New England,” the Puritans...? Rather than convert the “savages” of New England, the Puritans attempted to bring them under civil government, making them strictly accountable to the ordinances that governed white behavior in Massachusetts.
Question 11b. Who were the Pequots? The Pequots were strong and numerous people that built a trading network of tributary groups and viewed the Narragansetts as their main rival in southern New England.
Question 11c. What issues did the Pequots know were the broader factors in the real causes of the war between them and the English? The Pequots understand that the issue, ostensibly about the death of several English manners, was much broader, involving an interlocking set of disputes over land, trade, and political control of the region.
Question 11d. What was the “genocidal behavior” of the “civilized Puritans”? The genocidal behavior of the “civilized” Puritans demonstrated at Mystic Fort shocked the Narragansett “savages” who fought with the Puritans. According to one English officer, they came after the victory and “much rejoiced at our victories, and greatly admired the manner of Englishmen’s fight…it is naught [bad or wicked] because it is too furious and slays too many men.”
Question 11e. What did victory over the Pequots mean? Victory over the Pequots decisively established English sovereignty over all the native peoples of southeastern New England except the Narragansetts and removed the one remaining obstacle to expansion into the Connecticut River Valley.
Question 12 Who formed the New England Confederation? The colonies of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Plymouth formed the New England Confederation.
Question 12a. How did the Narragansetts gain royal protection? The Narragansetts gained royal protection from “any of the natives in these parts” and pointedly declared that they could not “yield over ourselves unto any [in New England] that are subjects themselves in any case.”
Question 12b. How did the great sachems of the 17th century fill about the missionaires? “Each of the great sachems of the mid-seventeenth century- Massasoit, Metacom, Ninigret, Uncas- resisted the missonaries as threats to his tribe’s survial.”
Question 12c. What were the options of the Wampanoags? They could submit to the English colonies by selling their land, thus putting themselves fully under Puritan government and performing day labor within the white people's settlements; sell their land for whatever they could get and migrate westward, placing themselves under the protection of the stronger Iroquois tribes at their backs; or they could attempt what had never been successfully undertaken before anywhere on the continent- a pan-Indian offensive against a people who greatly outnumbered then and possessed a far greater weaponry.
Question 12d. Who was Metacom and what was his English name? Metacom, or King Philip as the English called him, was a son of Massasoit.
Question 12e. What did the total lunar eclipse of June 25, 1675 mean to the Wampanoags? The young Wampanoag males girded themselves for battler. Revitalization of their culture through war was probably as important a goal as the defeat of the white encroacher.
Question 12f. When the English won the war, how did they pay for it? To pay for the war, New Englanders sold hundreds of other Indians into slavery, including Metacom’s wife and son.
Question 12g. What became sport in New England? Hunting redskins became for the time being a popular sport in New England, especially since prisoners were worth good money, and the personal danger to the hunters was now very slight.
Question 13 Explain Bacon’s Rebellion. Bacon’s Rebellion was an uprising of the rebellious frontiersman led by Nathaniel Bacon against the Indians. They attacked even friendly Indians. As the violence continued, Bacon was declared a rebel by Governor Berkeley for not cooperating.
Question 13a. Who was Nathaniel Bacon? Nathaniel Bacon was a 29 year old Cambridge-educated and scandal-ridden planter that just moved to Chesapeake two years earleir.
Question 13b. Who was Governor Berkeley? Governor Berkeley (Sir William Berkeley) was the head of the colony as a royal governor for more than 20 years.
Question 13c. What was the catalyst for the war? The catalyst for the war was the want for land, and tension between the whites and Indians.
Question 13d. Why did Gov. Berkeley declare Bacon a rebel? Governor Berkeley declared Bacon a rebel because Bacon defied the royal government.
Question 13e. Who did Berkeley underestimate? Berkeley underestimated both the white settlers and the Indians?
Question 13f. What did Bacon’s Rebellion prove? Bacon’s Rebellion proved that the highest authorities in an English colony could not prevent genocidal attacks by white settlers.
Question 14 What became the center of plantation slave system? South Carolina became the center of plantation slave system.
Question 14a. What areas did King Charles give in charter? King Charles gave charters for New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Carolina.
Question 14b. What 2 men wrote the plans for settlement of the Carolinas? Anthony Ashley Cooper and John Locke wrote the plans for settlement of the Carolinas.
Question 14c. What enticement did they use to draw men to the Carolinas? They used the enticement of a free 150 acres to every adult male immigrant to draw men to the Carolinas.
Question 15 What was the first impression of the English by the coastal Indians around the mouth of the Ashley River? Why? Indians around the mouth of the Ashley River viewed the English as saviors.
Question 15a. Who initiated the Indian slave trade? The Spanish initiated the Indian slave trade.
Question 15b. Where did most of the Carolina slaves end up? Carolina slaves were shipped to the West Indies, New York, and New England.
Question 15c. How did the English slave traders acquire their slaves? English slave traders acquired their slaves by capturing and trading them.
Question 15d. What had catastrophic effects on Indian-to-Indian relationships? The settlement of South Carolina had catastrophic effects, for it introduced a trade in European cloth, guns, and other goods that pitted one tribe against another and greatly intensified Indian warfare.
Question 16 What took the greatest toll on the Indian villages south of Virginia? Disease took a terrible toll in Indian villages, with major epidemics striking the region in 1698, 1718, and 1738.
Question 16a. What tribe spear-headed a pan-Indian uprising than came very close to wiping out the European colonists? The Yamasees came as close to wiping out the European colonists.
Question 16b. What others joined the uprising? Virginia and South Carolina traders joined the uprising.
Question 16c. What was the real intentions of the 1701 act “to Limit the Bounds of the Yamasee Settlement, to prevent Persons from Distrubing them in their stocks”? The act was used to restrict the Indians to reservations to open the west of the land to white settlers.
Question 16d. What was the key to success for the English in an area? The key to English success in an area where they were greatly outnumbered was the promotion of intertribal hostility. This was not only instrumental in procuring slaves who were profitably sold in New England and the West Indies, but also was a major factor in depopulating tribes whose land then became accessible to the settlers.
Question 17 What intentions did the Quakers have when they came to the New World? The Quakers’ intentions were to create a Utopia in the New World.
Question 17a. Who was the Society of Friends? The Society of Friends were Quakers who became a radical Protestant. They were born in the outcome of the English civil war of the 1650s.
Question 17b. What did they pledge? The Society of Friends pledged to the rule of nonviolence and relations upon people with the religions and races.
Question 17c. Who did the policy of toleration of the Quakers draw to Pennsylvania? The Quakers’ policy of toleration drew European groups to Pennsylvania.
Question 17d. What two things devastated the coastal tribes? Two things that devastated the coastal tribes are warfare and disease. Survivors of tribes either incorporated themselves as subjects of inland groups or entered the white man’s world as detribalized servile dependents.
Question 17e. What service did the coastal Indians provide for the Europeans? The service that the coastal Indians provided for the Europeans was a buffer. Coastal Tribes lost their political autonomy and their remnants were often incorporated into the larger inland tribes.