2 #1 Why were changes to manufacturing needed in the mid-1700s? Factory owners were not satisfied with the size of their profits.b.Demand was greater than the available supply of goods.c.Workers were not satisfied with the level of their daily wages.d.Traders faced higher shipping prices for smaller amounts of goods.
3 b. Demand was greater than the available supply of goods.
4 2. How is the Industrial Revolution BEST defined? a period of rapid growth during which machines became essential to industryb.a series of explosive encounters between workers and wealthy factory ownersc.a time of great excitement about mechanical approaches to controlling Natured.an age of invention and creativity unique in the history of Western civilization
5 a. a period of rapid growth during which machines became essential to industry
6 3. Which of the following industries was the FIRST one impacted by the Industrial Revolution? the assembly of gunsc.the sawmill or lumber industryb.the making of clothing itemsd.the fast food industry
8 4. Which of the following describes what Richard Arkwright did? Inventor of the water frame, he lowered the cost of cotton thread and increased the speed of production.b.British mechanic and entrepreneur, he brought his skills to New England and the Industrial Revolution to the U.S.c.Inventor of the spinning jenny, he introduced the ability to produce numerous threads to homes across England.d.American manufacturer, he would come to own all or part of 13 textile mills between 1790 and his death in 1835.
9 a. Inventor of the water frame, he lowered the cost of cotton thread and increased the speed of production.
10 5. Who was the skilled British mechanic that was responsible for bringing new textile plans and ideas to the United States?a.Samuel Slaterc.Richard Arkwrightb.Moses Brownd.James Hargreaves
12 6. Why were more American textile mills built in the North than in the South? The South charged higher taxes on industry.b.The North had more rivers to provide power.c.The North attracted skilled English immigrants.d.The South was devoted to the farming of cotton.
14 7. What was Eli Whitney’s greatest contribution to American manufacturing? He designed a way to produce inexpensive clocks.b.He developed a new type of water-frame which improved the textile industry.c.He came up with the idea of interchangeable parts.d.He argued that factories deserved better technology.
15 c.He came up with the idea of interchangeable parts.
16 8. What does the sale of thousands of inexpensive clocks to American families throughout the 1800s suggesta.Working families came to have the same goods as wealthy families except that the goods were less expensive.b.Keeping time became more important as people planned their routines around factory hours and railroad schedules.c.Heads of growing households spent carefully and refused to waste hard-earned money on high-priced goods.d.Industry became like a new religion so churches stopped ringing their bells to provide townships with the time.
17 a.Working families came to have the same goods as wealthy families except that the goods were less expensive.
18 9. How did America’s involvement in the War of 1812 help American manufacturing grow? The British blockade of the American coast kept foreign manufactured goods outb.Tariffs on foreign goods encouraged Americans to buy domestic goods.c.Foreign goods became too expensive so politicians placed tariffs on them.d.The government boycotted British products that Americans also produced.
19 a.The British blockade of the American coast kept foreign manufactured goods out
20 10. During the War of 1812, which American patriot said “to be independent for the comforts of life we must fabricate [make] them ourselves”?a.Eli Whitneyc.Thomas Jeffersonb.Albert Gallatind.Samuel Slater
22 11. How did textile manufacturers successfully keep the costs of running a mill low? They bought cheap cotton and cut back on maintenance of machinery.b.They hired entire families to perform simple tasks and paid them very little.c.They trained apprentices in exchange for many years of their labor.d.They fed workers three meals a day rather than paying them wages in cash.
23 b.They hired entire families to perform simple tasks and paid them very little.
24 12. The “Rhode Island System” was Samuel Slater’s strategy of hiring families of workers and dividing factory work into simple tasks.b.paying workers in company-store credit and reinvesting cash in the business.c.building houses for workers in exchange for the promise of company loyalty.d.hiring unmarried women and designing dual-purpose factory equipment.
25 a.hiring families of workers and dividing factory work into simple tasks.
26 13. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin during the mid-1700s? Asiac.Americab.Europed.Australia
32 16. Which of the following BEST describes a trade union? an organization of workers with a specific skill who worked to try and improve pay and working conditions for membersb.a combination of skilled and unskilled workers who appealed to the courts and police for assistance against employersc.a group of angry workers who staged protests and shouted at their employers until their demands were metd.an alliance of workers who wanted to prevent their employers from competing with other manufacturers
33 a.an organization of workers with a specific skill who worked to try and improve pay and working conditions for members
34 17. Why were MOST early strikes by union members UNSUCCESSFUL? They did not make clear demands to managers.b.Workplace conditions were not that bad yet.c.The courts and the police did not side with the union.d.They had not formed an alliance with craftspeople.
35 c.The courts and the police did not side with the union.
36 18. Who was Sarah G. Bagley?a.She set the record for time spent by a Lowell girl in the original Waltham textile mill.b.She fought to bring the 10-hour working day of public employees to private business employees.c.She banned from the labor movement any worker who contracted to work longer hours.d.She presented a case against child labor to textile mill owners throughout New England.
37 b.She fought to bring the 10-hour working day of public employees to private business employees.
38 19. Around what year did Robert Fulton test his first steamboat design? 1750c.1800b.1775d.1825
42 21. In the Lowell System, created by Francis Cabot Lowell, who stayed in boardinghouses and did all the work in the factory?a.Teenage, male apprenticesc.Whole familiesb.Young, unmarried womend.A mixture of grown adults
44 22. What did the Supreme Court decide in the case of Gibbons v. Ogden? Aaron Ogden could monopolize the steamboat business in New York.b.Thomas Gibbons’ federal license had priority over Aaron Ogden’s state license.c.Travel licenses had to be granted by the federal government to be legitimate.d.Thomas Gibbons had to share use of the New York waterway with Aaron Ogden.
45 b.Thomas Gibbons’ federal license had priority over Aaron Ogden’s state license.
46 23. What was the Tom Thumb and why was it significant? A sewing machine, it prevented housewives from pricking their fingers.b.A steamboat, it brought thousands of settlers upriver to the Ohio Valley.c.A ferry, it was the first to transport commuters across the Hudson River.d.A locomotive, it was credited with bringing “railroad fever” to the United States.
47 d.A locomotive, it was credited with bringing “railroad fever” to the United States.
48 24. What first drove the pace of railroad construction in the United States? government funding for industry efforts to aid western expansionb.growing demand for faster travel and a quicker way to get goods to marketc.the steel industry’s desire for railroad companies to lay more trackd.the public’s awe at the sight of the fastest machines in the world
49 b.growing demand for faster travel and a quicker way to get goods to market
50 25. Which of the following would be the BEST definition for the term Technology? a.the system of mass producing goods by using the system of interchangeable partsb.the specific tools used to produce items or to do certain types of workc.the development of heavy-duty equipment strong enough to make large itemsd.taking the best from each manufacturing country and developing a system that combined some of each
51 b.the specific tools used to produce items or to do certain types of work
52 26. Railroad companies changed the environment in all of the following ways, EXCEPT which? They blasted through rock to level the land and lay tracks.b.They caused towns to spring up around train stops.c.They began using wood rather than coal for fuel.d.They helped the logging industry perform deforestation.
53 c.They began using wood rather than coal for fuel.
54 27. All of the following industry’s expansions were a direct result of the Transportation Revolution EXCEPTa.steelc.loggingb.coald.textiles
56 28. How did the Transportation Revolution affect America’s farmers? It caused them to plow up prairie land and cut down trees to make farmland out in the Midwest.b.It forced them to sell their New England farms to logging companies that needed to plant trees.c.It required them to give up portions of their fields out West to make way for new railroad lines.d.It brought them new steel equipment and machinery that put many family farmers out of work.
57 a.It caused them to plow up prairie land and cut down trees to make farmland out in the Midwest.
58 29. Why was coal a more appealing fuel source than wood? It burned more cleanly.c.It was easier to obtain.b.It produced more energy.d.It was lighter to carry.
60 30. The telegraph was significant because it enabled people to send news quickly from coast to coast.b.helped the railroads to expand more quickly to the West.c.benefited from the work of international scientists.d.made its inventor a very wealthy and famous man.
61 a.enabled people to send news quickly from coast to coast.
62 31. How did technological developments during the Industrial Revolution enable people to build factories almost anywhere?a.Trains could bring raw materials to and ship finished goods from virtually any area worth living in.b.The shift to steam power meant factories no longer had to be built near streams, rivers, or waterfalls.c.Trains and steamboats spread the population out so that any factory had a ready supply of workers.d.The invention of the telegraph put factory managers and their city-based investors within easy reach.
63 b.The shift to steam power meant factories no longer had to be built near streams, rivers, or waterfalls.
64 32. What was the system of Morse Code? It was a combination of drums and bongos played in a certain order to resemble the alphabetb.It was different combinations of dots and dashes the each represented a letter of the alphabetc.It was a series of shrieks in patterns that stood for letters of the alphabetd.It was communication method used by the blind and deaf so that they could read and write
65 b.It was different combinations of dots and dashes the each represented a letter of the alphabet
66 33. To promote their products, inventors of labor-saving devices did all of the following EXCEPT hold free giveaways.c.provide free repairs.b.let customers buy on credit.d.give public demonstrations.
70 35. Why did the value of slaves drop in the South before the invention of the cotton gin? Prices for crops were low, so some farmers decreased production and demand for slaves declined.b.When the North abolished slavery, many Southern slaves became disruptive and all slaves lost value.c.As economic conditions in the South worsened, slaves were more likely to run away to the booming North.d.The popularity of slavery was low, so farmers grew ashamed of the practice and auctioneers reduced starting bids.
71 a.Prices for crops were low, so some farmers decreased production and demand for slaves declined.
72 36. How did Eli Whitney’s original cotton gin work? Horses drew the machine through green-seed cotton fields to harvest seedless fibers.b.Cotton was put into the machine, which seeded, baled, and tied the fibers with hemp.c.A worker cranked the machine and “teeth” separated green seeds from cotton fibers.d.A steam engine powered the machine, which removed seeds from long-staple cotton.
73 c.A worker cranked the machine and “teeth” separated green seeds from cotton fibers.
74 37. What was the GREATEST benefit of the invention of the cotton gin? It processed raw cotton more quickly than it could be processed by hand.b.It enabled more planters to grow short-staple, green-seed cotton.c.It saved planters money on manual labor and almost guaranteed financial success.d.It revolutionized the cotton industry and gave a boost to southern farming.
75 d.It revolutionized the cotton industry and gave a boost to southern farming.
76 38. What was the “COTTON BELT”? An area stretching from South Carolina to Texas that grew most of the country’s cotton crop.b.The southern region east of the Mississippi that produced two-thirds of the cotton grown in the United States.c.Fields in Mexico where agricultural scientists worked to crossbreed short-staple cotton with Mexican cotton.d.A long stretch of land in the South where short-staple cotton crops were wiped out by disease in the 1830s.
77 a.An area stretching from South Carolina to Texas that grew most of the country’s cotton crop.
78 39. Planters felt cotton would be a profitable “CASH CROP” for all of the following reasons, EXCEPT It was the cheapest and easiest crop for farmers to growb.It was cheap or inexpensive to market to others.c.It could be stored for a much longer time without spoiling or going badd.Since it was lighter than most cash crops, it cost less to ship them to market
79 a.It was the cheapest and easiest crop for farmers to grow
80 40. What was MOST responsible for increasing the domestic slave trade in the early 1800s? The freeing of slaves in the North led to a decline in the slave population.b.An act of Congress banned the importation of slaves into the country.c.Cotton planters hungry for profits began using slaves rather than paid workers.d.Slaveholders in Virginia and Maryland gained economically by selling slaves.
81 b.An act of Congress banned the importation of slaves into the country.
82 41. What does “CROP ROTATION” involve? Moving seedlings from one plot of land to another to maximize light-exposure and minimize disease.b.Raking fertilizer into the ground around the roots of young plants to mix air and nutrients into the soil.c.Changing the type of plant grown on a given plot each year in order to protect the land from mineral loss.d.Turning the soil over after a harvest to prevent insects from spending the winter underground and infesting next season’s plants.
83 c.Changing the type of plant grown on a given plot each year in order to protect the land from mineral loss.
84 a. proctors c. factors b. brokers d. managers 42. What did cotton planters call the people who made deals for them with merchants, arranged passage for their crops aboard trading ships, and provided them with financial advice?a.proctorsc.factorsb.brokersd.managers
88 44. The growing of and the reliance on cash crops hurt the South’s economy because it took capitalists’ attention away from developing southern industry.b.greatly benefited the South’s northern competitors.c.required costly shipping to avoid passage over land.d.made crop rotation necessary, thus raising the cost of farming for plantation owners
89 a.took capitalists’ attention away from developing southern industry.
90 45. Which of the following led to the demand for American cotton farmers in South to grow and process more cotton?a.The Transportation Revolution meant that trains and steamboats had to have more cotton to ship or they would go out of businessb.The new textile factories in Great Britain needed more cotton to make into clothesc.New industry in the western part of the United States was producing clothing cheaper than everyone elsed.There had been a cotton famine in China, which meant the only place New England manufactures could get cotton to produce was from southern farmers
91 b.The new textile factories in Great Britain needed more cotton to make into clothes
92 46. Why was there a need for a machine to remove seeds from short-staple cotton in a faster, more efficient manner?a.It was impossible to process short-staple cotton, because the pod was too hard around itb.Because the new, advanced textile mills back in Britain had a high demand for raw cotton, because the speed of production had quickened.c.Too many slaves were having their fingers amputated because the seeds in the cotton were too sharp costing slaves valuable moneyd.The Chinese shoe companies had designed a process to use cotton to line their new NIKE tennis shoes
93 b.Because the new, advanced textile mills back in Britain had a high demand for raw cotton, because the speed of production had quickened.
94 47. Steam power benefited the South in all of the following ways, EXCEPT Louisiana’s lumber industry benefited from the steam-powered saw mill.b.Tredegar’s Iron Works produced steam engines for locomotives.c.Southern farmers and planters poured their profits into southern industry.d.Textile mills no longer had to be built near Northern rivers and waterfalls.
95 c.Southern farmers and planters poured their profits into southern industry.
96 48. In the first half of the 1800s, what portion of white southern families had slaves? one thirdc.two thirdsb.one halfd.three quarters
100 50. How did the POOREST white southerners survive? a.by using their small plots of land to grow cash cropsb.by hunting, fishing, and doing odd jobs for moneyc.by committing burglary and other criminal actsd.by getting permanent positions in plantation households
101 b.by hunting, fishing, and doing odd jobs for money
102 51. Religion affected white Southern society in all of the following ways, EXCEPT Wealthy southerners used religion to justify the institution of slavery.b.Farm families saw church gatherings as their only opportunity to socialize.c.Politicians met with religious groups to campaign for southern issues.d.Religion gave rural women an opportunity to volunteer.
103 c.Politicians met with religious groups to campaign for southern issues.
104 52. Wealthy white southerners used religion to justify the institution of slavery by arguing that God created some people to rule over others.b.God selected whites as his “chosen people.”c.slavery was right because it was practiced in the Bible.d.slavery taught savages to bow to a higher authority.
105 a.God created some people to rule over others.
106 53. Which of the following were the MOST powerful members of southern society? a.Textile factory ownersb.Preachers who were leading revivalsc.Supreme Court justicesd.Planters
108 54. All of the following were examples of laws passed to limit the rights of free slaves in the South EXCEPTa.Most free slaves could not vote, travel freely, or hold certain jobs.b.A free slave could not be married to a white, Mexican or Indian husband or wife.c.Free slaves could not live in some states without special permission.d.Some free slaves had to be represented by a white person in business.
109 b.A free slave could not be married to a white, Mexican or Indian husband or wife.
110 55. All of the following were true of slaves that worked in the planter’s home EXCEPT They were provided with better clothing, food and shelterb.They worked as butlers, cooks or nursesc.They were given a 15 minute break every two hours so they weren’t overworkedd.Female slaves watched the planter’s children, cooked and cleaned
111 c.They were given a 15 minute break every two hours so they weren’t overworked
112 56. Above all, slave owners treated their slaves as they would treat children.c.savages.b.laborers.d.property.
114 57. What were slave owners MOST likely to do to encourage obedience? appoint a “driver” to monitor the slavesb.provide slaves with more food and better living conditionsc.whip, shackle, chain, or place a slave in the stocksd.pay slaves money for work so they could buy their freedom
115 c.whip, shackle, chain, or place a slave in the stocks
116 58. Which of these statements provides the BEST account of why there was a high rate of illiteracy among slaves?a.Some states had literacy laws that prohibited teaching slaves.b.Some states paid teachers and slave owners not to teach slaves.c.Slave owners thought literate slaves would find manual work distracting.d.Slaves did not need to read or write because they communicated orally.
117 a.Some states had literacy laws that prohibited teaching slaves.
118 59. What would a slave have worried about MOST when coming up for auction? the kindness or cruelty of the new masterb.the type of work required by the new masterc.the fate of parents, brothers, sisters, and childrend.the religious life of the new community
119 c.the fate of parents, brothers, sisters, and children
120 60. Other than death, what was the GREATEST threat to family bonds among slaves? auctionsc.workb.kidnappingd.runaways
126 63. Religion boosted the spirits of slaves in all of the following ways, EXCEPT They sang emotional Christian songs called “spirituals.”b.They came to see themselves as God’s chosen people.c.They understood that God wanted them to obey slaveholders.d.They gained faith that they would one day live in freedom.
127 c.They understood that God wanted them to obey slaveholders.
128 64. “SPIRITUALS” MOST inspired which later musical form? ragtimec.folkb.jazzd.gospel
130 65. What was one way that enslaved parents passed their culture down to their children? They read African stories to their children every night.b.They told folktales with customary characters and morals.c.They taught emotional Christian songs about freedom.d.They showed their children how to outsmart slaveholders.
131 b.They told folktales with customary characters and morals.
132 66. Which of the following NEVER attempted to or did lead a revolt against white southerners? Gabriel Prosserc.Nat Turnerb.Frederick Douglassd.Denmark Vesey
134 67. In what small way would slaves often rebel against their masters? They slowed down their work in the fields to protest long hours.b.They hid the masters’ whips and chains to prevent harsh punishments.c.They prayed for God to teach masters the virtue of equal treatment.d.They stole books from their masters and taught themselves to read.
135 a.They slowed down their work in the fields to protest long hours.
136 68. Which event prompted many states to strengthen their slave codes? Vesey’s Conspiracyc.Haiti’s Revolutionb.Turner’s Rebelliond.Gabriel’s Uprising
138 69. Why did Nat Turner lead a group of slaves to kill slaveholders? Turner watched his father die as a result of a savage beating by his master.b.Turner believed he was on a mission from God to free the slaves.c.Turner’s mother was a runaway slave who abandoned him in childhood.d.Turner had tried non-violent methods of resistance but they had failed.
139 b.Turner believed he was on a mission from God to free the slaves.
140 70. One goal of agricultural scientists were to increase the production of crops by finding ways to keep nutrients in the soilb.protect the land used to grow sugar, hemp, and corn.c.get southern planters to focus exclusively on cotton production.d.perfect a method for quickly curing tobacco before shipment.
141 a.increase the production of crops by finding ways to keep nutrients in the soil
142 71. What was Tredegar Iron Works? a northern company that specialized in turning iron into steel by heating itb.a northern mine that provided coal to manufacturers of iron productsc.a southern factory that turned iron into useful products for industry and the militaryd.a southern manufacturer that was one of many to produce locomotives for the government
143 c.a southern factory that turned iron into useful products for industry and the military
144 72. Why did southern cotton planters rely on the region’s rivers to ship goods? The transportation revolution had introduced the flatboat.b.The quality of the roads made shipping by land very difficult.c.Railroad transport was costly because it was new.d.Traffic from heavy corn and hemp shipments slowed road travel.
145 b.The quality of the roads made shipping by land very difficult.
146 73. What was the result of the invention of the cotton gin? Plantation owners now needed less slaves, because cotton could be grown faster and they didn’t need as manyb.Plantation owners now needed more slaves, because cotton could be picked faster meaning they could spend more time planting morec.Plantation owners now needed less slaves, because the cotton gin made separating the seeds from the cotton easierd.Plantation owners now needed more slaves, because the cotton gin made separating the seeds from the cotton easier meaning they could use more slaves growing more cotton
147 d.Plantation owners now needed more slaves, because the cotton gin made separating the seeds from the cotton easier meaning they could use more slaves growing more cotton
148 74. After Nat Turner and his followers killed more than 60 white members of a white community where he was a slave, about how many innocent slaves were killed as an attempt to stop the uprising?a.10c.60b.25d.100
150 75. Eli Whitney’s idea of interchangeable parts resulted in which of the following? the dominance of American manufacturingb.the beginning of the Industrial Revolutionc.a rapid expansion of railroadsd.the mass production of goods
154 77. A period of rapid growth in the speed and convenience of travel due to new methods of transportation are known asa.The Communication Revolutionc.The American Revolutionb.The Transportation Revolutiond.The Industrial Revolution
156 78. What industry increased the demand for coal again in the 1870s, because it was needed to heat iron to very high temperatures?a.The Coal Industryc.The Steel Industryb.The Automotive Industryd.The Textile Industry