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AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis Fall 2009 Huang Yi Chun

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Presentation on theme: "AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis Fall 2009 Huang Yi Chun"— Presentation transcript:

1 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis Fall 2009 Huang Yi Chun SDE Tel:

2 Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Automation Reading List Huang, Yi Chun; Khee Poh Lam and Gregory Dobbs(2008). A Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool for Integrated Building Design. Proceedings of The Third National Conference of IBPSA-USA (SimBuild 2008), 30 July – 1 August 2008, San Francisco, USA. Pp Huang, Yi Chun, and Khee Poh Lam (2008). Automated Calculation of Lighting Regulations. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2008), July 2008, Dalian, China. Biswas, Tajin, Tsung-Hsien Wang and Ramesh Krishnamurti (2008) Integrating Sustainable Building Rating Systems with Building Information Models. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CADDRIA 2008), 9-12 April 2008, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Pp AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

3 Automatic Calculation of Lighting Regulations Huang, Yi Chun; Khee Poh Lam and Gregory Dobbs(2008). A Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool for Integrated Building Design. Proceedings of The Third National Conference of IBPSA-USA (SimBuild 2008), 30 July – 1 August 2008, San Francisco, USA. Pp

4 Context and Motivation Performance benchmarks in building design 1. Benefits of performance-based design and performance benchmarks - High performance buildings (integration, sustainability) - Vision, goals, objectives, tracking, assessments - Lindsey, 2003; Hitchcock, 2003; Deru, Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Fundamental (ir)radiance calculations might not provide operative information - Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Logistical effort in acquiring parameters - Time and effort in calculation procedures 3. Automated calculation of lighting regulations - Dual purposes: reduction in calculation and documentation effort - Market demand - Prevalence of BIM, opportunity for automation - Need to formulate calculation procedures as computable AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

5 Context and Motivation Performance benchmarks in building design 2. Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Fundamental (ir)radiance calculations might not provide operative information - Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks USGBC LEED Rating System EQ 8.1 & 8.2 – Daylight and Views Provide for the building occupants a connection between indoor spaces and the outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views into the regularly occupied areas of the building. EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Achieve a minimum glazing factor of 2% in a minimum of 75% of all regularly occupied areas EQ 8.2 – Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor environment via vision glazing between 26 and 76 above finish floor for building occupants in 90% of all regularly occupied areas. - Voluntary rating system - Widespread use by both governmental and private industry (Landman, 2005) - 2 lighting performance benchmarks AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

6 Context and Motivation Performance benchmarks in building design 2. Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Fundamental (ir)radiance calculations might not provide operative information - Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Logistical effort in acquiring parameters - Time and effort in calculation procedures AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

7 Context and Motivation Performance benchmarks in building design 3. Automated calculation of lighting regulations - Dual purposes: reduction in calculation and documentation effort - Market demand - Prevalence of BIM, opportunity for automation - Need to formulate calculation procedures as computable AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

8 Objectives Integration with Design Support Tool Availability of performance benchmarks throughout design process Reduction of time and effort Formulation of benchmarks as computable Formulation of calculation procedures as computable problems that can be evaluated by a computer automatically Resources required must be within the constraints of typical design practices Improvements Formulation of procedures as algorithms allows insight into benchmarks, and how they might be improved AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

9 Framework New Lighting Simulation Tool – Version 0.5 Implemented as part of CMU Lighting Simulation Tool – part of effort to reduce effort & resources LEED automation – tracking performance during design iterations, documentation effort Revit Model Material Properties Inspection and Editing LEED Credit EQ 8.1. Glazing Factors LEED Credit EQ 8.2. View-out Availability AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

10 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Achieve a minimum glazing factor of 2% in a minimum of 75% of all regularly occupied areas Mainly logistical task, variable values retrieved from BIM, minimal computation Algorithm Step 1: Find list of occupied spaces Step 2: Find list of windows in each space Step 3: Determine window type (subdivide window if necessary) Step 4: Retrieve T vis and calculate GF for all windows Step 5: Tabulate GFs in each space (check if >2%) Step 6: Tabulate eligible floor area (check if 75%) Analysis O(nlogn) retrieval of lists and values from BIM Step 3: O(nlogn) retrieve window geometry O(n) orientation and height determination O(n) subdivision O(n) GF calculations and tabulation LINEARITHMIC TIME PERFORMANCE AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

11 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Real-time implementation, dynamic update as building model is modified Automated Calculation of Lighting Regulations – Y.C. Huang Parameters Inspection in Lighting Tool, no user intervention AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

12 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Real-time implementation, dynamic update as building model is modified Real-time calculation of LEED EQ 8.1 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

13 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Real-time implementation, dynamic update as building model is modified Tabulation for LEED EQ 8.1 submittal AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

14 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor environment via vision glazing between 26 and 76 above finish floor for building occupants in 90% of all regularly occupied areas. Determine the area with direct line of sight by totaling the regularly occupied square footage that meets the following criteria: - In plan view, the area is within sight lines drawn from perimeter vision glazing - In section view, a direct sight line can be drawn from the area to perimeter vision glazing Line of sight may be drawn through interior glazing. For private offices, the entire square footage of the office can be counted if 75% or more of the area has direct line of sight to perimeter glazing. If less than 75%, actual compliant area is counted. For multi-occupant spaces, the actual square footage with direct line of sight to perimeter glazing is counted. AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

15 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views 2 step graphical calculation procedure (2D line-of-sight projections, 2 nd pass confirmation) Implicit checks for internal wall openings AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

16 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Formularization as computable, possible finite-element approach AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

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20 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Dynamic implementation, fast update as building model is modified Imported building model, no user intervention AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

21 Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Dynamic implementation, fast update as building model is modified Dynamic calculation of LEED EQ 8.2 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

22 Tabulation for LEED EQ 8.2 submittal Formulation as Computable LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Dynamic implementation, fast update as building model is modified AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

23 Summary of Results Formulation of LEED EQ 8.1 & 8.2 as computable - Interoperability - Ray tracing - CMU Lighting Tool Algorithm optimization – data structures Benchmark clarification – steradians (computing speed-up) AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

24 Modified Photon Mapping Huang, Yi Chun (2009). Implementation of a new simulation engine. An Integrated Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool, Chapter 3. Unpublished manuscript.

25 Lighting Models (Backwards) Raytrace and Photon Mapping AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

26 Lighting Models Raytracing might under-estimate ambient radiance AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

27 Photon Mapping Separating rendering equation into 4-components Direct Specular Indirect Caustics Radiance of Point A as sum of direct, specular, indirect and caustics components

28 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Radiance of as sum of direct, specular, indirect and caustics components Photon Mapping Separating rendering equation into 4-components Direct Specular Indirect Caustics 2-maps, check for duplicate paths Reflected caustics might be neglected

29 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Modified Photon Mapping Separating rendering equation into 3-components Direct Indirect Caustic No longer split into diffuse or specular terms, taken care of (and pre-computed) by BRDF No need to check for duplicate paths Diffused caustics accounted for

30 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Modified Photon Mapping Accuracy of area estimation Disc Vs. Sub-sampling

31 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Modified Photon Mapping Accuracy of area estimation Disc Vs. Sub-sampling Direct visualization of photon map to show effect of approximated area (left), corrected area (right)

32 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Modified Photon Mapping Progressive accuracy Scalability Use number of photons rather than samples

33 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Modified Photon Mapping Power-based priority-queue Conventional Russian Roulette (left), power-prioritized technique (right)

34 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation Modified Photon Mapping Direct sampling

35 A Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool For Integrated Building Design Huang, Yi Chun, and Khee Poh Lam (2008). Automated Calculation of Lighting Regulations. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2008), July 2008, Dalian, China.

36 Objective 1 Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation Conducting a lighting simulation is time consuming, too many software to buy and learn. Drawings Documentation Etc. Geometry Modeling Variables Definition E.g. Materials & Location Simulation Parameters Definition Simulation Results processing AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

37 Objective 1 Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation Reducing time and effort required to prepare for simulations (applicable to all domains) Drawings Documentation Etc. Geometry Modeling Variables Definition E.g. Materials & Location Simulation Parameters Definition Simulation Results processing Why should we spend time on this? AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

38 Objective 1 Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation Reducing time and effort required to prepare for simulations (applicable to all domains) Drawings Documentation Etc. Results processing Automated Processing Automatic XML-Based Parser Automatic Default Values Automatic Engine Selection Automatic Simulation Files Creation Improved Analysis Features User-editable Input AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

39 Objective 1 Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation Definition of appropriate simulation parameters require much training and tacit knowledge Time consuming Backward Ray-trace parameters Finite element Radiosity parameters AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

40 New information created in individual domain is updated to the BIM Shared Location Information Database Shared Building Information Model Shared Construction Properties Database SHARED OBJECT MODEL LIGHTING SIMULATION ASSUMPTIONS -geometry abstractions -material properties (reflectance, specularity, etc) -luminare specification -schedules ENERGY SIMULATION ASSUMPTIONS -geometry abstractions -material properties (conductivity, specific heat, etc.) -lighting design level -schedules Conflict? Information Update? Conflict? Information Update? Building Modeler Lighting Tool Energy Tool Objective 2 Efficiency and consistency in defining BIM and assumptions Externalizing project shared information AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

41 Other domain apps Shared Location Information Database Objective 2 Efficiency and consistency in defining BIM and assumptions Externalizing project shared information Shared Building Information Model Shared Construction Properties Database Lighting Simulation Tool Parser AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

42 Is there lighting sufficient in this building? Is there sufficient illuminance on workplane in all occupied spaces? Lighting Simulation What is the illuminance distribution in this space? Simulation Results (Illuminance data) Typical Lighting Simulation Check all occupied spaces if illuminance > threshold on workplane Check if number of satisfactory spaces compliant with regulations SOLUTION 1. Design Question 2. Formulating well- formed problem by considering context and making relevant assumptions. 3. Formulating objectives solvable by lighting simulation 4. Analysis of results 5. Operative Information for design decision AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 1 - Introduction Objective 3 Obtaining Operative Information for Design Decisions Lighting simulations address low-level objectives, not higher-level questions typical of primary design inquiries.

43 Objective 3 Obtaining Operative Information for Design Decisions Providing post-processing analysis toolkit Tone-mappers Luminance data inspection and false-color analyses Luminance ratios calculator Data comparisons LEED rating system Credit 8.1 & 8.2 calculators Tabulation of results AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

44 Step 1 – User selects input file (as exported from Revit) Step 2 – Missing information such as sky data and camera positions are set automatically Step 3 – Default values are highlighted in red. User can edit values if necessary Prototype of 2007 CMU Lighting Application v.0.5. The 3-step process to saving time. Results CMU Lighting simulation Tool – Version 0.5 Java based application – ease of prototyping General Parser – Revit-exported gbXML files & extended XML schema Radiance engine integration – automatic simulation files generator External Libraries – Location & Construction complete, rule based context recognition Visualizations – HDRI support, False-color, Inspector, Comparator, Luminance Ratios Post-processing – LEED Credit EQ 8.1 & 8.2 calculators and tabulations AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

45 Import BIM Visualize Simulation Results Perform Lighting Simulation User Edit BIM Calculate LEED Benchmarks Form Complete Model Domain Object Model > GUI Read/Write BIM New Lighting Tool Building Information Model Simulation Results Location Database Shared Object Model* Change Management System* Read/Write Simulation Results Access Database *External System Construction Database AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

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47 Lighting Simulation Results Demo 1 Dramatic reduction in effort to conduct lighting simulation Revit Model Export as gbXML file Automatic processing by CMU Lighting Application Generated Radiance Batch File AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

48 Demo 2 Parametric Studies AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

49 Demo 3 Design investigations and analyses Revit Model Automatic processing by CMU Lighting Application Automatic Radiance Batch Files Results Analysis Comparison between design changes AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

50 Demo 4 Calculating LEED credits, tracking during design investigations Revit Model Material Properties Inspection and Editing LEED Credit EQ 8.1. Glazing Factors LEED Credit EQ 8.2. View-out Availability AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

51 Sustainable Building Information Model (SBIM) Sponsored by: Autodesk® Revit Professor Ramesh Krishnamurti Tajin Biswas Tsung-Hsien Wang Yi Chun Huang School of Architecture Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

52 Approach (Integrating rating systems with design software via a framework) Rating_1 Protocols Rating System Evaluation Direct DataPerformance Data BIMSimulation Tools External Data request Sustainable Framework Rating_2Rating_n Design Representation software Evolutionary benchmarks -different rating systems Multiple goals and constraints at different phases of design- Missing information Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

53 Building Information Model Design and Interaction with General Framework

54 Framework Categorization Major Phases Feasibility Study-Pre design Design Construction Management/Planning Decommissioning Construction Operation and maintenance Major Categories Owner Designer …… Site Building Material Indoor Environment Energy Pre Construction Source and disposal Construction Commissioning Service and support Lifecycle of Project …….. C1.5 Integrity of building envelope C 1.6 HVAC Systems C 1.7 Service Water Heating C 1.8 Power Distribution Systems C 1.9 Other Systems C 1.10 Lighting Systems C 1.11 Adaptability of systems F 1.1 Energy efficiency F 1.2 On site renewable energy F 1.3 Alternative Green Energy Sub Categories Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

55 Framework Objects Mapping to Ratings (energy) Mapping of sub categories to objects that are required by different rating systems Exhaustive list of attributes? IDObject Namereturn type Ex refBIM ref LEED BREEAM Gr Star F 1.1.1ReductionOfEnergyFromBasenumberref EA 1-10Ene01Ene 05Mat-10Ene-1 F 1.1.2EnergySimulationyes/noRef/proc ess EA 1-10Ene01Ene 05Ene-PreEne-1 F 1.1.3SimulationNumbernumberref EA 1-10 IDObject Namereturn typeEx refBIM refLEED BREEAM Gr Star C 1.5.1Insulationyes/noref materialEA Preq2EA 1-10 C 1.6.2HVACType (enum 8types)refref sec 6.4 EA Preq2EA 1-10 Ene-PreEne-1 C 1.7.1ServiceWaterHeatingref equipEA Preq2EA 1-10 Wat-3 C 1.8.1PowerDistSystemsrefref sec 8.4refEA Preq2EA 1-10 Ene-2 C 1.8.2Electrical Submetering(enum lighting, fan, cooling tower, humidification..) yes/noref (SIBSE) Ene02Ene-2 C 1.9.1OtherEquipment(motors)yes/noref sec 10.4 yes/noEA Preq2EA 1-10 Ene-2 C Lighting(exterior, signs, grounds, parking) yes/noref sec 9.4 EA Preq2EA 1-10Ene04Mat-10 C LightFixtureTypestring lightSS8 Pol 07Emi-8 C LightPowerDensitynumber processlightSS8 Pol 07Ene-3Emi-8 C FixturePowernumber lightSS8 Pol 07Emi-8 C NumberOfLuminarenumber lightSS8 Pol 07Emi-8 …….. C1.5 Integrity of building envelope C 1.6 HVAC Systems C 1.7 Service Water Heating C 1.8 Power Distribution Systems C 1.9 Other Systems C 1.10 Lighting Systems C 1.11 Adaptability of systems F 1.1 Energy efficiency F 1.2 On site renewable energy F 1.3 Alternative Green Energy Sub Categories Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

56 Framework Objects Mapping to Simulation Model Mapping of objects that are required for simulation Exhaustive list of attributes? IDObject Name F 1.1.1ReductionOfEnergyFromBase F 1.1.2EnergySimulation F 1.1.3SimulationNumber IDObject Name C 1.5.1Insulation C 1.6.2HVACType (enum 8types) C 1.7.1ServiceWaterHeating C 1.8.1PowerDistSystems C 1.8.2Electrical Submetering(enum lighting, fan, cooling tower, humidification..) C 1.9.1OtherEquipment(motors) C Lighting(exterior, signs, grounds, parking) C LightFixtureType C LightPowerDensity C FixturePower C NumberOfLuminare …….. C1.5 Integrity of building envelope C 1.6 HVAC Systems C 1.7 Service Water Heating C 1.8 Power Distribution Systems C 1.9 Other Systems C 1.10 Lighting Systems C 1.11 Adaptability of systems F 1.1 Energy efficiency F 1.2 On site renewable energy F 1.3 Alternative Green Energy Sub CategoriesBaseline Model for Simulation Building & Location Info Building Geometry Building Envelope Service Hot Water Power Lighting Other Loads HVAC Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

57 Event Detector General Framework GF General Framework GF External Simulation Engine SQL Query Request Demo-Dec (cont.) Application GUI Application GUI External Database System Updates Application Data Manager GBXML BIM Database BIM Database Revit S Craig 1,2 Application Design Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

58 Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang External Databases Revit Collect building element info Generate Data Table Populate defaults Others (e.g.Rain fall Rates) Others (e.g.Rain fall Rates) Building Information Database Application Result Evaluation (LEED, GREENSTAR) Material Properties Material Properties Simulation (Energy, Lighting) Measure Databases General Framework LEED GreenStar BREEAM SQL Mdb Database Databases to Application via SQL

59 Case Study 407 S Craig St, PA (Front), LEED silver 407 S Craig St, PA (Back) Skylights before Redesigned: Northern light and solar panels Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

60 Model and Application Main Information Display Navigation Status Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

61 Calculating building and material reuse from model (LEED)

62 Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang Calculating building and material reuse from model (Green Star)

63 Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang Calculating number of parking and bicycle racks (Green Star)

64 Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang Calculating LEED SS 2 (Site Density)

65 350 AB C D E FF G H I J K L M N O P Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang Calculating LEED SS 2 (Finding Density Radius)

66 A B C D E F G H IJ K L M N OP Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang Development Density Calculating LEED SS 2 (Calculating Development Density)

67 Calculating LEED EA 1.1~1.10 Energy Optimization Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

68 Appendix G – Information requirements Originally intended for rating energy efficiencies of building designs that exceed the requirements of ASHRAE There exists some proposed design, compare to baseline. Our objective Generating baseline model from architectural model (no M&E specifications). Baseline Model Building & Location Info Building Geometry Building Envelope HVAC Service Hot Water Power Lighting Other Loads Appendix G stipulates modeling requirements, especially the differences between the 2 models. Performance benchmarks are highlighted, NOT an exhaustive listing of attributes. Proposed Design Proposed Design Model Energy Simulation to quantify energy improvement Energy Usage Reports Lights Internal Eqpt Loads Service Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Heat Rejection Fans Other HVAC Eqpt ASHRAE 90.1 Compliant Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

69 Revit file Contains All info Generate idf file Populate defaults idf file (prep0) Has Ground slab Weather files Ground Calcs idf file (prep1) Sizing Run idf file (base) Processes and Artifacts Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

70 Processes Generate idf file Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

71 Processes Generate idf file ERROR Zones Is there HVAC Zoning? Are there Room elements? Form bounded zones from surfaces Are the zones well- formed? Is queue empty? Process next zone Add zones to unprocessed queue Are there external walls? Zone processing complete. Remove from queue. Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes Should the zone be subdivided? No Yes Subdivide zone, add new geometry. DONE No Yes Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

72 Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file Basic Objects Required in all models HVAC Objects Varies among models Baseline Model Building & Location Info Building Geometry Building Envelope Service Hot Water Power Lighting Other Loads HVAC Mapping of general categories HVAC ontology varies Exhaustive list of attributes?

73 Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file Basic Objects Color Key ClassLeaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Version Building Timestep in hour Inside Convection Algorithm Outside Convection Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Location Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temperatures Simulation ParametersSurface Construction Elements Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Geometry Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Heat Transfer Surface: Heat Transfer: Sub Surface: Shading: Attached Schedule Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Internal Gains People Lights Electric Equipment Air Flow Infiltration Reports Report Variable Report Meter Simulation Parameters Location Schedules Reports EnergyPlus Model Surface Construction Elements Geometry Internal Gains Airflow Design Node Branch Management Plant Condenser Loops Plant Condenser Control Plant Condenser Flow Control Air Distribution System Availability Managers Set Point Managers Controllers Zone Equipment Air Distribution Equipment Zone Controls and Thermostats Air Path Plant Equipment Pumps Coils Fans Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

74 Design Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file HVAC Objects VAV w/PFP Boxes (System 8) Node Branch Management Node List Branch List Connector List Branch Pipe Plant Condenser Control Plant Operation Schemes Cooling Load Range-based Op Heating Load Range-based Op Plant Equipment List Plant Condenser Flow Ctrl Splitter Mixer Plant Condenser Loops Plant Loop System Availability Managers SAM List SAM: Scheduled SAM: Low Temp. Turn Off Set Point Managers SPM: Scheduled SPM: Mixed Air Sizing Parameters Zone Sizing System Sizing Plant Sizing Air Distribution Air Primary Loop Controller List Air Loop Equipment List Outside Air System Outside Air Node Outside Air Inlet Node List Outside Air Mixer Controllers Controller: Simple Controller: Outside Air Zone Equipment Controlled Zone Equip. Config. Zone Equip. List Air Distribution Unit Air Distribution Equipment Single Duct: VAV: Reheat Zone Ctrls and Thermostats Zone Control: Thermostatic Single Heating Setpoint Single Cooling Setpoint Dual Setpoint with Deadband Air Path Zone Supply Air Path Zone Return Air Path Zone Return Plenum Zone Splitter Plant Equipment Boiler: Simple Chiller: Electric Pumps Pump: Variable Speed Coils Coil: Water: Cooling Coil: Water: Simple Heating Fans Fan: Simple: Variable Volume Simulation Parameters Location Schedules Reports EnergyPlus Model Surface Construction Elements Geometry Internal Gains Airflow Design Node Branch Management Plant Condenser Loops Plant Condenser Control Plant Condenser Flow Control Air Distribution System Availability Managers Set Point Managers Controllers Zone Equipment Air Distribution Equipment Zone Controls and Thermostats Air Path Plant Equipment Pumps Coils Fans Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

75 Infiltration Color Key ClassLeaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Version Building Timestep in Hour Inside Conv. Algorithm Outside Conv. Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Building Building Name North Axis Terrain Loads Convr Tolerance Temp. ConvrTolerance Solar Distribution Warm-up Days Simulation Parameters Location Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temp. Location Location Name Latitude Longitude Time Zone Elevation Internal Gains People Lights Electric Equipment People Name Zone Name Num People Sch Name Num People Calc Method Num People Fraction Radiant Activity Level Sch Name Lights Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Lighting Level Return Air Fraction Fraction Radiant Fraction Visible Fraction Replaceable End-Use Subcategory Electric Equipment Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Design Level Fraction Latent Fraction Radiant Fraction Lost Name Zone Name SCHEDULE Name Design Volume Flow Rate Calculation method Design Volume Flow Rate Flow per Zone Area Flow per Ext Surface Area Air Changes Per Hour Constant Term Coefficient Temp. Term Coefficient Velocity Term Coefficient Velocity Squared Term Coefficient Air Flow Infiltration Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Schedule Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Zone Zone Name Relative North X Origin Y Origin Z Origin Type Multiplier Ceiling Height Volume Surface Geometry Surface Starting Position Vertex Entry Coordinate System Geometry Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Ht Transfer Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface: Shdi: Attached Surface: Heat Transfer Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Zone Name Outside Face Environment Outside Face Env Object Sun Exposure Wind Exposure View Factor to Ground Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Base Surface Name View Factor to Ground Multiplier Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Surface: Shd: Attached Material: Regular Name Roughness Thickness Conductivity Density Specific Heat Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Material: Regular-R Name Roughness Thermal Resistance Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Surface Const. Elements Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Material: Air Name Thermal Resistance Material: Window Glass Name Optical Data Type Solar Transmittance Solar Reflect.: Front Side Solar Reflect.: Back Side Visible Transmittance Visible Reflect.: Front Side Visible Reflect.: Back Side IR Transmittance IR Emissivity: Front Side IR Emissivity: Back Side Conductivity Material: Window Gas Name Gas Type Thickness Construction Reports Report Variable Report Meter Version Version Identifier Timestep in Hour Inside Conv Algorithm Outside Conv Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Run Period Run Period Start Run Period End Start Day Use Weather File Holidays Use Weather File DLS Apply Weekend Rule Weather File Rain Ind. Weather File Snow Ind. Design Day Design Day Name Max Dry Bulb Temperature Daily Temperature Range Humidity Ind. Conditions Barometric Pressure Wind Speed Wind Direction Sky Clearness Rain Indicator Snow Indicator Day of Month Month Day Type DLS Indicator Humidity Indicating Type Ground Temperatures Monthly Grd Temp. Report Variable Report Name Reporting Frequency Report Meter Meter Name Reporting Frequency Schedule Type Name Range Numeric Type Name Schedule Type Week Schedule Day Schedule Surface Name Base Surface Name TransSchedShadowSurf Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Name Outside Layer Layer Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

76 Infiltration Version Building Timestep in Hour Inside Conv. Algorithm Outside Conv. Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Building Building Name North Axis Terrain Loads Convr Tolerance Temp. ConvrTolerance Solar Distribution Warm-up Days Simulation Parameters Location Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temp. Location Location Name Latitude Longitude Time Zone Elevation Internal Gains People Lights Electric Equipment People Name Zone Name Num People Sch Name Num People Calc Method Num People Fraction Radiant Activity Level Sch Name Lights Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Lighting Level Return Air Fraction Fraction Radiant Fraction Visible Fraction Replaceable End-Use Subcategory Electric Equipment Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Design Level Fraction Latent Fraction Radiant Fraction Lost Name Zone Name SCHEDULE Name Design Volume Flow Rate Calculation method Design Volume Flow Rate Flow per Zone Area Flow per Ext Surface Area Air Changes Per Hour Constant Term Coefficient Temp. Term Coefficient Velocity Term Coefficient Velocity Squared Term Coefficient Air Flow Infiltration Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Schedule Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Zone Zone Name Relative North X Origin Y Origin Z Origin Type Multiplier Ceiling Height Volume Surface Geometry Surface Starting Position Vertex Entry Coordinate System Geometry Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Ht Transfer Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface: Shdi: Attached Surface: Heat Transfer Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Zone Name Outside Face Environment Outside Face Env Object Sun Exposure Wind Exposure View Factor to Ground Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface: Shd: Attached Material: Regular Name Roughness Thickness Conductivity Density Specific Heat Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Material: Regular-R Name Roughness Thermal Resistance Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Surface Const. Elements Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Material: Air Name Thermal Resistance Material: Window Glass Name Optical Data Type Solar Transmittance Solar Reflect.: Front Side Solar Reflect.: Back Side Visible Transmittance Visible Reflect.: Front Side Visible Reflect.: Back Side IR Transmittance IR Emissivity: Front Side IR Emissivity: Back Side Conductivity Material: Window Gas Name Gas Type Thickness Construction Reports Report Variable Report Meter Version Version Identifier Timestep in Hour Inside Conv Algorithm Outside Conv Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Run Period Run Period Start Run Period End Start Day Use Weather File Holidays Use Weather File DLS Apply Weekend Rule Weather File Rain Ind. Weather File Snow Ind. Design Day Design Day Name Max Dry Bulb Temperature Daily Temperature Range Humidity Ind. Conditions Barometric Pressure Wind Speed Wind Direction Sky Clearness Rain Indicator Snow Indicator Day of Month Month Day Type DLS Indicator Humidity Indicating Type Ground Temperatures Monthly Grd Temp. Report Variable Report Name Reporting Frequency Report Meter Meter Name Reporting Frequency Schedule Type Name Range Numeric Type Name Schedule Type Week Schedule Day Schedule Surface Name Base Surface Name TransSchedShadowSurf Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Name Outside Layer Layer Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Base Surface Name View Factor to Ground Multiplier Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

77 Infiltration Version Building Timestep in Hour Inside Conv. Algorithm Outside Conv. Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Simulation Parameters Location Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temp. Internal Gains People Lights Electric Equipment People Lights Electric Equipment Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Design Level Fraction Latent Fraction Radiant Fraction Lost Name Zone Name SCHEDULE Name Design Volume Flow Rate Calculation method Design Volume Flow Rate Flow per Zone Area Flow per Ext Surface Area Air Changes Per Hour Constant Term Coefficient Temp. Term Coefficient Velocity Term Coefficient Velocity Squared Term Coefficient Air Flow Infiltration Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Schedule Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Zone Zone Name Relative North X Origin Y Origin Z Origin Type Multiplier Ceiling Height Volume Surface Geometry Surface Starting Position Vertex Entry Coordinate System Geometry Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Ht Transfer Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface: Shdi: Attached Surface: Heat Transfer Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Zone Name Outside Face Environment Outside Face Env Object Sun Exposure Wind Exposure View Factor to Ground Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Base Surface Name View Factor to Ground Multiplier Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Surface: Shd: Attached Material: Regular Name Roughness Thickness Conductivity Density Specific Heat Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Material: Regular-R Name Roughness Thermal Resistance Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Surface Const. Elements Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Material: Air Name Thermal Resistance Material: Window Glass Name Optical Data Type Solar Transmittance Solar Reflect.: Front Side Solar Reflect.: Back Side Visible Transmittance Visible Reflect.: Front Side Visible Reflect.: Back Side IR Transmittance IR Emissivity: Front Side IR Emissivity: Back Side Conductivity Material: Window Gas Name Gas Type Thickness Construction Reports Report Variable Report Meter Version Version Identifier Timestep in Hour Inside Conv Algorithm Outside Conv Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Run Period Run Period Start Run Period End Start Day Use Weather File Holidays Use Weather File DLS Apply Weekend Rule Weather File Rain Ind. Weather File Snow Ind. Design Day Design Day Name Max Dry Bulb Temperature Daily Temperature Range Humidity Ind. Conditions Barometric Pressure Wind Speed Wind Direction Sky Clearness Rain Indicator Snow Indicator Day of Month Month Day Type DLS Indicator Humidity Indicating Type Ground Temperatures Monthly Grd Temp. Report Variable Report Name Reporting Frequency Report Meter Meter Name Reporting Frequency Schedule Type Name Range Numeric Type Name Schedule Type Week Schedule Day Schedule Surface Name Base Surface Name TransSchedShadowSurf Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Name Outside Layer Layer Building Building Name North Axis Terrain Loads Convr Tolerance Temp. ConvrTolerance Solar Distribution Warm-up Days Location Location Name Latitude Longitude Time Zone Elevation Name Zone Name Num People Sch Name Num People Calc Method Num People Fraction Radiant Activity Level Sch Name Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Lighting Level Return Air Fraction Fraction Radiant Fraction Visible Fraction Replaceable End-Use Subcategory Attributes available in REVIT model Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

78 Color Key ClassLeaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Design NodeBranchManagement Node List Branch List Connector List Branch Pipe Plant Condenser Control Plant Operation Schemes Cooling Load Range-based Op Heating Load Range-based Op Plant Equipment List Plant Condenser Flow Ctrl Splitter Mixer Plant Condenser Loops Plant Loop System Availability Managers SAM List SAM: Scheduled SAM: Low Temp. Turn Off Set Point Managers SPM: Scheduled SPM: Mixed Air Sizing Parameters Zone Sizing System Sizing Plant Sizing Air Distribution Air Primary Loop Controller List Air Loop Equipment List Outside Air System Outside Air Node Outside Air Inlet Node List Outside Air Mixer Sizing Parameters Sizing Factor Time Steps in Averaging Win. System Sizing NameofAir Primary Loop Obj. Type of Load to Size on Design (min) Outside A.V. FR. Min System Air Flow Rate Preheat Design Temperature Preheat Design Humidity Rt Precool Design Temperature Precool Design Humidity Rt Cen.Cool Design Sup.AirTemp Cen.Heat Design Sup.AirTemp Sizing Option Cooling 100% Outside Air Heating 100% Outside Air Cen.CoolDesg Sup.Air.Hum.Rt Cen.HeatDesg Sup.Air.Hum.Rt Cooling Design Air Flow Meth. Cooling Design Air Flow Rate Zone Sizing Name of a zone Cooling Design Sup. Air Temp. Heating Design Sup. Air Temp. Cooling Design Sup. Air HumR Heating Design Sup. Air HumR Outside Air Method Outside Air Flow per Person Outside Air Flow p. Zone Area Outside Air Flow per Zone Zone Sizing Factor CoolingDesign Air Flow Meth. HeatingDesign Air Flow Meth. Plant Sizing Name of a Plant Loop Loop Type Design Loop Exit Temperature Design Loop Delta T Node List Node List Name Node_ID Connector List Connector List Name Type of Connector Name of Connector Branch List Branch List Name Branch Name Pipe Pipe Name Inlet Node Name Outlet Node Name Branch Branch Name Maximum Branch Flow Rate Comp Type Comp Name Comp Inlet Node Name Comp Outlet Node Name Comp Branch Control Type Plant Loop Plant Loop Name Fluid Type Plant Op. Scheme List Name Loop Temp. SP Node Name Maximum Loop Temperature Minimum Loop Temperature Maximum Loop Vol. FlowRate Minimum Loop Vol. FlowRate Plant Side Inlet Node Name Plant Side Outlet Node Name Plant Side Branch List Name Plant Side Connector List Nm. DemandSide Inlet NodeNm. DemandSide Outlet NodeNm. DemandSide Branch List Nm. DemandSide Con. List Nm. Load Distribution Scheme System Available Manager List Plant Condenser Control PlantOperationSchemeName Control Scheme Control Scheme Name Control Scheme Schedule Plant Equipment List Equip List Name KEYPlant Equip Equip Name Cooling Load Rangebased Op Name Load Range Lower Limit Load Range Upper Limit Priority Control Equip List Nm. Heating Load Rangebased Op Name Load Range Lower Limit Load Range Upper Limit Priority Control Equip List Nm. Splitter SplitterName Inlet Branch Name Outlet Branch Name Mixer MixerName Outlet Branch Name Inlet Branch Name Air Primary Loop Primary Air Loop Name Name: Controller List Name: SAM List Primary Air Design Vol. FR Air Loop Branch List Name ReturnAir AirLoop Inlet Node ZoneEquipGroup Outlet Node SupplyAirPath ZEG InletNodes AirLoop Outlet Node Outside Air System Name Name: Controller List Name of Air Loop Equip List Name of a SAM List Controller List Name Controller Type Controller Name Air Loop Equipment List Name KEYSystem Component Component Name Outside Air Node Node Name Height Above Ground Outside Air Inlet Node List Node Name Outside Air Mixer Name Mixed_Air_Node Outside_Air_Stream_Node Relief_Air_Stream_Node Return_Air_Stream_Node SAM List Name SAM Type SAM Name SAM: Low Temp. Turn Off Name Sensor Node Temperature Applicability Schedule Name SAM: Scheduled Name Schedule Name SPM: Mixed Air Name Control Variable Reference SP Node Name Fan Inlet Node Name Fan Outlet Node Name Name of the Set Point Node SPM: Scheduled Name Control Variable Schedule Name Name of the set point Node Controllers Controller: Simple Controller: Outside Air Zone Equipment Controlled Zone Equip. Config. Zone Equip. List Air Distribution Unit Air Distribution Equipment Single Duct: VAV: Reheat Zone Equip. List Name Zone Equipment Type Type Name ControlledZone Equip.Config. Zone Name List Name: Zone Equipment Zone Air Inlet Node(s) Zone Air Exhaust Node(s) Zone Air Node Name Zone Return Air Node Name Air Distribution Unit Air Distribution Unit Name AirDistUnit Outlet NodeName System Component Type Component Name Controller: Simple Name Control Variable Action Actuator variable Control_Node Actuator_Node Contr. Convergence Tolerance Max Actuated Flow Min Actuated Flow Controller: Outside Air Name Economizer Choice ReturnAir TempLimit ReturnAir EnthalpyLimit Lockout Minimum Limit Control_Node Actuated_Node Min outside air flow rate Max outside air flow rate Temperature Limit Temperature lower limit Relief_Air_Outlet_Node Return_Air_Node Min Outside Air Sch Name Single Duct: VAV: Reheat Name of the System System Available Schedule Damper Air Outlet Node Unit Air Inlet Node Maximum Air Flow Rate Zone Minimum Air Flow Fraction Control node Reheat Component Object Name of Reheat Component Max Reheat Water Flow Min Reheat Water Flow Unit Air Outlet Node Convergence Tolerance Damper Heating Action Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

79 Zone Ctrls and Thermostats Zone Control: Thermostatic Single Heating Setpoint Single Cooling Setpoint Dual Setpoint with Deadband Air Path Zone Supply Air Path Zone Return Air Path Zone Return Plenum Zone Splitter Plant Equipment Boiler: Simple Chiller: Electric Pumps Pump: Variable Speed Coils Coil: Water: Cooling Coil: Water: Simple Heating Fans Fan: Simple: Variable Volume Zone Control: Thermostatic Thermostat Name Zone Name Control Type Schedule Name Control Type Control Type Name Single Heating Setpoint Name Setpoint Temp. Sch. Name Single Cooling Setpoint Name Setpoint Temp. Sch. Name DualSetPoint with Deadband Name Heating SP Temp. Sch. Name Cooling SP Temp. Sch. Name Fan: Simple: Variable Volume Fan Name Available Schedule Fan Total Efficiency Delta Pressure Max Flow Rate Min Flow Rate Motor Efficiency Motor In Airstream Fraction Fan Coefficienct Fan_Inlet_Node Fan_Outlet_Node Pump: Variable Speed Pump Name Inlet_Node Outlet_Node Rated Volumetric Flow Rate Rated Pump Head Rated Power Consumption Motor Efficiency Fraction of Motor Inefficiencies to Fluid Stream Coefficient Min Flow Rate Pump Control Type Pump Flow Rate Schedule Coil: Water: Cooling Coil Name Available Schedule Design Water Flow Rate of Coil Design Air Volume Flow Rate Design Inlet Water Temp Design Inlet Air Temp Design Outlet Air Temp Design Inlet Air Humidity Rt Design Outlet Air Humidity Rt Coil_Water_Inlet_Node Coil_Water_Outlet_Node Coil_Air_Inlet_Node Coil_Air_Outlet_Node Type of Analysis Heat Exchanger Configuration Coil: Water: Simple Heating Coil Name Available Schedule UA of the Coil Max Water Flow Rate of Coil Coil_Water_Inlet_Node Coil_Water_Outlet_Node Coil_Air_Inlet_Node Coil_Air_Outlet_Node Performance Input Method Nominal Capacity Design Inlet Water Temp Design Inlet Air Temp Design Outlet Water Temp Design Outlet Air Temp Chiller: Electric Chiller Name Condenser Type Nominal Capacity COP Plant_Side_Inlet_Node Plant_Side_Outlet_Node Condenser Side_Inlet_Node CondenserSide_Outlet_Node Minimum Part Load Ratio Maximum Part Load Ratio Opt Part Load Ratio Temp Design Condenser Inlet Temp Rise Coefficient Temp Design Evap Outlet Design Evap Vol Water FR Coefficient Temp Lower Limit Evap Outlet Chiller Flow Mode Boiler: Simple Boiler Name Fuel Type Nominal Capacity Theoretical Boiler Efficiency Design Water Outlet Temp Max Design Boiler Water FR Minimum Part Load Ratio Maximum Part Load Ratio Opt Part Load Ratio Coefficient Boiler_Water_Inlet_Node Boiler_Water_Outlet_Node Temp Upper Limit Water Outlet Boiler Flow Mode Zone Return Air Path Return Air Path name Return Air Path Inlet Node Key: System Component Type Component Name Zone Supply Air Path Supply Air Path name Supply Air Path Inlet Node Key: System Component Type Component Name Zone Return Plenum Zone Plenum name Zone name Zone Node name Outlet_Node Inlet_Node Zone Splitter Splitter name Inlet_Node Outlet_Node Color Key ClassLeaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang


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