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AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis

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1 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis
Fall 2009 Huang Yi Chun SDE Tel: AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

2 Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation
Automation Reading List Huang, Yi Chun; Khee Poh Lam and Gregory Dobbs(2008). A Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool for Integrated Building Design. Proceedings of The Third National Conference of IBPSA-USA (SimBuild 2008), 30 July – 1 August 2008, San Francisco, USA. Pp Huang, Yi Chun, and Khee Poh Lam (2008). Automated Calculation of Lighting Regulations. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2008), July 2008, Dalian, China. Biswas, Tajin, Tsung-Hsien Wang and Ramesh Krishnamurti (2008) Integrating Sustainable Building Rating Systems with Building Information Models. Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Computer Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CADDRIA 2008), 9-12 April 2008, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Pp AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

3 Automatic Calculation of Lighting Regulations
Huang, Yi Chun; Khee Poh Lam and Gregory Dobbs(2008). A Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool for Integrated Building Design. Proceedings of The Third National Conference of IBPSA-USA (SimBuild 2008), 30 July – 1 August 2008, San Francisco, USA. Pp Slide 1: Title (please keep) Slides 2-9: Introduction of project, problem statement and objectives Slide 10: Summary of application features Slides 11-16: Demo 1 Lighting simulations in 3 mouse clicks Slide 17: Addition features of application Slides 18-22: LEED Credit 8.1 (Glazing Factors) Calculator Slides 23-24: LEED Credit 8.2 (View Out) Calculator Slide 25: rgbe visualizer Slide 26-28: External data libraries

4 Context and Motivation
Performance benchmarks in building design 1. Benefits of performance-based design and performance benchmarks - High performance buildings (integration, sustainability) - Vision, goals, objectives, tracking, assessments - Lindsey, 2003; Hitchcock, 2003; Deru, 2004 2. Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Fundamental (ir)radiance calculations might not provide operative information - Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Logistical effort in acquiring parameters - Time and effort in calculation procedures 3. Automated calculation of lighting regulations - Dual purposes: reduction in calculation and documentation effort - Market demand - Prevalence of BIM, opportunity for automation - Need to formulate calculation procedures as computable AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 4

5 Context and Motivation
Performance benchmarks in building design 2. Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Fundamental (ir)radiance calculations might not provide operative information - Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks USGBC LEED Rating System EQ 8.1 & 8.2 – Daylight and Views Provide for the building occupants a connection between indoor spaces and the outdoors through the introduction of daylight and views into the regularly occupied areas of the building. EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Achieve a minimum glazing factor of 2% in a minimum of 75% of all regularly occupied areas EQ 8.2 – Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor environment via vision glazing between 2’6” and 7’6” above finish floor for building occupants in 90% of all regularly occupied areas. Voluntary rating system Widespread use by both governmental and private industry (Landman, 2005) 2 lighting performance benchmarks AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 5

6 Context and Motivation
Performance benchmarks in building design 2. Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Fundamental (ir)radiance calculations might not provide operative information - Lighting regulations (standards) as performance benchmarks - Logistical effort in acquiring parameters - Time and effort in calculation procedures AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 6

7 Context and Motivation
Performance benchmarks in building design 3. Automated calculation of lighting regulations - Dual purposes: reduction in calculation and documentation effort - Market demand - Prevalence of BIM, opportunity for automation - Need to formulate calculation procedures as computable AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 7

8 Objectives Integration with Design Support Tool
Availability of performance benchmarks throughout design process Reduction of time and effort Formulation of benchmarks as computable Formulation of calculation procedures as computable problems that can be evaluated by a computer automatically Resources required must be within the constraints of typical design practices Improvements Formulation of procedures as algorithms allows insight into benchmarks, and how they might be improved LEED benchmarks, like most regulatory metrics typically calculated post-design due to logistical and resource burdens. AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 8

9 Framework New Lighting Simulation Tool – Version 0.5
Implemented as part of CMU Lighting Simulation Tool – part of effort to reduce effort & resources LEED automation – tracking performance during design iterations, documentation effort LEED Credit EQ 8.1. Glazing Factors Revit Model Material Properties Inspection and Editing LEED Credit EQ 8.2. View-out Availability AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

10 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Achieve a minimum glazing factor of 2% in a minimum of 75% of all regularly occupied areas Mainly logistical task, variable values retrieved from BIM, minimal computation Algorithm Step 1: Find list of occupied spaces Step 2: Find list of windows in each space Step 3: Determine window type (subdivide window if necessary) Step 4: Retrieve Tvis and calculate GF for all windows Step 5: Tabulate GFs in each space (check if >2%) Step 6: Tabulate eligible floor area (check if ≥75%) Analysis O(nlogn) retrieval of lists and values from BIM Step 3: O(nlogn) retrieve window geometry O(n) orientation and height determination O(n) subdivision O(n) GF calculations and tabulation LINEARITHMIC TIME PERFORMANCE AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 10

11 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Real-time implementation, dynamic update as building model is modified Parameters Inspection in Lighting Tool, no user intervention Automated Calculation of Lighting Regulations – Y.C. Huang AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 11

12 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Real-time implementation, dynamic update as building model is modified Real-time calculation of LEED EQ 8.1 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 12

13 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.1 (Opt 1) – Daylight Availability Real-time implementation, dynamic update as building model is modified Tabulation for LEED EQ 8.1 submittal AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 13

14 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Achieve direct line of sight to the outdoor environment via vision glazing between 2’6” and 7’6” above finish floor for building occupants in 90% of all regularly occupied areas. Determine the area with direct line of sight by totaling the regularly occupied square footage that meets the following criteria: - In plan view, the area is within sight lines drawn from perimeter vision glazing - In section view, a direct sight line can be drawn from the area to perimeter vision glazing Line of sight may be drawn through interior glazing. For private offices, the entire square footage of the office can be counted if 75% or more of the area has direct line of sight to perimeter glazing. If less than 75%, actual compliant area is counted. For multi-occupant spaces, the actual square footage with direct line of sight to perimeter glazing is counted. AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 14

15 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views 2 step graphical calculation procedure (2D line-of-sight projections, 2nd pass confirmation) Implicit checks for internal wall openings AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 15

16 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Formularization as computable, possible finite-element approach AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 16

17 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation
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18 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation
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19 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation
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20 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Dynamic implementation, fast update as building model is modified Imported building model, no user intervention AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 20

21 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Dynamic implementation, fast update as building model is modified Dynamic calculation of LEED EQ 8.2 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 21

22 Formulation as Computable
LEED EQ 8.2 – External Views Dynamic implementation, fast update as building model is modified Tabulation for LEED EQ 8.2 submittal AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 22

23 Summary of Results Formulation of LEED EQ 8.1 & 8.2 as computable
- Interoperability - Ray tracing - CMU Lighting Tool Algorithm optimization – data structures Benchmark clarification – steradians (computing speed-up) AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 23

24 Modified Photon Mapping
Huang, Yi Chun (2009). “Implementation of a new simulation engine”. An Integrated Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool, Chapter 3. Unpublished manuscript. Slide 1: Title (please keep) Slides 2-9: Introduction of project, problem statement and objectives Slide 10: Summary of application features Slides 11-16: Demo 1 Lighting simulations in 3 mouse clicks Slide 17: Addition features of application Slides 18-22: LEED Credit 8.1 (Glazing Factors) Calculator Slides 23-24: LEED Credit 8.2 (View Out) Calculator Slide 25: rgbe visualizer Slide 26-28: External data libraries

25 Lighting Models (Backwards) Raytrace and Photon Mapping
AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

26 Lighting Models Raytracing might under-estimate ambient radiance
AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

27 Photon Mapping Separating rendering equation into 4-components Direct
Specular Indirect Caustics Radiance of Point A as sum of direct, specular, indirect and caustics components AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 27

28 Photon Mapping Separating rendering equation into 4-components Direct
Specular Indirect Caustics 2-maps, check for duplicate paths Reflected caustics might be neglected Radiance of as sum of direct, specular, indirect and caustics components AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 28

29 Modified Photon Mapping
Separating rendering equation into 3-components Direct Indirect Caustic No longer split into diffuse or specular terms, taken care of (and pre-computed) by BRDF No need to check for duplicate paths Diffused caustics accounted for AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 29

30 Modified Photon Mapping
Accuracy of area estimation Disc Vs. Sub-sampling AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 30

31 Modified Photon Mapping
Accuracy of area estimation Disc Vs. Sub-sampling Direct visualization of photon map to show effect of approximated area (left), corrected area (right) AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 31

32 Modified Photon Mapping
Progressive accuracy Scalability Use number of photons rather than samples AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 32

33 Modified Photon Mapping
Power-based priority-queue Conventional Russian Roulette (left), power-prioritized technique (right) AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 33

34 Modified Photon Mapping
Direct sampling AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 34

35 A Scalable Lighting Simulation Tool For Integrated Building Design
Huang, Yi Chun, and Khee Poh Lam (2008). Automated Calculation of Lighting Regulations. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE 2008), July 2008, Dalian, China. Slide 1: Title (please keep) Slides 2-9: Introduction of project, problem statement and objectives Slide 10: Summary of application features Slides 11-16: Demo 1 Lighting simulations in 3 mouse clicks Slide 17: Addition features of application Slides 18-22: LEED Credit 8.1 (Glazing Factors) Calculator Slides 23-24: LEED Credit 8.2 (View Out) Calculator Slide 25: rgbe visualizer Slide 26-28: External data libraries

36 Objective 1 Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation
Conducting a lighting simulation is time consuming, too many software to buy and learn. Drawings Documentation Etc. Geometry Modeling Variables Definition E.g. Materials & Location Simulation Parameters Definition Simulation Results processing AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 36

37 Objective 1 Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation
Reducing time and effort required to prepare for simulations (applicable to all domains) Drawings Documentation Etc. Geometry Modeling Variables Definition E.g. Materials & Location Simulation Parameters Definition Why should we spend time on this? Simulation Results processing AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 37

38 Automated Processing Objective 1
Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation Reducing time and effort required to prepare for simulations (applicable to all domains) Automated Processing Automatic XML-Based Parser Automatic Default Values Automatic Engine Selection Drawings Documentation Etc. Automatic Simulation Files Creation Improved Analysis Features User-editable Input Results processing AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 38

39 Objective 1 Reduce resources required to conduct lighting simulation
Definition of appropriate simulation parameters require much training and tacit knowledge Time consuming Finite element Radiosity parameters Backward Ray-trace parameters AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 39

40 Objective 2 Efficiency and consistency in defining BIM and assumptions
New information created in individual domain is updated to the BIM Objective 2 Efficiency and consistency in defining BIM and assumptions Externalizing project shared information Shared Building Information Model Shared Construction Properties Database Shared Location Information Database Conflict? Information Update? SHARED OBJECT MODEL Conflict? Information Update? LIGHTING SIMULATION ASSUMPTIONS -geometry abstractions -material properties (reflectance, specularity, etc) -luminare specification -schedules ENERGY SIMULATION ASSUMPTIONS -geometry abstractions -material properties (conductivity, specific heat, etc.) -lighting design level -schedules Building Modeler Lighting Tool Energy Tool AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

41 Lighting Simulation Tool
Objective 2 Efficiency and consistency in defining BIM and assumptions Externalizing project shared information Shared Construction Properties Database Shared Location Information Database Other domain apps Shared Building Information Model Parser Parser Lighting Simulation Tool Parser AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 41

42 Objective 3 Obtaining Operative Information for Design Decisions Lighting simulations address low-level objectives, not higher-level questions typical of primary design inquiries. Typical Lighting Simulation Lighting Simulation 3. Formulating objectives solvable by lighting simulation Simulation Results (Illuminance data) What is the illuminance distribution in this space? 4. Analysis of results Is there sufficient illuminance on workplane in all occupied spaces? Check all occupied spaces if illuminance > threshold on workplane Is there lighting sufficient in this building? 2. Formulating well-formed problem by considering context and making relevant assumptions. Check if number of satisfactory spaces compliant with regulations SOLUTION 5. Operative Information for design decision 1. Design Question AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 1 - Introduction

43 Objective 3 Obtaining Operative Information for Design Decisions
Providing post-processing analysis toolkit Tone-mappers Luminance data inspection and false-color analyses Luminance ratios calculator Data comparisons LEED rating system Credit 8.1 & 8.2 calculators Tabulation of results AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 43

44 Results CMU Lighting simulation Tool – Version 0.5
Java based application – ease of prototyping General Parser – Revit-exported gbXML files & extended XML schema Radiance engine integration – automatic simulation files generator External Libraries – Location & Construction complete, rule based context recognition Visualizations – HDRI support, False-color, Inspector, Comparator, Luminance Ratios Post-processing – LEED Credit EQ 8.1 & 8.2 calculators and tabulations Step 1 – User selects input file (as exported from Revit) Step 2 – Missing information such as sky data and camera positions are set automatically Step 3 – Default values are highlighted in red. User can edit values if necessary Prototype of 2007 CMU Lighting Application v.0.5. The 3-step process to saving time. AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

45 Change Management System*
New Lighting Tool Building Information Model <<include>> Import BIM Form Complete Model Read/Write BIM <<include>> Construction Database Access Database Edit BIM Location Database Domain Object Model GUI Perform Lighting Simulation User Read/Write Simulation Results Simulation Results Visualize Simulation Results Change Management System* Shared Object Model* *External System Calculate LEED Benchmarks AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

46 AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

47 Lighting Simulation Results
Demo 1 Dramatic reduction in effort to conduct lighting simulation Revit Model Export as gbXML file Lighting Simulation Results The following slides will demonstrate how a lighting simulation is obtained in just 3 mouse clicks Automatic processing by CMU Lighting Application Generated Radiance Batch File AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation

48 Demo 2 Parametric Studies 48
The following slides will demonstrate how a lighting simulation is obtained in just 3 mouse clicks AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 48

49 Demo 3 Design investigations and analyses 49
Automatic Radiance Batch Files Revit Model Automatic processing by CMU Lighting Application Results Analysis The following slides will demonstrate how a lighting simulation is obtained in just 3 mouse clicks Comparison between design changes AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 49

50 Demo 4 Calculating LEED credits, tracking during design investigations
LEED Credit EQ 8.1. Glazing Factors Revit Model Material Properties Inspection and Editing LEED Credit EQ 8.2. View-out Availability The following slides will demonstrate how a lighting simulation is obtained in just 3 mouse clicks AR 4322 – Building Simulation and Analysis – Lecture 4 – Trends in Simulation 50

51 Sustainable Building Information Model (SBIM) Sponsored by: Autodesk® Revit Professor Ramesh Krishnamurti Tajin Biswas Tsung-Hsien Wang Yi Chun Huang School of Architecture Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

52 Approach (Integrating rating systems with design software via a framework)
Evolutionary benchmarks -different rating systems Rating_1 Protocols Rating System Evaluation Direct Data Performance Data BIM Simulation Tools External Data request Sustainable Framework Rating_2 Rating_n Design Representation software Missing information In a broad sense, a framework is a “conceptual structure used to solve or address complex issues” (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framework: Dec 2008). In sustainable design it is seen and used mainly in the form of matrixes, (Weerasinghe, et al 2007, Hassan, 2008 and Gething, 2007). In this paper the characteristics associated with a framework will be used more specifically as a structure to map rating system requirements to their comprising elements; identify processes involved; identify missing information and manage changes in rating systems in a cohesive way. Implicit in the task of putting together a complete set of data are the following: Formulation of a comprehensive and general ontology that: a) can accommodate and classify all informational requirements of the different rating systems; and b) lends itself easily to computation. 2. Identification of protocols required for carrying out specific processes for such evaluation. 3. Mapping rating system requirements to elements in a BIM, for example, Revit™ to [a)] find missing capabilities in the BIM, which will help identify the necessary external data that [b)] needs to be accommodated. Figure depicts the system flow. Multiple goals and constraints at different phases of design- Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

53 Building Information Model Design and Interaction with General Framework
Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

54 Framework Categorization
…….. C1.5 Integrity of building envelope C 1.6 HVAC Systems C 1.7 Service Water Heating C 1.8 Power Distribution Systems C 1.9 Other Systems C 1.10 Lighting Systems C 1.11 Adaptability of systems ...... F 1.1 Energy efficiency F 1.2 On site renewable energy F 1.3 Alternative Green Energy Sub Categories Major Categories Owner Designer …… Major Phases Lifecycle of Project Feasibility Study-Pre design Site Building Material Indoor Environment Energy Design Construction Management/Planning Construction Operation and maintenance Pre Construction Decommissioning Construction Commissioning Service and support How does the framework of measures cater to different rating systems An exhaustive list of requirements from all the systems…? Approach –to find the most commonly used attributes and parameters Source and disposal Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

55 Framework Objects Mapping to Ratings (energy)
…….. C1.5 Integrity of building envelope C 1.6 HVAC Systems C 1.7 Service Water Heating C 1.8 Power Distribution Systems C 1.9 Other Systems C 1.10 Lighting Systems C 1.11 Adaptability of systems ...... F 1.1 Energy efficiency F 1.2 On site renewable energy F 1.3 Alternative Green Energy Sub Categories ID Object Name return type Ex ref BIM ref LEED BREEAM Gr Star C 1.5.1 Insulation yes/no ref material EA Preq2 EA 1-10 C 1.6.2 HVACType (enum 8types) ref ref sec 6.4 Ene-Pre Ene-1 C 1.7.1 ServiceWaterHeating  ref equip Wat-3 C 1.8.1 PowerDistSystems ref sec 8.4 Ene-2 C 1.8.2 Electrical Submetering(enum lighting, fan, cooling tower, humidification..) ref (SIBSE) Ene02 C 1.9.1 OtherEquipment(motors) ref sec 10.4 C Lighting(exterior, signs, grounds, parking) ref sec 9.4 Ene04 Mat-10 C LightFixtureType string light SS8 Pol 07 Emi-8 C LightPowerDensity number  process Ene-3 C FixturePower C NumberOfLuminare ID Object Name return type Ex ref BIM ref LEED BREEAM Gr Star F 1.1.1 ReductionOfEnergyFromBase number ref EA 1-10 Ene01 Ene 05 Mat-10 Ene-1 F 1.1.2 EnergySimulation yes/no Ref/process Ene-Pre F 1.1.3 SimulationNumber How does the framework of measures cater to different rating systems An exhaustive list of requirements from all the systems…? Approach –to find the most commonly used attributes and parameters Mapping of sub categories to objects that are required by different rating systems Exhaustive list of attributes? Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

56 Framework Objects Mapping to Simulation Model
…….. C1.5 Integrity of building envelope C 1.6 HVAC Systems C 1.7 Service Water Heating C 1.8 Power Distribution Systems C 1.9 Other Systems C 1.10 Lighting Systems C 1.11 Adaptability of systems ...... F 1.1 Energy efficiency F 1.2 On site renewable energy F 1.3 Alternative Green Energy Sub Categories ID Object Name C 1.5.1 Insulation C 1.6.2 HVACType (enum 8types) C 1.7.1 ServiceWaterHeating C 1.8.1 PowerDistSystems C 1.8.2 Electrical Submetering(enum lighting, fan, cooling tower, humidification..) C 1.9.1 OtherEquipment(motors) C Lighting(exterior, signs, grounds, parking) C LightFixtureType C LightPowerDensity C FixturePower C NumberOfLuminare Baseline Model for Simulation Building & Location Info Building Geometry Building Envelope Service Hot Water Power Lighting Other Loads HVAC ID Object Name F 1.1.1 ReductionOfEnergyFromBase F 1.1.2 EnergySimulation F 1.1.3 SimulationNumber How does the framework of measures cater to different rating systems An exhaustive list of requirements from all the systems…? Approach –to find the most commonly used attributes and parameters Mapping of objects that are required for simulation Exhaustive list of attributes? Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

57 Application Data Manager
Application Design Event Detector General Framework GF External Simulation Engine SQL Query Request Demo-Dec (cont.) Application GUI External Database System Updates Application Data Manager GBXML BIM Database Revit S Craig 1,2 Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

58 Databases to Application via SQL
External Databases Revit Collect building element info Generate Data Table Populate defaults Others (e.g.Rain fall Rates) Building Information Database Application Result Evaluation (LEED, GREENSTAR) Material Properties Simulation (Energy, Lighting) Measure Databases General Framework LEED GreenStar BREEAM SQL Mdb Database Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

59 Case Study 407 S Craig St, PA (Back)
407 S Craig St, PA (Front), LEED silver 407 S Craig St, PA (Back) LEED certified building, 407 S Craig St , Pittsburgh Previously we tested on random models which were not certified just to get test the ability to extract required information Now we are validating the results of a real building to see how many credits can be calculated and if we can arrive at the same results Some achieved credits/points: Site density, alternative transportation (targeted by our application) Energy reduction, onsite renewable energy (solar panels on roof) Reused structure and materials inside (targeted and achieved) Storage for recyclable materials (targeted) Water efficient fixtures (targeted) Skylights before Redesigned: Northern light and solar panels Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

60 Model and Application Main Information Display Navigation Status
Build Revit model and inputting information related to LEED certification. Build site mass model as well as materials in details Status Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

61 Calculating building and material reuse from model (LEED)
Testing is done using LEED 3.0 for material reuse MR 1.1 and MR 1.2 Building structure and façade is existing Using these material properties we are able to calculate credits for building material reuse Potential Credits: MRp1 and MR4.1 By placing storage bins we are able to calculate if it meets the requirements for recycling the buildings waste (paper, glass, cardboard, etc) Steel framing using recycled steel content, to determine if it fulfils requirements of MR 4.1 Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

62 Calculating building and material reuse from model (Green Star)
This shows using Green Star on same building to determine which credits it satisfies: In this case it fulfils requirements of Mat2 and Mat 3 Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

63 Calculating number of parking and bicycle racks (Green Star)
Testing done with LEED shows that Cyclist facilities are adequate In this particular step we start to check if it qualifies for Green Star requirements of the number of bicycle racks which does not qualify Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

64 Calculating LEED SS 2 (Site Density)
On going experimentation of calculating site density through the following steps: Superimposing site map with plan to identify and build mass model for site density calculation for LEED Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

65 Calculating LEED SS 2 (Finding Density Radius)
B C M N K L J 350’ I O H P D E Calculating density radius according to the specified requirements Density radius(LF) = 3 * (Property Area (sft) All the properties that intersect the line have to be calculated The radius starts at the center of the building and is drawn to include the properties that fall into it for density calculation F F G Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

66 Calculating LEED SS 2 (Calculating Development Density)
B A N M L K D Development Density E J I O P F G H Number of floors added to the mass to calculate total floor areas, using site area, site density is calculated and evaluated The density (sft/acre = gross building (sft)/Project site area (acres) For Example Building Space (sft) Area(Acres) A B 87, C 6, ………………………………………………………………………………. Total building area (X) Total site area (Y) Average Density = (X/Y) sft/Acre > 60,000 sft/Acre so it meets the requirements Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

67 Calculating LEED EA 1.1~1.10 Energy Optimization
Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas & T.S. Wang

68 Energy Simulation to quantify energy improvement
Appendix G – Information requirements Originally intended for rating energy efficiencies of building designs that exceed the requirements of ASHRAE  There exists some proposed design, compare to baseline. Our objective  Generating baseline model from architectural model (no M&E specifications). Proposed Design Proposed Design Model Energy Simulation to quantify energy improvement Energy Usage Reports Baseline Model ASHRAE 90.1 Compliant Building & Location Info Building Geometry Building Envelope HVAC Service Hot Water Power Lighting Other Loads Lights Internal Eqpt Loads Service Water Heating Space Heating Space Cooling Heat Rejection Fans Other HVAC Eqpt Appendix G stipulates modeling requirements, especially the differences between the 2 models. Performance benchmarks are highlighted, NOT an exhaustive listing of attributes. Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

69 Processes and Artifacts
Revit file Contains All info Weather files Populate defaults Generate idf file Ground Calcs Sizing Run Overview of processes and artifacts involved in the objective of automating the generation of Appendix-G baseline EnergyPlus input models Has Ground slab idf file (prep0) idf file (prep1) idf file (base) Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

70 Processes Generate idf file
Processes will complete the idf file. May not be 1:1 mapping Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

71 Processes Generate idf file ERROR DONE Zones Is there HVAC Zoning? Yes
Are the zones well-formed? No Is queue empty? Process next zone Yes Yes Are there Room elements? Yes No No ERROR DONE No Are there external walls? Should the zone be subdivided? Yes Yes Form bounded zones from surfaces Subdivide zone, add new geometry. No No Add zones to unprocessed queue Zone processing complete. Remove from queue. Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

72 Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file
Baseline Model Building & Location Info Building Geometry Building Envelope Service Hot Water Power Lighting Other Loads HVAC Basic Objects  Required in all models HVAC Objects  Varies among models How does Appendix G translate as an EnergyPlus model? - General Categories listed here - HVAC ontology varies depending on required system type Can we formulate an exhaustive list of attributes? Sure, the entire E+ list of objects. Mapping of general categories HVAC ontology varies Exhaustive list of attributes? Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

73 Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file  Basic Objects
EnergyPlus Model Simulation Parameters Location Schedules Reports Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file  Basic Objects Surface Construction Elements Geometry Airflow Internal Gains Design Node Branch Management Plant Condenser Loops Plant Condenser Control Plant Condenser Flow Control System Availability Managers Air Distribution Set Point Managers Controllers Zone Equipment Zone Controls and Thermostats Air Distribution Equipment Air Path Plant Equipment Pumps Fans Coils Simulation Parameters Surface Construction Elements Schedule Version Building Timestep in hour Inside Convection Algorithm Outside Convection Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Internal Gains People Lights Electric Equipment Location Geometry Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temperatures Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Heat Transfer Surface: Heat Transfer: Sub Surface: Shading: Attached Air Flow Infiltration Reports Report Variable Report Meter How does Appendix G translate as an EnergyPlus model? Color Key Class Leaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

74 Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file  HVAC Objects
EnergyPlus Model Simulation Parameters Location Schedules Reports Appendix G – EnergyPlus (idf) file  HVAC Objects VAV w/PFP Boxes (System 8) Surface Construction Elements Geometry Airflow Internal Gains Design Node Branch Management Plant Condenser Loops Plant Condenser Control Plant Condenser Flow Control System Availability Managers Air Distribution Set Point Managers Controllers Zone Equipment Zone Controls and Thermostats Air Distribution Equipment Air Path Plant Equipment Pumps Fans Coils Design Plant Condenser Flow Ctrl Controllers Sizing Parameters Zone Sizing System Sizing Plant Sizing Splitter Mixer Controller: Simple Controller: Outside Air Air Distribution Zone Equipment Air Primary Loop Controller List Air Loop Equipment List Outside Air System Outside Air Node Outside Air Inlet Node List Outside Air Mixer Controlled Zone Equip. Config. Zone Equip. List Air Distribution Unit Node Branch Management Plant Equipment Node List Branch List Connector List Branch Pipe Boiler: Simple Chiller: Electric Air Distribution Equipment Single Duct: VAV: Reheat Pumps Plant Condenser Loops System Availability Managers Pump: Variable Speed Zone Ctrls and Thermostats Plant Loop SAM List SAM: Scheduled SAM: Low Temp. Turn Off Zone Control: Thermostatic Single Heating Setpoint Single Cooling Setpoint Dual Setpoint with Deadband Coils Plant Condenser Control Coil: Water: Cooling Coil: Water: Simple Heating The comprehensive idf schema would be the entire E+ documentation. Plant Operation Schemes Cooling Load Range-based Op Heating Load Range-based Op Plant Equipment List Set Point Managers SPM: Scheduled SPM: Mixed Air Air Path Fans Zone Supply Air Path Zone Return Air Path Zone Return Plenum Zone Splitter Fan: Simple: Variable Volume Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

75 Color Key Class Leaf Only the basic objects
Simulation Parameters Version Run Period Material: Regular Zone People Infiltration Version Building Timestep in Hour Inside Conv. Algorithm Outside Conv. Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Version Identifier Run Period Start Run Period End Start Day Use Weather File Holidays Use Weather File DLS Apply Weekend Rule Weather File Rain Ind. Weather File Snow Ind. Name Roughness Thickness Conductivity Density Specific Heat Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Zone Name Relative North X Origin Y Origin Z Origin Type Multiplier Ceiling Height Volume Name Zone Name Num People Sch Name Num People Calc Method Num People Fraction Radiant Activity Level Sch Name Name Zone Name SCHEDULE Name Design Volume Flow Rate Calculation method Design Volume Flow Rate Flow per Zone Area Flow per Ext Surface Area Air Changes Per Hour Constant Term Coefficient Temp. Term Coefficient Velocity Term Coefficient Velocity Squared Term Coefficient Building Building Name North Axis Terrain Loads Convr Tolerance Temp. ConvrTolerance Solar Distribution Warm-up Days Location Lights Location Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temp. Material: Regular-R Surface Geometry Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Lighting Level Return Air Fraction Fraction Radiant Fraction Visible Fraction Replaceable End-Use Subcategory Location Name Latitude Longitude Time Zone Elevation Timestep in Hour Name Roughness Thermal Resistance Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Surface Starting Position Vertex Entry Coordinate System Timestep in Hour Surface Const. Elements Inside Conv Algorithm Surface: Heat Transfer Design Day Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Inside Conv Algorithm Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Zone Name Outside Face Environment Outside Face Env Object Sun Exposure Wind Exposure View Factor to Ground Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Design Day Name Max Dry Bulb Temperature Daily Temperature Range Humidity Ind. Conditions Barometric Pressure Wind Speed Wind Direction Sky Clearness Rain Indicator Snow Indicator Day of Month Month Day Type DLS Indicator Humidity Indicating Type Material: Air Outside Conv Algorithm Name Thermal Resistance Electric Equipment Outside Conv Algorithm Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Design Level Fraction Latent Fraction Radiant Fraction Lost Solution Algorithm Material: Window Glass Geometry Solution Algorithm Name Optical Data Type Solar Transmittance Solar Reflect.: Front Side Solar Reflect.: Back Side Visible Transmittance Visible Reflect.: Front Side Visible Reflect.: Back Side IR Transmittance IR Emissivity: Front Side IR Emissivity: Back Side Conductivity Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Ht Transfer Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface: Shdi: Attached Run Control Run Control Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Base Surface Name View Factor to Ground Multiplier Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Schedule Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Schedule Type Ground Temperatures Internal Gains Schedule Type Name Range Numeric Type Monthly Grd Temp. Material: Window Gas People Lights Electric Equipment Name Gas Type Thickness Surface: Shd: Attached Schedule: Compact Surface Name Base Surface Name TransSchedShadowSurf Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Report Variable Air Flow Name Schedule Type Week Schedule Day Schedule Construction Report Name Reporting Frequency Infiltration Only the basic objects Name Outside Layer Layer Reports Report Meter Report Variable Report Meter Meter Name Reporting Frequency Color Key Class Leaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

76 Example of object links
Simulation Parameters Version Run Period Material: Regular Zone People Infiltration Version Building Timestep in Hour Inside Conv. Algorithm Outside Conv. Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Version Identifier Run Period Start Run Period End Start Day Use Weather File Holidays Use Weather File DLS Apply Weekend Rule Weather File Rain Ind. Weather File Snow Ind. Name Roughness Thickness Conductivity Density Specific Heat Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Zone Name Relative North X Origin Y Origin Z Origin Type Multiplier Ceiling Height Volume Name Zone Name Num People Sch Name Num People Calc Method Num People Fraction Radiant Activity Level Sch Name Name Zone Name SCHEDULE Name Design Volume Flow Rate Calculation method Design Volume Flow Rate Flow per Zone Area Flow per Ext Surface Area Air Changes Per Hour Constant Term Coefficient Temp. Term Coefficient Velocity Term Coefficient Velocity Squared Term Coefficient Building Building Name North Axis Terrain Loads Convr Tolerance Temp. ConvrTolerance Solar Distribution Warm-up Days Location Lights Location Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temp. Material: Regular-R Surface Geometry Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Lighting Level Return Air Fraction Fraction Radiant Fraction Visible Fraction Replaceable End-Use Subcategory Location Name Latitude Longitude Time Zone Elevation Timestep in Hour Name Roughness Thermal Resistance Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Surface Starting Position Vertex Entry Coordinate System Timestep in Hour Surface Const. Elements Inside Conv Algorithm Surface: Heat Transfer Design Day Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Inside Conv Algorithm Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Zone Name Outside Face Environment Outside Face Env Object Sun Exposure Wind Exposure View Factor to Ground Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Design Day Name Max Dry Bulb Temperature Daily Temperature Range Humidity Ind. Conditions Barometric Pressure Wind Speed Wind Direction Sky Clearness Rain Indicator Snow Indicator Day of Month Month Day Type DLS Indicator Humidity Indicating Type Material: Air Outside Conv Algorithm Name Thermal Resistance Electric Equipment Outside Conv Algorithm Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Design Level Fraction Latent Fraction Radiant Fraction Lost Solution Algorithm Material: Window Glass Geometry Solution Algorithm Name Optical Data Type Solar Transmittance Solar Reflect.: Front Side Solar Reflect.: Back Side Visible Transmittance Visible Reflect.: Front Side Visible Reflect.: Back Side IR Transmittance IR Emissivity: Front Side IR Emissivity: Back Side Conductivity Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Ht Transfer Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface: Shdi: Attached Run Control Run Control Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Base Surface Name View Factor to Ground Multiplier Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Schedule Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Schedule Type Ground Temperatures Internal Gains Schedule Type Name Range Numeric Type Monthly Grd Temp. Material: Window Gas People Lights Electric Equipment Name Gas Type Thickness Surface: Shd: Attached Schedule: Compact Surface Name Base Surface Name TransSchedShadowSurf Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Report Variable Air Flow Name Schedule Type Week Schedule Day Schedule Construction Report Name Reporting Frequency Infiltration Example of object links Name Outside Layer Layer Reports Report Meter Report Variable Report Meter Meter Name Reporting Frequency Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

77 Attributes available in REVIT model
Simulation Parameters Version Run Period Material: Regular Zone People Infiltration Version Building Timestep in Hour Inside Conv. Algorithm Outside Conv. Algorithm Solution Algorithm Run Control Version Identifier Run Period Start Run Period End Start Day Use Weather File Holidays Use Weather File DLS Apply Weekend Rule Weather File Rain Ind. Weather File Snow Ind. Name Roughness Thickness Conductivity Density Specific Heat Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Zone Name Relative North X Origin Y Origin Z Origin Type Multiplier Ceiling Height Volume Name Zone Name Num People Sch Name Num People Calc Method Num People Fraction Radiant Activity Level Sch Name Name Zone Name SCHEDULE Name Design Volume Flow Rate Calculation method Design Volume Flow Rate Flow per Zone Area Flow per Ext Surface Area Air Changes Per Hour Constant Term Coefficient Temp. Term Coefficient Velocity Term Coefficient Velocity Squared Term Coefficient Building Building Name North Axis Terrain Loads Convr Tolerance Temp. ConvrTolerance Solar Distribution Warm-up Days Location Lights Location Run Period Location Design Day Ground Temperatures Water Mains Temp. Material: Regular-R Surface Geometry Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Lighting Level Return Air Fraction Fraction Radiant Fraction Visible Fraction Replaceable End-Use Subcategory Location Name Latitude Longitude Time Zone Elevation Timestep in Hour Name Roughness Thermal Resistance Absorptance: Thermal Absorptance: Solar Absorptance: Visible Surface Starting Position Vertex Entry Coordinate System Timestep in Hour Surface Const. Elements Inside Conv Algorithm Surface: Heat Transfer Design Day Material: Regular Material: Regular-R Material: Air Material: Window Glass Material: Window Gas Construction Inside Conv Algorithm Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Zone Name Outside Face Environment Outside Face Env Object Sun Exposure Wind Exposure View Factor to Ground Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Design Day Name Max Dry Bulb Temperature Daily Temperature Range Humidity Ind. Conditions Barometric Pressure Wind Speed Wind Direction Sky Clearness Rain Indicator Snow Indicator Day of Month Month Day Type DLS Indicator Humidity Indicating Type Material: Air Outside Conv Algorithm Name Thermal Resistance Electric Equipment Outside Conv Algorithm Name Zone Name Schedule Name Design Level Calc Method Design Level Fraction Latent Fraction Radiant Fraction Lost Solution Algorithm Material: Window Glass Geometry Solution Algorithm Name Optical Data Type Solar Transmittance Solar Reflect.: Front Side Solar Reflect.: Back Side Visible Transmittance Visible Reflect.: Front Side Visible Reflect.: Back Side IR Transmittance IR Emissivity: Front Side IR Emissivity: Back Side Conductivity Zone Surface Geometry Surface: Ht Transfer Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface: Shdi: Attached Run Control Run Control Surface: Ht Transfer: Sub Surface Name Surface Type Construction Name Base Surface Name View Factor to Ground Multiplier Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Schedule Schedule Type Schedule: Compact Schedule Type Ground Temperatures Internal Gains Schedule Type Name Range Numeric Type Monthly Grd Temp. Material: Window Gas People Lights Electric Equipment Name Gas Type Thickness Surface: Shd: Attached Schedule: Compact Surface Name Base Surface Name TransSchedShadowSurf Num of Surface Vertex Vertex Coordinate Report Variable Air Flow Name Schedule Type Week Schedule Day Schedule Construction Report Name Reporting Frequency Infiltration Attributes with values obtainable from Revit model Name Outside Layer Layer Reports Report Meter Report Variable Report Meter Meter Name Reporting Frequency Attributes available in REVIT model Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

78 Design Sizing Parameters Node List Plant Condenser Control Air Primary Loop SAM List Zone Equip. List Sizing Parameters Zone Sizing System Sizing Plant Sizing Sizing Factor Time Steps in Averaging Win. Node List Name Node_ID PlantOperationSchemeName Control Scheme Control Scheme Name Control Scheme Schedule Primary Air Loop Name Name: Controller List Name: SAM List Primary Air Design Vol. FR Air Loop Branch List Name ReturnAir AirLoop Inlet Node ZoneEquipGroup Outlet Node SupplyAirPath ZEG InletNodes AirLoop Outlet Node Name SAM Type SAM Name Name Zone Equipment Type Type Name Zone Sizing Branch List SAM: Scheduled ControlledZone Equip.Config. NodeBranchManagement Name of a zone Cooling Design Sup. Air Temp. Heating Design Sup. Air Temp. Cooling Design Sup. Air HumR Heating Design Sup. Air HumR Outside Air Method Outside Air Flow per Person Outside Air Flow p. Zone Area Outside Air Flow per Zone Zone Sizing Factor CoolingDesign Air Flow Meth. HeatingDesign Air Flow Meth. Branch List Name Branch Name Cooling Load Rangebased Op Name Schedule Name Zone Name List Name: Zone Equipment Zone Air Inlet Node(s) Zone Air Exhaust Node(s) Zone Air Node Name Zone Return Air Node Name Node List Branch List Connector List Branch Pipe Name Load Range Lower Limit Load Range Upper Limit Priority Control Equip List Nm. Connector List Controller List SAM: Low Temp. Turn Off Connector List Name Type of Connector Name of Connector Name Sensor Node Temperature Applicability Schedule Name Heating Load Rangebased Op Name Controller Type Controller Name Plant Condenser Loops Air Distribution Unit Branch Name Load Range Lower Limit Load Range Upper Limit Priority Control Equip List Nm. Plant Loop Air Distribution Unit Name AirDistUnit Outlet NodeName System Component Type Component Name Air Loop Equipment List Plant Condenser Control Branch Name Maximum Branch Flow Rate Comp Type Comp Name Comp Inlet Node Name Comp Outlet Node Name Comp Branch Control Type Plant Sizing Name KEY—System Component Component Name SPM: Scheduled Plant Operation Schemes Cooling Load Range-based Op Heating Load Range-based Op Plant Equipment List Plant Equipment List Name of a Plant Loop Loop Type Design Loop Exit Temperature Design Loop Delta T Name Control Variable Schedule Name Name of the set point Node Equip List Name KEY—Plant Equip Equip Name Outside Air System Single Duct: VAV: Reheat Plant Condenser Flow Ctrl System Sizing Pipe Name Name: Controller List Name of Air Loop Equip List Name of a SAM List Name of the System System Available Schedule Damper Air Outlet Node Unit Air Inlet Node Maximum Air Flow Rate Zone Minimum Air Flow Fraction Control node Reheat Component Object Name of Reheat Component Max Reheat Water Flow Min Reheat Water Flow Unit Air Outlet Node Convergence Tolerance Damper Heating Action SPM: Mixed Air Splitter Mixer NameofAir Primary Loop Obj. Type of Load to Size on Design (min) Outside A.V. FR. Min System Air Flow Rate Preheat Design Temperature Preheat Design Humidity Rt Precool Design Temperature Precool Design Humidity Rt Cen.Cool Design Sup.AirTemp Cen.Heat Design Sup.AirTemp Sizing Option Cooling 100% Outside Air Heating 100% Outside Air Cen.CoolDesg Sup.Air.Hum.Rt Cen.HeatDesg Sup.Air.Hum.Rt Cooling Design Air Flow Meth. Cooling Design Air Flow Rate Pipe Name Inlet Node Name Outlet Node Name Splitter Name Control Variable Reference SP Node Name Fan Inlet Node Name Fan Outlet Node Name Name of the Set Point Node Air Distribution SplitterName Inlet Branch Name Outlet Branch Name Outside Air Node Air Primary Loop Controller List Air Loop Equipment List Outside Air System Outside Air Node Outside Air Inlet Node List Outside Air Mixer Node Name Height Above Ground Plant Loop Mixer Plant Loop Name Fluid Type Plant Op. Scheme List Name Loop Temp. SP Node Name Maximum Loop Temperature Minimum Loop Temperature Maximum Loop Vol. FlowRate Minimum Loop Vol. FlowRate Plant Side Inlet Node Name Plant Side Outlet Node Name Plant Side Branch List Name Plant Side Connector List Nm. DemandSide Inlet NodeNm. DemandSide Outlet NodeNm. DemandSide Branch List Nm. DemandSide Con. List Nm. Load Distribution Scheme System Available Manager List Outside Air Inlet Node List MixerName Outlet Branch Name Inlet Branch Name Node Name Controller: Simple Outside Air Mixer Name Control Variable Action Actuator variable Control_Node Actuator_Node Contr. Convergence Tolerance Max Actuated Flow Min Actuated Flow System Availability Managers Name Mixed_Air_Node Outside_Air_Stream_Node Relief_Air_Stream_Node Return_Air_Stream_Node SAM List SAM: Scheduled SAM: Low Temp. Turn Off Set Point Managers SPM: Scheduled SPM: Mixed Air Controller: Outside Air Controllers Name Economizer Choice ReturnAir TempLimit ReturnAir EnthalpyLimit Lockout Minimum Limit Control_Node Actuated_Node Min outside air flow rate Max outside air flow rate Temperature Limit Temperature lower limit Relief_Air_Outlet_Node Return_Air_Node Min Outside Air Sch Name Controller: Simple Controller: Outside Air Going back to the exhaustive idf list of attributes (case system 8). This 2 pages list HVAC objects and attributes. Zone Equipment Controlled Zone Equip. Config. Zone Equip. List Air Distribution Unit Air Distribution Equipment Single Duct: VAV: Reheat Color Key Class Leaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang

79 Zone Ctrls and Thermostats
Zone Control: Thermostatic Zone Supply Air Path Boiler: Simple Pump: Variable Speed Coil: Water: Cooling Fan: Simple: Variable Volume Zone Control: Thermostatic Single Heating Setpoint Single Cooling Setpoint Dual Setpoint with Deadband Thermostat Name Zone Name Control Type Schedule Name Control Type Control Type Name Supply Air Path name Supply Air Path Inlet Node Key: System Component Type Component Name Boiler Name Fuel Type Nominal Capacity Theoretical Boiler Efficiency Design Water Outlet Temp Max Design Boiler Water FR Minimum Part Load Ratio Maximum Part Load Ratio Opt Part Load Ratio Coefficient Boiler_Water_Inlet_Node Boiler_Water_Outlet_Node Temp Upper Limit Water Outlet Boiler Flow Mode Pump Name Inlet_Node Outlet_Node Rated Volumetric Flow Rate Rated Pump Head Rated Power Consumption Motor Efficiency Fraction of Motor Inefficiencies to Fluid Stream Coefficient Min Flow Rate Pump Control Type Pump Flow Rate Schedule Coil Name Available Schedule Design Water Flow Rate of Coil Design Air Volume Flow Rate Design Inlet Water Temp Design Inlet Air Temp Design Outlet Air Temp Design Inlet Air Humidity Rt Design Outlet Air Humidity Rt Coil_Water_Inlet_Node Coil_Water_Outlet_Node Coil_Air_Inlet_Node Coil_Air_Outlet_Node Type of Analysis Heat Exchanger Configuration Fan Name Available Schedule Fan Total Efficiency Delta Pressure Max Flow Rate Min Flow Rate Motor Efficiency Motor In Airstream Fraction Fan Coefficienct Fan_Inlet_Node Fan_Outlet_Node Air Path Zone Return Air Path Single Heating Setpoint Zone Supply Air Path Zone Return Air Path Zone Return Plenum Zone Splitter Return Air Path name Return Air Path Inlet Node Key: System Component Type Component Name Name Setpoint Temp. Sch. Name Single Cooling Setpoint Plant Equipment Zone Return Plenum Name Setpoint Temp. Sch. Name Boiler: Simple Chiller: Electric Zone Plenum name Zone name Zone Node name Outlet_Node Inlet_Node Chiller: Electric Coil: Water: Simple Heating DualSetPoint with Deadband Pumps Chiller Name Condenser Type Nominal Capacity COP Plant_Side_Inlet_Node Plant_Side_Outlet_Node Condenser Side_Inlet_Node CondenserSide_Outlet_Node Minimum Part Load Ratio Maximum Part Load Ratio Opt Part Load Ratio Temp Design Condenser Inlet Temp Rise Coefficient Temp Design Evap Outlet Design Evap Vol Water FR Coefficient Temp Lower Limit Evap Outlet Chiller Flow Mode Coil Name Available Schedule UA of the Coil Max Water Flow Rate of Coil Coil_Water_Inlet_Node Coil_Water_Outlet_Node Coil_Air_Inlet_Node Coil_Air_Outlet_Node Performance Input Method Nominal Capacity Design Inlet Water Temp Design Inlet Air Temp Design Outlet Water Temp Design Outlet Air Temp Name Heating SP Temp. Sch. Name Cooling SP Temp. Sch. Name Pump: Variable Speed Zone Splitter Coils Splitter name Inlet_Node Outlet_Node Coil: Water: Cooling Coil: Water: Simple Heating Fans Fan: Simple: Variable Volume Color Key Class Leaf Convention : Class attributes might be other classes. Leaf is used here to refer to attributes that require values that do not reference other objects. Conceptually, a model is complete once all leaves(typically numerical or Boolean) are acquired. Sustainable Evaluation of Buildings – T. Biswas, Y.C. Huang & T.S. Wang


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