2 2.4.3 Interference (Part A) Assessable learning outcomes... (a) state and use the principle of superposition of waves;(b) apply graphical methods to illustrate the principle of superposition;(c) explain the terms interference, coherence, path difference and phase difference;(d) state what is meant by constructive interference and destructive interference;(e) describe experiments that demonstrate two source interference using sound, light and microwaves;(f) describe constructive interference and destructive interference in terms of path difference and phase difference;(g) use the relationships intensity = power/cross-sectional area orintensity amplitude2;Superposition effects can be discussed and demonstrated using a slinky or computer simulations (applets).Show how the wavelength of microwaves can be determined using double slit apparatus.Determine the wavelength of light from different LEDs using a diffraction grating.
3 (c) explain the terms interference, coherence, path difference and phase difference;
4 How can we explain sound waves? Application of Music.....How can we explain sound waves?What features of two waves must combine in order to produce reinforcement?What is the phase difference between two waves if they produce maximum cancellation?Be able to clearly explain the concept and features of…Link the idea of sound waves in musical instruments to different frequencies .superposition, supercrests, super troughs, cancellation. (Basic)Use a virtual ripple tank to show interference patterns of two circular waves. (Harder)Apply ideas to a microwave transmitter – (Basic)
5 a/b) The Trumpet Trumpet Chromatic Scale Period ms Frequency Hz (Calculated)BbC4250261BC#277D293Eb311E329F349F#3333370G392Ab415
6 a/b) Checking a Guitar’s Tuning.... Period msFrequency Hz(Calculated)E19041A0.0110055D0.0128373G0.01258098ThickthinStringNoteFrequency1 (thinnest)G3Hz2D3Hz3A255 Hz4 (thickest)E2HzNB: You need a guitar for this!
7 a/b) The Real WorldA tuning fork produces a note with only one frequency. The shape of the wave on the oscilloscope is very smooth.However, the frequency of the harmonics in a real instrument may be twice, three times, four times or even more times the fundamental frequency. All these frequencies together make up the note. The bottom line here shows the wave pattern formed by the fundamental and harmonic frequencies when the note is played on the instrument.
8 a/b Real SoundsclarinetWe now know that we can convert our longitudinal sound wave to a transverse wave to show on a screen. If we look at these three traces of a middle C note (261Hz) we can see they are all different but seem to have similar pattern in terms of frequency as up and 1 down takes (1/261)th of a second or the length of an arrow! You need to try an ignore the funny fluctuations, this is due to the timbre of the notes – or richness that some from the instrument itself due to the nature of the pipes or strings.violinsaxophone
9 Definitions...TASK...Use this information to explain where you might find a progressive wave and how you can create a standing wave. Give an example of each.You can also refer to your book as well.A progressive wave is one where the waveform travels, as opposed to a standing wave (or stationary wave) where the waveform is fixed in place.Most familiar waves are usually progressive: light, sound, and water transmit energy along their direction of travel, though it is possible to set up standing waves for each of these.A plucked string fixed at both ends vibrates in a standing wave though the musical sound it generates is a progressive wave.Progressive waves, despite the name, can travel backwards as well as forwards. A standing wave is equivalent to two equal and opposite progressive waves. It can be either a transverse wave or a longitudinal wave, depending on which direction the vibrations go compared to the direction of travel of the wavefront. The wavefront represents the pattern that is moving along.
10 (a) state and use the principle of superposition of waves; The resultant displacement at any point is the sum of the separatedisplacements due to the two waves Eg: with a slinky coil springsupercrest
11 (a) state and use the principle of superposition of waves; The resultant displacement at any point is the sum of the separatedisplacements due to the two waves Eg: with a slinky coil springsupercrest
12 (b) apply graphical methods to show superposition;
13 (b) apply graphical methods to show superposition of sine waves; Fundamentalfrequency3*foA square wave can be madeup from several sine wavesof higher frequencies
14 Phase Changes in Reflection TRANSVERSE PULSELONGITUDINAL PULSENB: unlikely to be asked about this for Longitudinal (just Transverse)
15 (d) state what is meant by constructive interference and destructive interference;
16 Interference – from previous lesson… Two dippers in a ripple tank can cause circular wavefronts to re-inforce or cancel.Use the virtual ripple tank online..To explain the idea and draw a diagram to explain the ideas in the purple boxes.Re-inforcement(constructive interference)Cancellation(destructive interference)Coherent sources (of the same frequency and phaserelationship) produce a stable interference pattern.
17 1) Can you draw a diagram to show how two waves meeting can… Quick Thinking?1) Can you draw a diagram to show how two waves meeting can…Destructively interfere?Constructively interfere?2) When exploring interference why would you pass microwaves through two slits?3) What two conditions are required for this pattern as shown to be seen and be stable?Diagram similar to show… + = -- + = 2) Create two sources of the same frequency.3) You need coherence i.e. same frequency and phase difference
18 Quick Thinking?1) Can you draw a diagram to show how two waves meeting can…Destructively interfere?Constructively interfere?2) When exploring interference why would you pass microwaves through two slits?3) What two conditions are required for this pattern as shown to be seen and be stable?
19 rarefaction compressions Two loud speakers emitting the same (e) describe experiments that demonstrate two source interference using sound, light and microwaves;Two loud speakersemitting the samenote can causeloud and quietareas in frontof the speakersrarefactionWhen compressions(or rarefactions)arrive in phase fromboth speakers,constructiveinterference occurs,creating a loud regioncompressionsRegions of reinforcement (LOUD)Regions of cancellation (QUIET)
20 Experiments with microwaves: (e) describe experiments that demonstrate two source interference using sound, light and microwaves;Regions ofreinforcementRegions ofcancellationExperiments with microwaves:a) The intensity of the receiver signal decreases with distance from the transmitter.b) Microwaves are reflected off metal plates – similar to light on a mirror.c) Diffraction occurs at each slit (slit width is of similar magnitude to the wavelength)d) An interference pattern forms with regions of constructive and destructive interference.
28 Practical Skills are assessed using OCR set tasks. The practical work suggested below may be carried out as part of skill development. Centres are not required to carry out all of these experiments.Students should gain a qualitative understanding of superposition effects together with confidence in handling experimental data.Students should be able to discuss superposition effects and perform experiments leading to measurements of wavelength and wave velocity.Use an oscilloscope to determine the frequency of sound.Observe polarising effects using microwaves and light.Investigate polarised light when reflected from glass or light from LCD displays.Study diffraction by a slit using laser light.Study hearing superposition using a signal generator and two loudspeakers.Study superposition of microwaves.Determine the wavelength of laser light with a double-slit.Determine the wavelength of light from an LED using a diffraction grating.Demonstrate stationary waves using a slinky spring, tubes and microwaves.Determine the speed of sound in air by formation of stationary waves in a resonance tube.