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TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS, 2003 Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Centers for Disease Control and Prevention American Thoracic Society Centers for Disease.

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Presentation on theme: "TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS, 2003 Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Centers for Disease Control and Prevention American Thoracic Society Centers for Disease."— Presentation transcript:

1 TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS, 2003 Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Centers for Disease Control and Prevention American Thoracic Society Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Infectious Diseases Society of America

2 Why a New TB Treatment Statement? Last TB treatment statement published in 1994 Several new drugs available e.g., rifapentine, newer fluoroquinolones New research information on treatment regimens

3 What’s New? (1) Provider/program responsibility for successful treatment, not the patient Patient-centered case management with emphasis on directly observed therapy (DOT) Evidence-based ratings of treatment options Role of two-month sputum cultures to identify patients at increased relapse risk

4 What’s New? (2) Extend treatment for patients with drug- susceptible pulmonary TB at increased risk for relapse Role of new drugs (rifabutin, rifapentine, and fluoroquinolones) Practical aspects of therapy: drug administration, fixed-dose combinations, adverse effects monitoring and management, and drug interactions

5 What’s New? (3) Treatment completion defined primarily by number of doses ingested within specified time Description of special treatment situations: –HIV/AIDS –Children –Extrapulmonary TB –Culture-negative TB –Pregnancy and breast feeding –Hepatic and renal disease

6 What’s New? (4) Updated guidelines for management of drug- resistant TB Recommendations compared with those of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union Against TB and Lung Disease (IUATLD); WHO DOTS strategy described Current research status to improve treatment

7 Fundamental Responsibility and Approach in TB Treatment Provider (or program) responsible for prescribing appropriate regimen AND ensuring successful completion of therapy Directly observed therapy (DOT) with patient- centered case management is preferred approach

8 Isoniazid Rifampin Pyrazinamide Ethambutol Rifabutin* Rifapentine First-Line Drugs Second-Line Drugs Antituberculosis Drugs Streptomycin Cycloserine p-Aminosalicylic acid Ethionamide Amikacin or kanamycin* Capreomycin Levofloxacin* Moxifloxacin* Gatifloxacin* *Not approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in the treatment of TB

9 Drug Abbreviations EthambutolEMB IsoniazidINH PyrazinamidePZA RifampinRIF RifapentineRPT StreptomycinSM

10 Role of New Drugs (1) Rifabutin: For patients receiving medications having unacceptable interactions with rifampin (e.g., persons with HIV/AIDS) Rifapentine: Used in once-weekly continuation phase for HIV-negative adults with drug-susceptible noncavitary TB and negative AFB smears at completion of initial phase of treatment

11 Role of New Drugs (2) Fluoroquinolones (Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Gatifloxacin): Used when -first-line drugs not tolerated; -strains resistant to RIF, INH, or EMB; or -evidence of other resistance patterns with fluoroquinolone susceptibility

12 Factors Guiding Treatment Initiation Epidemiologic information Clinical, pathological, chest x-ray findings Microscopic examination of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in sputum smears Nucleic acid amplification test (when performed)

13 When to Consider Treatment Initiation Positive AFB smear Treatment should not be delayed because of negative AFB smears if high clinical suspicion: –History of cough and weight loss –Characteristic findings on chest x-ray –Emmigration from a high-incidence country

14 Baseline Diagnostic Examinations for TB Chest x-ray Sputum specimens (= 3 obtained 8-24 hours apart) for AFB microscopy and mycobacterial cultures Routine drug-susceptibility testing for INH, RIF, and EMB on initial positive culture

15 Other Examinations to Conduct When TB Treatment Is Initiated (1) Counseling and testing for HIV infection CD4+ T-lymphocyte count for HIV-positive persons Hepatitis B and C serologic tests, if risks present

16 Other Examinations to Conduct When TB Treatment Is Initiated (2) Measurements of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, serum creatinine, and platelet count Visual acuity and color vision tests (when EMB used)

17 IDSA/USPHS* Rating System for Treatment Recommendations A. Preferred; should generally be offered B.Alternative; acceptable to offer C.Offer when preferred/ alternative regimens cannot be given D.Should generally not be offered E.Should never be offered I. At least one properly randomized trial with clinical endpoints II. Clinical trials that either are not randomized or were conducted in other populations III. Expert opinion Strength of the RecommendationQuality of Supporting Evidence *IDSA-Infectious Diseases Society of America; USPHS-U.S. Public Health Service

18 Treatment Regimens Four regimens recommended for treatment of culture-positive TB, with different options for dosing intervals in continuation phase Initial phase: standard four drug regimens (INH, RIF, PZA, EMB), for 2 months, (except one regimen that excludes PZA) Continuation phase: additional 4 months or (7 months for some patients)

19 Why Extend Continuation-Phase Treatment for 3 Months? Cavitary disease and positive sputum culture at 2 months associated with increased relapse in clinical trials Extended continuation phase decreased relapses in silicotuberculosis (from 20% to 3%)

20 When to Extend Continuation-Phase Treatment for 3 Months? Cavitary pulmonary disease and positive sputum cultures at completion of initial phase Initial phase excluded PZA Once-weekly INH and rifapentine started in continuation phase and sputum specimen collected at the end of initial phase is culture positive HIV-infected with positive 2-month sputum culture

21 Is specimen collected at end of initial phase (2 months) culture positive? NO YES Place patient on initial-phase regimen: INH, RIF, EMB, PZA for 2 months Give continuation- phase treatment of INH/RIF daily or twice weekly for 4 months High clinical suspicion for active TB Algorithm to Guide Duration of Continuation- Phase Treatment for Culture-Positive TB Patients

22 Give continuation-phase treatment of INH/RIF daily or twice weekly for 7 months Give continuation- phase treatment of INH/RIF daily or twice weekly for 4 months NO YES Was there cavitation on initial CXR? NO YES Is the patient HIV positive? Algorithm to Guide Duration of Continuation- Phase Treatment for Culture-Positive TB Patients (Continued) Give continuation- phase treatment of INH/RIF daily for 7 months

23 Treatment of Culture-Positive TB (1) Initial Phase Continuation Phase *Continuation phase increased to 7 months if initial chest x-ray shows cavitation and specimen collected at end of initial phase (2 months) is culture positive (Rated: AI in HIV-negative, AII in HIV-positive patients) 2 months - INH, RIF, PZA, EMB daily (56 doses, within 8 weeks) Options: 1)4 months - INH, RIF daily (126 doses, within 18 weeks) 2)4 months - INH, RIF twice / week (36 doses, within 18 weeks) 3)7 months - INH, RIF daily (217 doses, within 31 weeks)* 4)7 months - INH, RIF twice / week (62 doses, within 31 weeks)*

24 * Regimen rated BII for HIV-positive patients with CD4+ T-lymphocytes cell count >100/µl. Not recommended for those with CD4+ T-lymphocytes cell count < 100/µl Continuation Phase Treatment of Culture-Positive TB (2) Twice-Weekly Options (Rated: AII for HIV-negative, BII for HIV-positive patients*) 0.5 months - INH, RIF, PZA, EMB daily (10-14 doses, within 2 weeks) THEN 1.5 months - INH, RIF, PZA, EMB twice / week (12 doses, within 6 weeks) Options: 1)4 months - INH, RIF twice / week (36 doses, within 18 weeks) 2)7 months - INH, RIF twice / week (62 doses, within 31 weeks) Initial Phase

25 Continuation Phase Treatment of Culture-Positive TB (3) Thrice-Weekly Options (Rated: BI for HIV-negative, BII for HIV-positive patients) Initial Phase 2 months - INH, RIF, PZA, EMB 3 times / week (24 doses, within 8 weeks) Options: 1)4 months - INH, RIF 3 times / week (54 doses, within 18 weeks) 2) 7 months - INH, RIF 3 times / week (93 doses, within 31 weeks)

26 * Twice weekly dosing is not recommended for persons with CD4+ T-lymphocytes cell count < 100/µl Treatment of Culture-Positive TB (4) Regimens without Pyrazinamide (Rated: CI for HIV-negative, CII for HIV-positive patients) Continuation Phase 2 months - INH, RIF, EMB daily (56 doses, within 8 weeks) Initial Phase Options: 1)7 months - INH, RIF daily (217 doses, within 31 weeks) 2) 7 months - INH, RIF twice / week (62 doses, within 31 weeks)*

27 NOYES Algorithm to Guide Rifapentine (RPT) Use in Continuation Phase Is the patient HIV positive? NOYES NO Was there cavitation on initial CXR? YES Was the sputum AFB smear positive at 2 months? Not eligible for RPT

28 YES Give treatment of INH/RIF daily or twice weekly for 4 months Is RPT considered for treatment? NO Is specimen collected at end of initial phase (2 months) culture positive? Continue treatment until 4 months of INH/RPT completed Extend treatment with INH/RPT for total of 7 months YES NO Begin treatment with once- weekly INH/RPT Algorithm to Guide Rifapentine (RPT) Use in Continuation Phase (Continued)

29 Initial Phase Continuation Phase Treatment of Culture-Positive TB Rifapentine in Continuation Phase (Rated: BI for HIV-negative*, EI for HIV-positive patients) *Regimen is limited to noncavitary disease in HIV-negative patients. Sputum must be smear negative at completion of 2 months of treatment Options: 1)2 months - INH, RIF, PZA, EMB daily (56 doses, within 8 weeks) 2)0.5 months - INH, RIF, PZA, EMB daily (10-14 doses, within 2 weeks) THEN 1.5 months - INH, RIF, PZA, EMB twice / week (12 doses, within 6 weeks) Options: 1) 4 months - INH, RPT once weekly (18 doses, within 18 weeks) 2) 7 months - INH, RPT once weekly (31 doses, within 31 weeks)

30 Algorithm to Guide Treatment of Culture-Negative TB High clinical suspicion for active TB despite negative smears based on: Abnormal chest x-ray Clinical symptoms No other diagnosis Positive tuberculin skin test Patient placed on initial phase regimen: INH, RIF, EMB, PZA for 2 months

31 Algorithm to Guide Treatment of Culture-Negative TB (Continued) Give continuation- phase treatment of INH/RIF daily or twice weekly for 2 months NOYES Was there symptomatic or chest x-ray improvement after 2 months of treatment? NOYES Is initial culture positive? Continue treatment for culture-positive TB Discontinue treatment Patient presumed to have LTBI Treatment completed

32 Treatment of Culture-Negative TB* Initial Phase Continuation Phase *All cultures are negative, but evaluation at 2 months reveals clinical and chest x-ray response to antituberculosis drug therapy 2 months - INH, RIF, EMB, PZA daily (56 doses, within 8 weeks) Options: 1)2 months - INH, RIF daily (56 doses, within 8 weeks) 2) 2 months - INH, RIF twice / week (16 doses, within 8 weeks)

33 Treatment Monitoring (1) Monthly sputum for AFB smear and culture (until 2 consecutive cultures negative) Serial sputum smears every 2 weeks to assess early response Additional drug-susceptibility tests if culture- positive after 3 months of treatment

34 Treatment Monitoring (2) Periodic (minimum monthly) evaluation to assess adherence and identify adverse reactions Repeat chest x-ray: -At completion of initial treatment phase for patients with initial negative cultures -At end of treatment for patients with culture- negative TB -Generally not necessary for patients with culture positive TB

35 Treatment Monitoring (3) Renal function, AST, ALT, bilirubin, and platelet count if abnormalities at baseline Visual acuity and color vision monthly if EMB used > 2 months or doses > mg/kg

36 Determining Drug Completion (1) Completion primarily defined by number of ingested doses within specified time frame Examples 1) 6-month daily regimen (7 days/wk) = at least 182 doses of INH and RIF, and 56 doses of PZA 2) 6-month daily regimen (5 days/wk) = at least 130 doses

37 Determining Drug Completion (2) Specified doses must be administered 1) Within 3 months for initial phase 2) Within 6 months for 4-month continuation phase $ Consider therapy interrupted if target doses not met within specified time period

38 Management of Initial Phase Treatment Interruptions If lapse > 14 days, start from beginning If lapse < 14 days, continue treatment to complete total doses warranted (if can be completed within 3 months)

39 Algorithm for Management of Treatment Interruptions in the Initial Phase YES Start over from the beginning Is the treatment completed within 3 months? Start over from the beginning Continue treatment to complete total doses warranted NO YES How long is the interruption? Is it < 14 days?

40 Management of Continuation Phase Treatment Interruptions If received > 80% continuation-phase doses and: 1) sputum AFB smear negative on initial presentation, further therapy not necessary 2) sputum AFB smear positive on initial presentation, continue to complete full course

41 Management of Continuation Phase Treatment Interruptions If received < 80% continuation-phase doses and: 1) lapse < 3 months duration, continue to complete full course (as long as all doses can be completed within 6 months) 2) lapse was 3 months or greater, then start initial phase 4-drug regimen from the beginning

42 Algorithm for Management of Continuation Phase Treatment Interruptions -Additional treatment may not be necessary if sputum was AFB smear negative at baseline -If sputum smear was positive, continue treatment to complete planned total number of doses warranted NOYES Is it <80%? Is the duration of interruption <3 months? Start initial phase 4-drug regimen from beginning What is the total percentage of doses completed? NO YES Continue treatment; if not completed in 6 months, start initial phase 4-drug regimen from beginning

43 Caused byAdverse ReactionSigns and Symptoms Any drugAllergySkin rash EthambutolEye damageBlurred or changed vision Changed color vision Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, or Rifampin HepatitisAbdominal pain Abnormal liver function test results Fatigue Lack of appetite Nausea Vomiting Yellowish skin or eyes Dark urine Common Adverse Reactions to Drug Treatment (1)

44 Common Adverse Reactions to Drug Treatment (2) Caused byAdverse ReactionSigns and Symptoms IsoniazidPeripheral neuropathy Tingling sensation in hands and feet PyrazinamideGastrointestinal intolerance Arthralgia Arthritis Upset stomach, vomiting, lack of appetite Joint aches Gout (rare) StreptomycinEar damage Kidney damage Balance problems Hearing loss Ringing in the ears Abnormal kidney function test results

45 Common Adverse Reactions to Drug Treatment (3) Caused byAdverse ReactionSigns and Symptoms Rifamycins Rifabutin Rifapentine Rifampin Thrombocytopenia Gastrointestinal intolerance Drug interactions Easy bruising Slow blood clotting Upset stomach Interferes with certain medications, such as birth control pills, birth control implants, and methadone treatment

46 Drug Interactions Relatively few drug interactions substantially change concentrations of antituberculosis drugs Antituberculosis drugs sometimes change concentrations of other drugs -Rifamycins can decrease serum concentrations of many drugs, (e.g., most of the HIV-1 protease inhibitors), to subtherapeutic levels -Isoniazid increases concentrations of some drugs (e.g., phenytoin) to toxic levels

47 Relapse (1) A patient’s cultures become and remain negative while receiving antituberculosis drugs, but at some point after completion of therapy: 1)patient develops culture-positive TB disease again, or 2)patient experiences clinical or radiographic deterioration consistent with active TB disease Most relapses occur within the first 12 months after completion of therapy

48 Relapse (2) Patients with cavitation on initial chest radiograph and a positive culture at completion of 2 months of therapy are at increased risk of relapse with standard 6-month regimens Patients with relapse are at increased risk for acquired drug resistance, especially if the therapy was not directly observed

49 Treatment Failure Defined as positive cultures after 4 months of treatment in patients for whom medication ingestion was ensured Single new drug should never be added to a failing regimen; it may lead to acquired resistance to the added drug Add at least three new drugs (e.g., fluoroquinolone, ethionamide, and an injectable drug: SM, amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin) to the existing regimen being cognizant of the possibility of drug resistance

50 Drug Resistance (1) Established only by drug-susceptibility testing Treatment of TB caused by drug-resistant organisms should be done in close consultation with an expert Patients not on DOT in the past or who had irregular treatment are at risk of drug resistance

51 Drug Resistance (2) Consider the following expanded regimen for drug resistance: –INH, RIF, PZA, EMB plus three additional agents based on probability of in vitro susceptibility (e.g., fluoroquinolone, ethionamide, or an injectable drug: SM, amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin)

52 Special Treatment Situations HIV/AIDS Treatment for HIV-positive patients same as for HIV-negative patients, except 1)Once-weekly INH-rifapentine in continuation phase is contraindicated in HIV-positive patients 2)Twice-weekly INH-RIF or INH-rifabutin should not be used in patients with CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts less than 100/  l Every effort should be made to use a rifamycin-based regimen for the entire course of therapy

53 Special Treatment Situations (Children and Adolescents)* (1) Use DOT Treat young children (<5 years old) with three (rather than four) drugs in initial phase (i.e., INH, RIF, and PZA) EMB not recommended unless increased likelihood of INH resistance or diagnosis of adult-like TB** *Defined as persons <15 years old **Defined as upper-lobe infiltration and cavitation associated with sputum production

54 Special Treatment Situations Children and Adolescents (2) Thrice-weekly therapy not recommended Recommended duration of treatment is 6 months (absence of factors associated with increased risk of relapse)

55 Special Treatment Situations Extrapulmonary TB Similar treatment regimen for pulmonary TB* 6- to 9-month regimens that include INH and RIF are effective Corticosteroids used as adjunctive therapy for patients with TB meningitis and pericarditis If PZA cannot be used in the initial phase, continuation phase must be increased to 7 months *Except for central nervous system (CNS) TB, including meningitis; length of therapy is 9-12 months

56 Special Treatment Situations Pregnancy and Breastfeeding (1) Untreated TB represents greater hazard to a woman and her child than treatment of disease Treatment of pregnant woman with suspected TB should be started if probability of TB is moderate to high Initial phase treatment regimen should consist of INH, RIF, and EMB

57 Special Treatment Situations Pregnancy and Breastfeeding (2) SM should not be substituted for EMB because of possible teratogenic effects PZA not generally recommended for pregnant women in the United States

58 Special Treatment Situations Renal Insufficiency and End-Stage Renal Disease (1) Renal insufficiency complicates management of TB because some antituberculosis medications are cleared by the kidneys Dosage should not be decreased because peak serum concentrations may be too low; smaller doses may decrease drug efficacy

59 Dosing interval of antituberculosis drugs should be increased Most drugs can be given 3 times weekly after hemodialysis; for some drugs, dose must be adjusted Special Treatment Situations Renal Insufficiency and End-Stage Renal Disease (2)

60 Special Treatment Situations Hepatic Disease (1) Must consider regimens with fewer hepatotoxic agents for patients with liver disease Recommended regimens: 1)Treatment without PZA Initial phase (2 months): INH, RIF, and EMB Continuation phase (7 months): INH and RIF 2)Treatment without INH Initial phase (2 months): RIF, PZA, and EMB Continuation phase (4 months): RIF, EMB, and PZA

61 Special Treatment Situations Hepatic Disease (2) Recommended regimens: (continued) 3)Regimens with only one potentially hepatotoxic drug –RIF should be retained –Duration of treatment is months 4)Regimens with no potentially hepatotoxic drugs –Duration of treatment is months

62 Continuing Education Credits (1) Participants will be able to receive one of the following: –Continuing Medical Education (CME) credit = 3.75 –Continuing Nursing Education (CNE) credit = 4.3 –Continuing Education Unit (CEU) = 0.43 –Certified Health Education Specialist (CHES) credit = 3.5 Participants are required to read and study the treatment guidelines, take a test, and complete an evaluation

63 Continuing Education Credits (2) Continuing education credit will be awarded through: –CDC’s Public Health Training Network (PHTN) orhttp://phppo.cdc.gov/phtnonline –MMWR at

64 Treatment Guidelines Online Availability CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: American Thoracic Society: tb.pdf

65 Additional TB Resources For additional information on tuberculosis, visit the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination Web site at:


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