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1 Top-to-Bottom Ranking & Priority/Focus/Reward Designations Understanding the

2 Why the TTB Ranking? Move from metric as designation only (“stick”) to leveraging the metric as a diagnostic tool for schools Resist urge for “more data” until we understand the metrics available; avoids “dying in data” Focus of this presentation: o Overview of calculations o How to interpret results (for schools and districts)

3 How Designations are Related Top-to-Bottom Ranking Priority Schools Focus Schools Reward Schools Reward High Achievement Reward High Improvement Beating the Odds Study 1Study 2

4 The Top-to-Bottom List Statewide ranking of ALL schools that meet ranking criteria Bottom 5% = Priority (PLA) Schools 10% schools with largest achievement gaps = Focus Schools Also used for Reward School status: o Use top 5% from overall ranking = Reward Schools o Use top 5% improving schools = Reward Schools o Use Beating the Odds Schools = Reward Schools

5 Top to Bottom (TTB) Ranking Three main components by subject: Achievement Improvement in achievement over time (top 5% here become Reward Schools ) Achievement gap top 30% vs. bottom 30% of students (bottom 10% here become Focus Schools ) Each component tells schools something about their overall performance and can be used for diagnostics

6 TTB Ranking Graduation rates are included in the statewide Top- to-Bottom Ranking. Schools with a graduation rate have it included in the following two ways: Graduation Rate Improvement in graduation rate over time

7 Who Receives a Ranking? Schools with 30+ full academic year (FAY) students over the last two years in at least two state-tested content areas; school must be OPEN at time of list generation Application  Some schools do not receive a ranking if they: Have too few FAY students Only have one year of data

8 Tested Grades & Subjects Reading and Mathematics: Grades 3-8 and 11 In grades 3-8, testing every year allows us to figure out student performance level change (our current “growth” metric) in reading and math Students can either significantly improve, improve, maintain, decline or significantly decline Writing: Grades 4 & 7 Science: Grades 5 & 8 Social Studies: Grades 6 & 9

9 What About Reconfigured Schools? A school must change by four or more grades in order to get a new code Example: A K-2 building becoming a K-6 building. New codes NOT granted when a school is reopened as a charter, for example If not, the school retains the old code and continues to have data “point” at it from all students for whom that code is their feeder school There is no “phase reset” like there was in AYP If school population changed by 51%, could request a phase reset— still got AYP calculations, but sanctions delayed Under Priority/Focus interventions, would simply have a customized intervention.

10 How Is the Top to Bottom Ranking Calculated For grade 3-8 reading and mathematics Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Two-Year Average Performance Level Change Index Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score

11 How do we get Standardized Scale Scores for Each Student? Step #1: Take each student’s score on the test they took and compare that score to the statewide average for students who took that same test in the same grade and year This creates a student-level z-score for each student in each content area o Compare MEAP to MEAP MEAP-Access to MEAP-Access MME to MME MI-Access o Participation to Participation o Supported Independence to Supported Independence o Functional Independence to Functional Independence

12 What do we do with those Standardized Scores? Step #2: Once each student has a z-score for each content area (based on the test they took), we take all of the students in a each school, and rank order the students within the school. o Z-scores will have come from different tests, and compare students to statewide average for that grade, test, and subject o But they can now be combined for the school Step #3: Add up all z-scores and take the average. This is now the average standardized student scale score. Step #4: Define the top and bottom 30% subgroups, based on that rank ordering.

13 StudentTest TakenZ-score TommyMi-Access, Participation2.5 SallyMEAP2.0 MauraMI-Access, SI1.9 FredMEAP1.5 IchabodMEAP-Access1.0 FreudMEAP0.8 MaybelleMI-Access, FI0.7 DestinyMEAP0.5 HaroldMEAP-0.2 BickfordMI-Access, FI-0.5 TalledagaMEAP-Access-0.7 FrancineMEAP-1.2 JoeyMEAP-1.9 WilliamMEAP-2.2

14 StudentTest TakenZ-score TommyMi-Access, Participation2.5 SallyMEAP2.0 MauraMI-Access, SI1.9 FredMEAP1.5 IchabodMEAP-Access1.0 FreudMEAP0.8 MaybelleMI-Access, FI0.7 DestinyMEAP0.5 HaroldMEAP-0.2 BickfordMI-Access, FI-0.5 TalledagaMEAP-Access-0.7 FrancineMEAP-1.2 JoeyMEAP-1.9 WilliamMEAP-2.2 Average Z-score (average standardized student scale score): 0.28 (sum all z-scores, divide by 14)

15 StudentTest TakenZ-score TommyMi-Access, Participation2.5 SallyMEAP2.0 MauraMI-Access, SI1.9 FredMEAP1.5 IchabodMEAP-Access1.0 FreudMEAP0.8 MaybelleMI-Access, FI0.7 DestinyMEAP0.5 HaroldMEAP-0.2 BickfordMI-Access, FI-0.5 TalledagaMEAP-Access-0.7 FrancineMEAP-1.2 JoeyMEAP-1.9 WilliamMEAP-2.2 Top 30% Bottom 30%

16 How Is the Top to Bottom Ranking Calculated? For grade 3-8 reading and mathematics Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Two-Year Average Performance Level Change Index Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score

17 What is Important to Show Schools? For grade 3-8 reading and mathematics Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Two-Year Average Performance Level Change Index Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score Step #1: Achievement How well did the school do in that subject? Positive number = better than average Near zero = average Negative number = worse than average

18 What is Important to Show Schools? For grade 3-8 reading and mathematics Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Two-Year Average Performance Level Change Index Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score Step #2: Improvement Is the school improving in that subject? Positive number = greater rate of improvement than average Near zero = average improvement Negative = slower rate of improvement than average; can also mean they are declining

19 For grade 3-8 reading and mathematics Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Two-Year Average Performance Level Change Index Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score What is Important to Show Schools? Raw value is also meaningful: Positive number: More students improving than declining Negative number: More students declining than improving

20 For grade 3-8 reading and mathematics Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Two-Year Average Performance Level Change Index Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score What is Important to Show Schools? Step #3: Achievement Gap Is the gap in that subject between top 30% and bottom 30%: (positive number) = smaller gap than average (negative number) = larger gap than average (near zero) = average gap

21 Once you have Looked at each Component, Discuss: What’s the overall pattern? o Low achievement? o Declining achievement? o Large gaps? Where are the actionable areas? o Which subjects need the most attention? o Is everyone doing poorly (small gap, low achievement) or are some students doing well and others falling behind (decent achievement, but large gap)

22 For grade 3-8 reading and mathematics Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Two-Year Average Performance Level Change Index Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Performance Level Change Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score Focus Schools Reward Schools (for improvement) What is Important to Show Schools?

23 Weighted Performance Level Change (PLC) A weighted composite of individual student performance level change is used to calculate improvement in grades 3-8 reading and mathematics Rewards large improvements more heavily, rewards maintenance of proficiency if a student was already proficient Previous Proficiency Significant Decline DeclineMaintainImprovement Significant Improvement Not Previously Proficient Previously Proficient -2112

24 How is the Top-to Bottom Ranking Calculated? For science, social studies, writing, and grade 11 all tested subjects Two-Year Average Standardized Student Scale (Z) Score Four-Year Achievement Trend Slope Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap Two-Year Average Bottom 30% - Top 30% Z-Score Gap School Achievement Z-Score School Achievement Z-Score School Performance Achievement Trend Z-Score School Performance Achievement Trend Z-Score School Achievement Gap Z-Score School Content Area Index School Content Area Index 1/2 1/4 Content Index Z- score

25 How is the Top-to-Bottom Ranking Calculated? For graduation rate Two-Year Average Graduation Rate Four-Year Graduation Rate Trend Slope School Graduation Rate Z-Score School Graduation Rate Trend Z-Score School Graduation Rate Trend Z-Score School Graduation Rate Index 2/3 1/3 Grad Index Z- score

26 How is the Top-to-Bottom Ranking Calculated? Calculating a four-year slope (e.g., graduation rate) Plot the school’s graduation rate for the last four years Plot a linear regression line through the points Calculate the slope of the line (gives the school’s annual improvement rate)

27 How is the Top-to-Bottom Ranking Calculated? Calculating a four-year slope (e.g., graduation rate) Plot the school’s graduation rate for the last four years Plot a linear regression line through the points Calculate the slope of the line (gives the school’s annual improvement rate)

28 How is the Top-to-Bottom Ranking Calculated? Calculating a four-year slope (e.g., graduation rate) Plot the school’s graduation rate for the last four years Plot a linear regression line through the points Calculate the slope of the line (gives the school’s annual improvement rate) Slope = 2.3%

29 How is the Top-to-Bottom Ranking Calculated? Calc an overall rank for a school with a grad rate School Graduation Rate Std Index School Mathematics Std Index School Reading Std Index School Science Std Index School Social Studies Std Index School Writing Std Index Overall Standardized School Index 18% 10% Overall School Percentile Rank

30 How is the Top-to-Bottom Ranking Calculated? Calculating an overall ranking for a school without a graduation rate School Mathematics Std Index School Reading Std Index School Science Std Index School Social Studies Std Index School Writing Std Index Overall School Standardized Index 20% Overall School Percentile Rank Look at each subject index. Help schools understand which subjects are strong/weak for them. Positive number: better than average Negative number: below average Near zero: near average

31 How is the Top-to-Bottom Ranking Calculated? Calculating an overall ranking for a school without a graduation rate and without a writing score School Mathematics Index School Reading Index School Science Index School Social Studies Index Overall School Standardized Index 25% Overall School Percentile Rank

32 Which years of data are in the ranking?

33 For elementary and middle schools Michigan tests in the fall. These fall tests reflect the learning of students in the previous school year. Fall 2012 Testing Fall 2011 Testing Fall 2010 Testing Fall 2009 Testing SY SY SY

34 For High Schools Michigan tests in the spring The spring test (MME and MI- Access) measures what students have learned from grades 9, 10 and grade 11 prior to the MME testing.

35 What do the 2012 Rankings reflect? For elementary/middle schools: o MEAP and MI-Access tests from fall 2011 For high schools: o MME and MI-Access tests from spring 2012

36 Resources Available List of all schools and their ranking Individual school look-up to see school-specific results Overview presentation with voice over FAQ Business rules by which the rankings were calculated Complete data file and validation file You can access these resources at You can also request individual assistance by calling the Evaluation, Research and Accountability unit at , or ing

37 Priority School Status Schools in the bottom 5% of the Top-to-Bottom Ranking MDE ensures that the number of schools identified as Priority Schools includes >=5% of the state’s Title I schools. MDE will also add schools with a grad rate of <60% for 3 consecutive years, and any Tier I or Tier II school using SIG funds to implement a turnaround model.

38 How does a school EXIT Priority School status? For a school to exit priority school status, it has to receive a Green, Lime, Yellow or Orange on the Accountability Scorecard at the close of its third year in the Priority School intervention system. A school must either meet aggressive proficiency targets (toward 85% of students proficient by 2022), or must have demonstrated significant improvement. The proficiency and/or improvement gains must be demonstrated all nine traditional ESEA subgroups as well as in the new “bottom 30%” subgroup.

39 How does a school EXIT Priority School status? This means that a priority school who achieves a Green, Lime, Yellow or Orange on the Accountability Scorecard and exits Priority School status has: o Met all interim measurements of progress for priority schools (approved plan, leading and lagging indicators). o Met proficiency and/or improvement targets on average as a school. o Increased the proficiency rate of all traditional subgroups. o Increased the proficiency rate of their very lowest performing students.

40 Focus School Status 10% of Schools with the largest achievement gaps in scale score between the top 30% of students and bottom 30% of students within a school from the Top-to-Bottom Ranking. Focus schools may have high average performance overall, but have a significantly large gap, suggesting struggles addressing low achieving students

41 The Purpose of Identifying Focus Schools Critical component to closing achievement gaps within schools and statewide. Highlight where changes in teaching and learning practices need to be undertaken to respond to the learning needs of low-achieving students. These changes are difficult; both accountability and support need to be differentiated.

42 Focus Schools: Achievement Gaps Top-to-Bottom list includes a component that examines the gap in achievement scores between top 30% and bottom 30% of students within a school Gaps are standardized between all students using a common assessment within a school, and then averaged for the school Gaps are calculated for all subject areas and combined to form a composite gap

43 How are Focus Schools Identified? Average gap is then standardized and ranked among all schools The 10% of schools with the largest achievement gaps are identified as Focus Schools

44 Focus Schools: Common Concerns Are Focus Schools only high-achieving schools? Are Focus Schools only high socioeconomic status schools? Is the bottom 30% subgroup in Focus Schools actually high performing? Are schools more likely to be Focus Schools if they have [fill in the blank group] kids?

45 Focus Schools are NOT Just High Achieving...

46 Focus Schools are NOT Exclusively High (or Low) Socioeconomic Status...

47 Bottom 30% Students are NOT High Achieving... Bottom 30% Top 30% Across all subject areas and grade levels, the bottom 30% subgroup consistently had average achievement z-score below zero, and most of them are between -0.5 and (This example: E/MS Reading) Non-Focus Schools Focus Schools

48 Bottom 30 are Not Dominated by any 1 Subgroup…  Focus schools have higher concentrations of subgroups in bottom 30% than other schools

49 Focus Designation vs. AYP Achievement gap between top 30% and bottom 30% of students within a school. This approach targets ACHIEVEMENT gaps and THEN asks the demographic question. Methodology detects differences in achievement within subgroups; between subgroups; or with small populations. Limited by the size of groups and demographic status only. Methodology detects differences in achievement within a subgroup as a whole or as an overall student population

50 Reward School Status Identification as a Reward School results from achieving one or more of the following distinctions:  Being in the top 5% of the Top-to-Bottom Ranking  Being in the top 5% of improving schools from the improvement metric in the Top-to-Bottom ranking  Being a school identified as “Beating the Odds” (BTO).

51 Identifying Schools Beating the Odds 2 separate studies of schools Beating the Odds using considerably different methodologies 1.Schools performing above their predicted levels based on these factors: Percent economically disadvantaged Percent students with disabilities Percent English language learners Percent minority 2.Schools performing above a comparison group of the most demographically similar schools in the state Provides a strong basis for concluding that these schools are indeed beating odds

52 What happens once a school is named a Reward School? Receive public recognition for their achievements through a communication to local media. Have their practices highlighted at conferences and other events, such as MDE’s School Improvement Conference. MDE is seeking other supports for Reward Schools, including increased flexibility in the use of federal grant funds, corporate and philanthropic support, and networking meetings for school leaders and educators.

53 Summary of Ranking-Related Designations Top-to-Bottom Ranking Priority Schools Focus Schools Reward Schools Reward High Achievement Reward High Improvement Beating the Odds Study 1Study 2

54 We’re here to help! -OR , Option 6


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