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Easy to Use Financial Tools for Effective Decision Making Paul M. Dooley President Optimal Connections, LLC P: (949) 305-3544 E:

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Presentation on theme: "Easy to Use Financial Tools for Effective Decision Making Paul M. Dooley President Optimal Connections, LLC P: (949) 305-3544 E:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Easy to Use Financial Tools for Effective Decision Making Paul M. Dooley President Optimal Connections, LLC P: (949) 305-3544 E: pmdooley@optimalconnections.com pmdooley@optimalconnections.com W: www.optimalconnections.com www.optimalconnections.com

2 Optimal Connections, LLC Typical Decision Challenges You May be Facing Should I remain with the status quo, or implement a new Service Management System (SMS)? Should I remain with the status quo, or implement a new Service Management System (SMS)? If I implement a new SMS, which one should I choose? If I implement a new SMS, which one should I choose? Is it worthwhile for me to implement a Knowledge Management System? Is it worthwhile for me to implement a Knowledge Management System? Should I invest in Remote Access Tool A, B..or C? Should I invest in Remote Access Tool A, B..or C? Is it wise for me to consolidate our multiple help desks to a centralized Service Desk, or should we remain decentralized? Is it wise for me to consolidate our multiple help desks to a centralized Service Desk, or should we remain decentralized?

3 Optimal Connections, LLC Agenda Decision Making Challenges Decision Making Challenges How to Use Financial Tools to Help: How to Use Financial Tools to Help: –Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) –Return on Investment (ROI) –Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 7 Steps in Applying the Tools 7 Steps in Applying the Tools Valuable Resources Valuable Resources Summary Summary

4 Optimal Connections, LLC Someone Once Said … “Success in life often depends on the choices we make.” Take advantage of best practices and available financial tools that can help you make better quality decisions How do you make the right choice?

5 Optimal Connections, LLC How Do I Know Which Course of Action to Take? Let’s see, I could … Let’s see, I could … –Guess –Pick one, based on the ‘good old boy’ network –Focus on the ‘coolest’ technology –Pick the one that’s cheapest (up front) –Choose the one that’s got the most ‘features’ –Base my decision on what my management thinks (what – consider the users?)

6 Optimal Connections, LLC Why Not A More Business Like Course of Action Follow a best-practice selection process Follow a best-practice selection process Use a combination of financial tools to improve the quality of your decision Use a combination of financial tools to improve the quality of your decision –Do the benefits really justify the cost? –How long will it take to recover our investment? –It the investment really worth it? –What is the true total cost over the life of the asset? These tools are not new – they have been used for decades by organizations of all kinds These tools are not new – they have been used for decades by organizations of all kinds Applying them to IT Services is simply good business practice Applying them to IT Services is simply good business practice

7 Optimal Connections, LLC What’s In It For You? Demonstrate a ‘business approach’ Demonstrate a ‘business approach’ Minimize risk and costs through informed, higher quality decisions Minimize risk and costs through informed, higher quality decisions Increased credibility with management Increased credibility with management Build stronger Business Cases for proposals Build stronger Business Cases for proposals A more strategic approach, aligning with business goals A more strategic approach, aligning with business goals Help ensure successful business outcomes for customers, through improved service provisioning Help ensure successful business outcomes for customers, through improved service provisioning Be a good steward of investments in IT services Be a good steward of investments in IT services

8 Optimal Connections, LLC Tools to Improve the Quality of Your Decision Making The three tools we will focus on are: The three tools we will focus on are: –Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA): Weighing costs vs. benefits, and calculating payback –Return on Investment (ROI): is it worth the investment? –Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) – what is the total cost of ownership over time? Using these tools in concert will help you make better quality decisions and build stronger business cases for proposals!

9 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Overview Technique for deciding whether or not a change is worthwhile Technique for deciding whether or not a change is worthwhile Add up the value of the benefits of a course of action, subtracts associated costs, and come up with an advised decision Add up the value of the benefits of a course of action, subtracts associated costs, and come up with an advised decision –Costs: one-time, and on-going –Benefits: usually realized over time A time factor is built by consideration of a “pay back period” A time factor is built by consideration of a “pay back period” Key: assign a financial value to both tangible and intangible benefits Key: assign a financial value to both tangible and intangible benefits –Placing a financial value on intangibles needs to be justifiable

10 Optimal Connections, LLC How to Do a Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA): Steps 1. Establish a common unit of valuation ($) 2. Identify all of the tangible costs –Hardware, software, training, documentation, maintenance support, consulting, opportunity costs 3. Total all of the costs 4. Identify all of the benefits –Tangible benefits (where it is easy to quantify the savings) –Intangible benefits (assign values based on estimates, justifiable assumptions) 5. Total the value of benefits in year 1 and beyond 6. Determine payback time: divide [costs] / [benefits]

11 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Consider a Scenario A support center manager is deciding whether to implement a new computer-based incident management system. A support center manager is deciding whether to implement a new computer-based incident management system. His help desk is in start up mode, with mostly new support associates. His help desk is in start up mode, with mostly new support associates. He is aware that with a more automated incident tracking system he will be able to handle calls more effectively and efficiently, with a higher level of quality and faster delivery. He is aware that with a more automated incident tracking system he will be able to handle calls more effectively and efficiently, with a higher level of quality and faster delivery.

12 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Estimating Costs - Scenario New help desk computer equipment: $36,200 New help desk computer equipment: $36,200 –10 network PCs with software @ $2,450 ea.: $24,500 –1 server @ $3,500 –3 printers @ $1,200 each: $3,600 –Cabling & Installation @ $4,600 –On-going maintenance costs after 1 st yr: $3,930/yr Software: $15,000 Software: $15,000 –IMS Software, 10 user license @ $15,000 (includes 1 st year support) –On-going support (Silver): $2,700/yr Staff training costs: $14,800 Staff training costs: $14,800 –Customer Service Skills - 10 people @ $400 each: $4,000 –Incident Mgt. System - 12 people @ $900 each: $10,800

13 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Estimating Costs Other implementation costs: $48,000 Other implementation costs: $48,000 –Lost time: 40 man days @ $200 / day –Lost productivity through disruption: estimate: $20,000 –Lost sales through service inefficiency during first months: estimate: $20,000 Total costs (1 st year): $114,000 Total costs (1 st year): $114,000 But what are the benefits, and the value of these? But what are the benefits, and the value of these? And what’s the payback time? And what’s the payback time?

14 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Estimating Benefits Estimate the Value of Tangible Benefits: Estimate the Value of Tangible Benefits: –Handle more work with same staff – savings: $40,000/yr –Improved uptime through prevention - estimate: $20,000/yr –Improved efficiency and reliability of call handling - estimate: $50,000/yr –Improved service and retention - estimate: $30,000/yr –Improved accuracy of information - estimate: $10,000/yr –More ability to support sales effort: $30,000/yr Do the Same with Intangible Benefits: Do the Same with Intangible Benefits: –Higher employee morale = higher productivity Total Benefits: $180,000/year Total Benefits: $180,000/year Payback time: $114,000 / $180,000 = 0.63 of a year = approx. 8 months! Payback time: $114,000 / $180,000 = 0.63 of a year = approx. 8 months!

15 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Key Point: Payback Time Payback time is often known as the break even point Payback time is often known as the break even point –Time it takes to recover the cost (sooner the better!) Found graphically by plotting costs and income on a graph of output quantity against $. Found graphically by plotting costs and income on a graph of output quantity against $. –Break even occurs at the point the two lines cross. –Break even occurs at the point the two lines cross. Bottom line: Although the estimates of the benefits given by the new system are quite subjective, the IT Director is very likely to approve the proposal, given the short payback time. Bottom line: Although the estimates of the benefits given by the new system are quite subjective, the IT Director is very likely to approve the proposal, given the short payback time.

16 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Key Point: Time Value of $ For longer payback times, the “time value” of money should be factored in! For longer payback times, the “time value” of money should be factored in! –A dollar 5 years from now is not worth the same as it is today! –A dollar available now can be invested and earn interest for five years and would be worth more than a dollar in five years When the dollar value of benefits at some time in the future is multiplied by the discounted value of one dollar at that time in the future, the result is the discounted present value of that benefit of the project. When the dollar value of benefits at some time in the future is multiplied by the discounted value of one dollar at that time in the future, the result is the discounted present value of that benefit of the project. The same thing applies to costs – future costs have to be brought back to their ‘net present value’ The same thing applies to costs – future costs have to be brought back to their ‘net present value’ Net Present Value: sum of the present value of the benefits less the present value of the costs Net Present Value: sum of the present value of the benefits less the present value of the costs

17 Optimal Connections, LLC Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) Summary Cost/Benefit Analysis is a powerful, widely used and relatively easy tool to use Cost/Benefit Analysis is a powerful, widely used and relatively easy tool to use Doing it well: include all the costs and all the benefits, and quantify them! Doing it well: include all the costs and all the benefits, and quantify them! Where costs or benefits are realized over time, work out the payback period Where costs or benefits are realized over time, work out the payback period Include time value of money Include time value of money Including intangible items within the analysis requires you estimate a value for these; supply justifiable valuations for these items. Including intangible items within the analysis requires you estimate a value for these; supply justifiable valuations for these items.

18 Optimal Connections, LLC Return on Investment (ROI) Overview Purpose: compare the costs of a project (investment), with the value of its results Purpose: compare the costs of a project (investment), with the value of its results –Am I getting my expected return? –Evaluate one investment vs. another ROI is expressed as a percentage ROI is expressed as a percentage –Example: a 25% annual ROI means that a $100 investment would return $25 in one year A basic equation for calculating the ROI: A basic equation for calculating the ROI: ROI = [(Payback - Investment)/Investment)]*100 –Investment relates to the amount of resources put in ($, time) –Payback is the amount of money earned from your investment

19 Optimal Connections, LLC Return on Investment (ROI) Considerations Managers often underestimate the amount of investment required Managers often underestimate the amount of investment required –Hence ROI calculations can be skewed Common mistake: not factoring in employee time required to implement Common mistake: not factoring in employee time required to implement –Resources includes money, as well as human resources or “time”. Don’t under value time! Another mistake: not factoring in the “cost of capital” – a $ today is not worth the same as it will be tomorrow! Another mistake: not factoring in the “cost of capital” – a $ today is not worth the same as it will be tomorrow! –Present Value (PV) of future costs and benefits needs to be calculated, using your organizations “cost of capital” –Net Present Value (NPV) is PV of Benefits – PV of Costs

20 Optimal Connections, LLC How to Calculate Return on Investment (ROI): Steps 1. Determine the total amount of investment required –Resources – financial, people (time), etc. 2. Calculate the amount of return –Savings, revenue & productivity growth 3. If calculating over time, calculate the Present Value of future costs and returns by your organization’s discounted cost of capital 4. Calculate the ROI by dividing the return by the investment, and multiply by 100 to express as a percentage

21 Optimal Connections, LLC Calculating Return on Investment (ROI): Scenario What’s the 1 st yr ROI on our scenario? Givens … What’s the 1 st yr ROI on our scenario? Givens … –Total Costs = $114,000 –Total Benefits: $180,000/year –Calculating ROI for 1 st year only (since rapid payback) Applying our ROI formula for the 1 st year yields: Applying our ROI formula for the 1 st year yields: –ROI = [(Payback -Investment)/Investment)]*100 –ROI = [(180,000 - $114,000) / $114,000 ] * 100 –ROI = ($66,000 / $114,000) * 100 –ROI =.578 * 100 = 57.8% CBA showed payback time: $114,000 / $180,000 = 0.63 of a year = approx. 8 months CBA showed payback time: $114,000 / $180,000 = 0.63 of a year = approx. 8 months

22 Optimal Connections, LLC Return on Investment (ROI) Key Points ROI can be expressed for different time periods: be sure to stipulate your time period! ROI can be expressed for different time periods: be sure to stipulate your time period! Use a spreadsheet tool to automate the process, ensure accuracy, and compare alternatives Use a spreadsheet tool to automate the process, ensure accuracy, and compare alternatives Remember – one option is always to ‘do nothing’. Ensure you calculate this ROI! Remember – one option is always to ‘do nothing’. Ensure you calculate this ROI! Be thorough: include all factors … Be thorough: include all factors … –All investments required (people, time, money, etc.) –‘Opportunity costs’ – people not able to do their regular job due to being involved –All returns (savings realized, revenue enhancements, increased productivity, employee and customer satisfaction)

23 Optimal Connections, LLC Total Cost of Ownership (TCO): Overview Definition: all costs of owning and operating an asset over its expected useful life. Definition: all costs of owning and operating an asset over its expected useful life. TCO ensures that you account for all associated costs over a given time period when you are considering a decision, or assessing one option vs. another TCO ensures that you account for all associated costs over a given time period when you are considering a decision, or assessing one option vs. another Benefits: Benefits: –Accounts for not only the initial investment, but all the other costs associated with further use of the asset. –Factors in ‘useful life’ of assets, usually 3, 5 or 7 years –Ensures a comprehensive analysis of long term effects and helps account for hidden costs –Enables a total cost comparison of one option vs. another

24 Optimal Connections, LLC Total Cost of Ownership (TCO): Overview Challenges: Challenges: –Does NOT consider benefits of various options –Does not factor in the ROI (or value) of one option vs. another – only total costs over time –Does not provide insight into the timing of costs: Product A, which may have a lower acquisition cost and high on-going maintenance costs, is likely to be less attractive than Product B, which may have a higher acquisition cost, but lower ongoing maintenance costs; Yet both may have a similar TCO over the period analyzed!

25 Optimal Connections, LLC Total Cost of Ownership (TCO): Overview Other challenges: Other challenges: –Only a general formula: calculate the total costs of ownership over the life of the asset –No help for how to value “intangible assets” –Does not provide any insight to relative risk of options Companies that rely solely on TCO end up following a strategy that minimizes expenditure rather than maximizes return! Companies that rely solely on TCO end up following a strategy that minimizes expenditure rather than maximizes return! Why this tool needs to be combined with CBA and ROI for quality investment decisions! Why this tool needs to be combined with CBA and ROI for quality investment decisions!

26 Optimal Connections, LLC How to Calculate Total Cost of Ownership: Steps 1. Employ a spreadsheet tool that meets your needs 2. Gather ALL relevant costs –All types: hardware, software, installation, conversion… –Initial costs and on-going costs over the life of the asset –Note: useful life must be the same for comparisons! –Which costs should you use? Depends on what the asset is and where it will be used –Costs for most IT investments are usually broken down into ‘direct’ and ‘indirect’ costs

27 Optimal Connections, LLC How to Calculate Total Cost of Ownership: Steps Compile Direct Costs: chargeable directly to project Compile Direct Costs: chargeable directly to project –Hardware & Software – capital expenditures for various HW & SW –Management Support – time required, maintenance contracts, professional services or outsourcing –Technical Support - support staff time, training time and costs, travel, support contracts –Implementation – customization, integration), testing –Communication Costs – LAN, WAN, leased lines.. And Indirect Costs: not tied directly.. And Indirect Costs: not tied directly –End user - training, informal support outside recognized IT support channels, local self-support –Downtime - lost productivity due to planned and unplanned network, system, and application unavailability

28 Optimal Connections, LLC How to Calculate Total Cost of Ownership: Steps 3. Fill in all the data –Direct costs –Indirect costs –First year and re-curing costs over the useful life of the asset (example – 3 years). 4. Use the tool to calculate the Total Cost of Ownership over the useful life of the asset 5. Optionally, compare the TCO of this option with that of another option, and the TCO of the ‘status quo’ 6. Determine which option has the lowest TCO Here is what our sample nets out to (next slide)….

29 Optimal Connections, LLC Sample Tool: TCO Calculator, from Info- Tech Research Group 3 Year Life-cycle, with upfront and recurring costs

30 Optimal Connections, LLC

31 TCO Calculation: Applying to our Scenario How does TCO relate to CBA and ROI? How does TCO relate to CBA and ROI? TCO shows long term costs, not cost vs. benefits, or ROI TCO shows long term costs, not cost vs. benefits, or ROI To arrive at a quality decision, we need apply all three tools and account for the time value of money: To arrive at a quality decision, we need apply all three tools and account for the time value of money: –Assume a 5% required rate of return –CBA payback: $114,000 / $180,000 = approx 8 months –Costs of $129,860 over 3 yrs discounted to Present Value = $123,676 –Benefits of $540,000 over 3 yrs discounted to Present Value = $514,287 –ROI: 57.8% for 1 st year, however 3 years ROI is much greater: NPV of 3 yr Benefits vs. Costs: $514,287 - $123,676 = $390,611 NPV of 3 yr Benefits vs. Costs: $514,287 - $123,676 = $390,611 $390,611 / $123,676 = 3.158 * 100 = 315% ROI over 3 yrs! $390,611 / $123,676 = 3.158 * 100 = 315% ROI over 3 yrs! Bottom line: rapid payback of initial investment, and high ROI over the life of the asset, with acceptable TCO. GO for it! Bottom line: rapid payback of initial investment, and high ROI over the life of the asset, with acceptable TCO. GO for it!

32 Optimal Connections, LLC Applying the Tools: a Best Practice Selection Process Step 1: Form a team, project and do a needs analysis Step 1: Form a team, project and do a needs analysis Step 2: Prepare a Requirements Definition Step 2: Prepare a Requirements Definition Step 3: Go through a diligent selection process to evaluate proposals Step 3: Go through a diligent selection process to evaluate proposals Step 4: Arrive at ‘short list’ of suppliers Step 4: Arrive at ‘short list’ of suppliers Step 5: Apply the financial tools we discussed to build a business case for the best decision Step 5: Apply the financial tools we discussed to build a business case for the best decision Step 6: Make the decision and negotiate Step 6: Make the decision and negotiate Step 7: Implement and track your results Step 7: Implement and track your results

33 Optimal Connections, LLC Step 1: Form a Team and Do a Needs Analysis Form a cross-functional team Form a cross-functional team Appoint a project lead, and develop a project plan with milestones, resources and time frames Appoint a project lead, and develop a project plan with milestones, resources and time frames Conduct kick off meeting to define and prioritize needs Conduct kick off meeting to define and prioritize needs Set expectations, and communicate! Set expectations, and communicate! Do a Needs Analysis: allows you to analyze the situation to see whether the technology is truly needed immediately. May include… Do a Needs Analysis: allows you to analyze the situation to see whether the technology is truly needed immediately. May include… –Surveys, interviews and observations to gather detailed input –Reviews of past metrics – performance, customer, employee Establish a baseline (KPIs) for later comparison Establish a baseline (KPIs) for later comparison Consider best practices for the area, as well as industry analysts Consider best practices for the area, as well as industry analysts Source: HDI SCM

34 Optimal Connections, LLC Step 2: Prepare a Requirements Definition Document all requirements for the proposed system or tool Document all requirements for the proposed system or tool –Background –Customer end-user requirements –Current support processes –Desired features and functions –Other: usability, scalability, portability, or compliance Categorize requirements, and list priorities (must have, nice to have, optional/plus) Categorize requirements, and list priorities (must have, nice to have, optional/plus) Weight requirements, use numbers to quantify Weight requirements, use numbers to quantify Factor in optional additional information: Factor in optional additional information: –Special requirements from key stakeholders –Available budget allowances –Anticipated volume of transactions for scalability –Number and type of support staff required Source: HDI SCM

35 Optimal Connections, LLC Step 3: Conduct a Diligent Selection Process Identify vendors/suppliers who potentially can meet your needs Identify vendors/suppliers who potentially can meet your needs Send a RFP out to target suppliers, gather responses Send a RFP out to target suppliers, gather responses Use a checklist to process responses Use a checklist to process responses Considerations during the process: Considerations during the process: –Investigate quality of vendor technical support –Review demonstrations by selected vendors –If you opt for a ‘trial’, for testing consider: Conformance testing to requirements Conformance testing to requirements Load testing Load testing End-user testing End-user testing Communications – notify stakeholders in advance of changes in the works, and keep them informed! Communications – notify stakeholders in advance of changes in the works, and keep them informed! Source: HDI SCM

36 Optimal Connections, LLC Step 4: Arrive at the Short List of Suppliers Schedule interviews for the short list of vendors Schedule interviews for the short list of vendors Considerations: Considerations: –Use a ‘script’ to guide the interviews –Include your team in the demonstrations –Determine if you can get trial or pilot use Visit vendor customer sites, explore service quality, check on industry reputation Visit vendor customer sites, explore service quality, check on industry reputation Also check the company – depending on the investment, sometimes the company you are dealing with is also an important consideration! Also check the company – depending on the investment, sometimes the company you are dealing with is also an important consideration! Based on the proposals returned in answer to your Requirements Documents, which products/service providers most closely fulfill your needs? Based on the proposals returned in answer to your Requirements Documents, which products/service providers most closely fulfill your needs?

37 Optimal Connections, LLC Step 5: Apply the Financial Tools in Combination Apply the Financials Tools to this short list of solutions: Apply the Financials Tools to this short list of solutions: –Cost/Benefit Analysis (CBA) –Return on Investment (ROI) –Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) Considerations: Considerations: –Net tangible and intangibles to a common financial metric (usually $) –Account for the time value of money –Which provides the best cost to benefits ratio? –Which provides the best return for the money? –Which provides the lowest total cost of ownership over the life of the investment? –Bottom line: which is the best decision?

38 Optimal Connections, LLC Step 6: Document the Business Case for the Decision All three tools should be used together to help assess which action is best to take! All three tools should be used together to help assess which action is best to take! Document your Business Case based on the result of the selection process, and the output of the financial tools … Document your Business Case based on the result of the selection process, and the output of the financial tools … –Include exec summary, goals & objectives, supporting evidence: CBA, ROI and TCO of alternatives, with recommendations –Review with your management and gain their support Negotiate with preferred vendor to arrive at final feature set, with pricing and delivery terms Negotiate with preferred vendor to arrive at final feature set, with pricing and delivery terms

39 Optimal Connections, LLC Step 7: Implement the Decision and Track Results Key: follow best-practice project mgt. practices Key: follow best-practice project mgt. practices –Qualified project lead –Committed, cross-functional team –Solid project plan with milestones, assigned and budgeted resources, and time frames –Communicate effectively: across the team, and to affected stakeholders Prioritize early, easy wins! Prioritize early, easy wins! Drive the project, accomplish the milestones, and report on the benefits Drive the project, accomplish the milestones, and report on the benefits Compare the results to your baseline(s), and report results. Compare the results to your baseline(s), and report results. Celebrate success with your team! Celebrate success with your team!

40 Optimal Connections, LLC Summary: Using the Financial Tools Together Help You… Use a ‘business approach’ to decision making Use a ‘business approach’ to decision making Minimize risk and costs through informed, higher quality decision making Minimize risk and costs through informed, higher quality decision making Increase credibility with management Increase credibility with management Build stronger Business Cases for proposals to management, increases chances for approval Build stronger Business Cases for proposals to management, increases chances for approval Align with business goals, and support the vision and mission of the business Align with business goals, and support the vision and mission of the business Ensure successful business outcomes for customers, through effective and efficient service provisioning Ensure successful business outcomes for customers, through effective and efficient service provisioning Be a good steward of investments in IT services Be a good steward of investments in IT services

41 Optimal Connections, LLC Valuable Resources to Take Advantage Of! Handout: CBA Template Handout: CBA Template Calculating Cost/Benefit Calculating Cost/Benefit –Mind Tools CBA Tool: www.mindtools.com www.mindtools.com Calculating ROI Calculating ROI –Guidelines: www.silberperformance.com www.silberperformance.com –Tips: eHow.com –Online Tutorial - ZDnet.com: http://news.zdnet.com/2422-13569_22-153325.html http://news.zdnet.com/2422-13569_22-153325.html –ROI Calculator: www.solutionmatrix.com www.solutionmatrix.com Calculating TCO Calculating TCO –Info-Tech Free TCO & ROI Calculator: www.infotech.com www.infotech.com

42 Optimal Connections, LLC Happy Decision Making!.. Any questions? Thank you for attending this session. Please fill out a session evaluation form. Paul M. Dooley President Optimal Connections, LLC P: (949) 305-3544 E: pmdooley@optimalconnections.com pmdooley@optimalconnections.com W: www.optimalconnections.com www.optimalconnections.com


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