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Chiao-Yu Lou Gary McCloud Kyoung A You. Shortening sentences that involve coordination Sentences that involve coordination tend to be efficient, in that.

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Presentation on theme: "Chiao-Yu Lou Gary McCloud Kyoung A You. Shortening sentences that involve coordination Sentences that involve coordination tend to be efficient, in that."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chiao-Yu Lou Gary McCloud Kyoung A You

2 Shortening sentences that involve coordination Sentences that involve coordination tend to be efficient, in that material that could be repeated generally is not. Sentences that involve coordination tend to be efficient, in that material that could be repeated generally is not. -For example: A: Alice washed the silverware and Alice dried the silverware. B: Alice washed and dried the silverware.

3 Conjunction Reduction Shorten sentences with clauses conjoined by and, or, neither…nor, or but not, which are identical except for one constituent. Shorten sentences with clauses conjoined by and, or, neither…nor, or but not, which are identical except for one constituent. - For example John kissed Susan or John hugged Susan. John kissed or hugged Susan.

4 Verb Phrase Ellipsis One of the repeated verb phrases can be omitted in a conjoined clause. The verb phrase is deleted if it contains a modal or auxiliary verb and is identical to the previous one. Notice that in this type of reduction when there is a modal or other auxiliary, the auxiliary remains. One of the repeated verb phrases can be omitted in a conjoined clause. The verb phrase is deleted if it contains a modal or auxiliary verb and is identical to the previous one. Notice that in this type of reduction when there is a modal or other auxiliary, the auxiliary remains.

5 Verb Phrase Ellipsis For example: For example: -Alice can come to the party, and John can come to the party, too Modal Modal Alice can come to the party, John can, too

6 Verb Phrase Ellipsis -Alice is coming to the party, and John is coming to the party, too. auxiliary auxiliary Alice is coming to the party, and John is, too. -Alice had left the party, but John hadnt left the party. auxiliary Alice had left the party, but John hadnt.

7 Verb Phrase Ellipsis But, when a modal and more than one auxiliary are present, they can be elided only up to a point where the intended meaning of the second clause can be recovered. when a modal and more than one auxiliary are present, they can be elided only up to a point where the intended meaning of the second clause can be recovered.

8 Verb Phrase Ellipsis For example a. John may have gone home for the summer, and Valerie may have gone home for the summer, too. b. John may have gone home for the summer, and Valerie may have, too. c. * John may have gone home for the summer, and Valerie may, too (it means Valerie may go home for the summer, too)

9 Delayed Right Constituent Coordination Sentences with conjoined clauses that have different verbs but identical elements following-for example, object NPs that complements- can be shortened by a stylistic rule called delayed right constituent coordination. Sentences with conjoined clauses that have different verbs but identical elements following-for example, object NPs that complements- can be shortened by a stylistic rule called delayed right constituent coordination.

10 Delayed Right Constituent Coordination For example For example Sandra denied that the faculty knew about Bills research, but Fred affirmed that the faculty knew about Bills research. that complement that complement Sandra denied, but Fred affirmed, that the faculty knew about Bills research.

11 Delayed Right Constituent Coordination Alex owned a vintage 1970 BMW, and Sue knew a guy who wanted to buy a vintage 1970 BMW. Alex owned a vintage 1970 BMW, and Sue knew a guy who wanted to buy a vintage 1970 BMW. object NP object NP Alex owned, and Sue knew a guy who wanted to buy, a vintage 1970 BMW.

12 Gapping If conjoined clauses have identical verbs, the verb and any other identical constituent immediately preceding or following the verb can be elided from the second clauses. This leaves a gap in the middle of that clauses, so this process is referred to as gapping. If conjoined clauses have identical verbs, the verb and any other identical constituent immediately preceding or following the verb can be elided from the second clauses. This leaves a gap in the middle of that clauses, so this process is referred to as gapping.

13 Gapping For example For example a. John ordered carrots, and Fred ordered peas. b. John ordered carrots, and Fred peas. Often the elided element is just the verb. a. Bill gave a ring to Alice, and Fred gave a dime to Sue. b. Bill gave a ring to Alice, and Fred a dime to Sue.

14 Gapping A gap comprises more than just a verb; its a verb and prepositional phrase. A gap comprises more than just a verb; its a verb and prepositional phrase. For example a. She came to Canada in 1999, and her parents came to Canada in b. She came to Canada in 1999, and her parents in 2001.

15 Gapping Gapping cannot be applied to sentences with infinitive or gerund complements. Gapping cannot be applied to sentences with infinitive or gerund complements. a. John asked Bill to leave, and Sam asked Sue to apologize. b. * John asked Bill to leave, and Sam Sue to apologize. a. Ed kept on eating, and Gary kept on arguing. b.* Ed kept on eating, and Gary arguing.

16 Discourse Connectors Chiao-Yu Lou Gary McCloud KyoungA You

17 Discourse Connectors Discourse connectors are connectives like subordinators and coordinators. They differ from these other connectives not only in their ability to link a sentence to a larger piece of discourse, but also because they are less restricted in terms of where they may occur in a sentence.

18 Discourse Connectors e.g., first, firstly, second, secondly, third, thirdly, next, then, finally Ordering e.g., all in all, in conclusion, finally, overall, to conclude, in sum, to sum up Summary e.g., also, in addition, further, furthermore, moreover Additive e.g., for example, for instance, namely, that is Exemplification and Restatement e.g., accordingly, consequently, hence, therefore, thus, as a consequence, as a result Result e.g., nevertheless, nonetheless, in spite of that, despite that, still Concession e.g., by way of contrast, in contrast, conversely, instead, however Contrast e.g., actually, certainly, indeed, in fact, in actual fact, as it happens Cognitive Stance e.g., incidentally, by the way, by the by, apropos of Abrupt topic shift

19 Discourse Connectors a. Form Whereas coordinators occur between the clauses they connect and subordinators occur at the beginning of the clause they introduce, discourse connectors can occur at the beginning of a sentence, within it, and at the end of the sentence. Sonia was discouraged when the committee vetoed her plan. *(a) However, this time she was not going to let herself be beaten. *(b) This time, however, she was not going to let herself be beaten. *(c) She was not going to let herself be beaten this time, however. Sonia was discouraged when the committee vetoed her plan; however, she was not going to let herself be beaten.

20 Discourse Connectors Meaning: Cohesive Relationships Discourse connectors establish semantic relationships between the sentence they appear in and preceding sentences. By establishing these relationships, discourse connectors contribute to cohesion--- they help the ideas in the discourse hang together and clarify how they hang together.

21 Discourse Connectors b. Ordering Ordering discourse connectors indicate and order the main points that speakers or writers want to make. First, your article fails to fully describe the manner in which independent fund directors are selected for fund boards. Second, the article pejoratively characterizes the fact that many directors sit on boards that oversee multiple funds. Third, the article implies that fund management fees and expenses are increasing. Finally, you state that directors rarely spend more than 100 to 200 hours per year on their fund duties.

22 Discourse Connectors C. Summary Summary discourse connectors establish content that follows as summarizing or providing a conclusion to preceding information. I would like to take a moment to summarize the facts that I presented earlier. To summarize, we need a better school.

23 Discourse Connectors d. Additive Additive discourse connectors show information that is parallel to and builds on preceding information. For example, in addition and moreover. These new technologies show great promise for expanding our overall knowledge of how L1 transfer develops. They will enable us to determine whether the predictions made by current SLA theory are accurate. In addition, they can provide us with authentic examples that may be incorporated in second language instruction. In addition is appropriate for the purpose of simply adding some parallel material.

24 Discourse Connectors Last week the Mountaineers Club tackled the ascent of Mount Hood. The climbers were not happy with their leader, who displayed uncertainty at several points during the climb. Moreover, the weather was bad, which meant that the beautiful view they had been anticipating was obscured on the way up and during the descent. Moreover is appropriate when the sentence is adding information that is not merely parallel to what preceded, but is potentially contributing to some conclusion that need not be explicitly expressed.

25 Discourse Connectors e. Contrast Contrast discourse links information viewed as contrastive, whether the contrast is between different aspects of a subject or one or more aspects of different subjects. In terms of annual mean temperature, Alaska is cold, ______, Rio is clearly hot. a.However b.Nevertheless c.Despite that d.still

26 Discourse Connectors Instead : often introduces an action that contrasts with a previously mentioned action. On the contrary : can preface a remark that reflects the speakers stance of contradiction to something that has been said. In contrast : is often used when two subjects or aspects of a subject differ in one or more respects.

27 Discourse Connectors f. Cognitive Stance Cognitive stance discourse connectors express the writers cognitive stance regarding the truth of the preceding content and introduce content in support of the stance. The dean did not object to the proposal. Indeed, what he said in the ensuing discussion seemed to support it.

28 Discourse Connectors g. Exemplification and Restatement Exemplification and restatement signal that information following in some way clarifies the information that preceded. The clarification may take the form of examples or of some expansion or other explanation of what preceded. These discourse connectors are sometimes also referred to as appositive connectors or adverbials of apposition.

29 Discourse Connectors There are ways in which you might improve your chances of gaining financing for your project. For example, you could try to bring the focus of your research more in line with the goals of the request for proposals that our agency announced on the Internet. The most common connectors of exemplification are for example and for instance.

30 If you had accepted their offer, they would have given you a $14,000 moving allowance. In other words, the total amount of compensation that you would have received would have been greater than what you finally accepted. The connectors of restatement include that is, In other words, more precisely, which is to say, that is to say, and namely. Discourse Connectors

31 That is (which is to say) often appears in sentences internally. All of the Hispanic students who took the foreign language section of the ACT would receive an extra 15 points; that is, they would boost their overall chances for admission by 30 percent and also meet the undergraduate foreign language requirement if admitted. (elaborating) All of the SUVs had a tendency to roll up on two wheels at lower speeds. In other words, thy flunked the rollover test. (rephrasing)

32 Discourse Connectors h. Result Result discourse connectors introduce information that is a consequence of preceding information. The Chinese passive is semantically restricted to cases where the subject is adversely affected by the action. Consequently, some English passives are anomalous in Chinese.

33 Discourse Connectors i. Concession The concession discourse connectors introduce information that is surprising or unexpected in light of previous information. Laura had the third highest score on the ACT test in the country. Nevertheless / In spite of that / Still, she did not get admitted to Harvard.

34 Discourse Connectors i. Concession The concession discourse connectors introduce information that is surprising or unexpected in light of previous information. Laura had the third highest score on the ACT test in the country. Nevertheless / In spite of that / Still, she did not get admitted to Harvard.

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38 Discourse markers - Words that are additional parts of the sentence used by English speakers for several purposes. - Discourse markers can be used in different ways.

39 Discourse markers I mean Well You know Oh Okay Right Like

40 I mean Rephrase in order to repair and/or clarify or provide additional explanation of a point. Rephrase in order to repair and/or clarify or provide additional explanation of a point. For example: Its to my advantage, I mean, its to our mutual advantage, to work together. (rephrase) (rephrase) Girl: Do you think Im fat? Boy: You should go to the gym. Girl: Boy: I mean if you are worried about your health, its better to go to the gym. (clarify ) (clarify )

41 Well a. Signal the speakers deliberation about how to continue b. Preface a response c. Indicate a desire to end a topic d. Preface a disagreement For example: A: Can you drop me at the airport on Friday? B: Well, if you dont mind riding a donkey. I ride a donkey now. The gas is too expensive. (Preface a disagreement) (Preface a disagreement) A: I think the food at this market is delicious ! B: Well, I feel like throwing up when I eat it. (preface a disagreement) (preface a disagreement)

42 You know… a. Preface possibly well-known information by emphasizing b. A tag question c. Signal Deliberation Boy: Who made this food? Its awful. Girl: Actually, I spent 3 hours cooking…right? Boy: -_- ! I mean, its awesome. You know, I always like your food. (emphasizing) (emphasizing) Boy: That was a very good movie, you know? Girl: Yah, youre right. (a tag question)

43 Oh Is a mental state marker that indicates the speaker has realized and understood something such as a realization or as a repair or clarification marker. Is a mental state marker that indicates the speaker has realized and understood something such as a realization or as a repair or clarification marker. For example : I think the law was passed in 1998, Oh, maybe it was I dont remember for sure (repair) (repair) Girl: How do I learn more about the TESOL program here at CSUSB? Boy: You can call Professor Diaz-Rico. Girl: Oh, I see. (realization)

44 Okay a. Wrap up a topic b. Indicate the speakers understanding For example : Mom: You have to clean up your room, finish your homework, clean the garage, take out the trash, and…….bla bla bla Son: Okay, okay, I know, leave me alone. (Indicates the speakers understanding; could also be interpreted as wrapping up a topic) (Indicates the speakers understanding; could also be interpreted as wrapping up a topic) Mom: And you have to finish it in 1 hour. Son: Okay. I will. (Wrap up a topic)

45 Right a. Initiate a new phase in the conversation b. Indicate comprehension and agreement b. A tag A: I registered for my final three TESOL classes for next quarter. B: Right, now you can think about the comprehensive exam. (Indicates comprehension and agreement) (Indicates comprehension and agreement) Husband: I finished all the housework you asked me to do. Wife: Right, now you can start cleaning the backyard. (Indicates comprehension and agreement) Husband: You know that Im not a slave, right? (A tag)

46 Like a. Mark the salient word or phase b. Soften requests c. Mark an approximation d. Introduce reported speech A: You know, my boyfriend, hes like so cool and stuff, hes got this really cool tattoo. (Marks the salient word or phase). B: Excuse me, Susie, like um, can I borrow some money? (Softens request). (Softens request). A: I couldn't believe it. She was like Um, my boyfriend is a slob, I think Ill break up with him (introduces reported speech).

47 XvaPA XvaPA Count how many discourse markers you can hear. Count how many discourse markers you can hear. Um Um (6) (6) Oh Oh (1) (1) Like Like (2) (2)

48 Thank you


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