2 Historical background of management Are there any management in the history?Pyramid and the Great WallThe Wealth of Nation by Adam SmithIndustrial revolutionChinese traditional government and confucianismPolitics is also a kind of management.Modernization and rationalization
3 Management theories General administrative theory Historical backgroundEarly examplesAdam SmithIndustrial revelutionScientific managementQuantitative approachSystem approachOrganizational behaviorEarly advocatesHawthorne studiesContingency approach
4 Scientific management Frederick W. Taylor ( ), the father of scientific management.Taylor’s four principlesDevelop a science for each element of an individual’s work, replacing the old rule-of-thumb method.Scientifically select and then train, and develop the workers.Heartily cooperation between manager and employee.Divide work and responsibility equally.Significance and critics.Can you find some scientific management now?
5 Taylorism and Fordism Mass production. Machine controls people. Modernization.
6 Frank and Lillian Gilbreth Construction contractor and psychologist.Optimizing work performance.Microchronometer and motion research.Cheaper by the Dozen.Time is money, efficience is life. Compare their time and today.
7 General administrative theory Henri Fayol ( ).Five functions of managerPlanning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.14 principles of managementDivision of work, authority, discipline, unity of command, unity of direction, subordination of individual interests to general interest, remuneration, centralization, scalar chain, order, equity, stability of tenure of personnel, initiative, esprit de corps.
8 Max Weber (1864-1920) Sociologist and religious. Burearcracy, today’s formal organizationDivision of laborAuthority hierarchyFormal selectionFormat rules and regulationsImpersonalityCareer orientationOther type of organizationChrismatraditionalOrganization in the future.
13 Quantitative approach Operations research or management science.Statistics, optimization models, information models, computer simulations, linear programming, etc.Example.Queuing, ticket saling, classroom allocation.Centralized transportation.Restriction: local, micro issue.
14 Organizational behavior Early advocatesRobert Owen, late 1700sHugo Munsterberg, early 1900sMary Parker Follett, Early 1900sChester Barnard, 1930
15 Hawthorne Studies Elton Mayo Experiment on the effect of light intensity on output.Redesign fo jobsChanges in workday and workweed lengthIntroduction of rest periodIndividual vs. group wage plansConclusionPeople’s behavior and attitudes are closely related;Group factors significantly affect individual behavior;Group standards establish individual worker output;Money is less a factor in determining output than are group standards, group attitudes, and security.Lead to new emphasis on the human behavior factorin the management of organizations.
16 Behavior approach in today Design jobsTeamsOpen communicationMotivationLeadershipGroup behavior and development
17 Systems approach System close system open system A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.close systemSystem that are not influenced by and do not interact with their enviroment.open systemSystems that interact with their environment.
18 Transformation process environmentsystemInputsRaw materialsHuman resourcesCapitalTechnologyInformationTransformation processEmployee’s work activitiesManagement activitiesTechnology and operation methodsOutputProducts and servicesFinancial resultsInformationHuman resultsfeedbackenvironment
19 Contingency approachManagement approach that says that organizations are different, face different situations (contigencies), and require different ways of managing.
20 Current trends and issues GlobalizationWorking with people from different culturesCoping with anticapitalist backlashMovement of jobs to countries with low-cost laborCivilization clashGlobal citizenship and governance
21 ethics Profit and socia responsibility Stakeholder vs. shareholder Corporation citizenship
22 Workforce diversity Entrepreneurship E-business Knowledge management A workforce that is heterogeneous in terms of gender, race, ethnicity, age, and other characteristics that reflect differences.EntrepreneurshipE-businessKnowledge management
23 Learning organization Traditional organizationLearning organizationAttitude toward changeIf it’s working, don’t change it.If you aren’t changing, it won’t be working for long.Attitude toward new ideasIf it wasn’t invented here, reject it.If it was invented or reinvented here, reject it.Who’s responsible for innovation?Traditional areas such as R&D.Everyone in organization.Main fearMaking mistakeNot learning, not adaptingCompetitive advantageProducts and service.Ability to learn, knowledge and expertise.Manager’s jobControl others.Enable others.Are there any learning organizations? Can you give some examples?
24 Total quality management (TQM) Interse focus on customer.Concern for continual improvement.Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does.Accurate measurement.Empowerment of employees.To be perfect.Examples, KFC, TOYOTA, APPLE.