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Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Policing: History and Structure Chapter 5 Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007,

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Presentation on theme: "Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Policing: History and Structure Chapter 5 Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Policing: History and Structure Chapter 5 Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint]

2 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] English Roots Much of early American policing was based on the British model. English law enforcement started around At that time: All able-bodied men responded to cries for help by joining together in a posse to search for the suspect. Posses were either led by the shire reeve (county leader) or one of the few the comites stabuli (mounted officers).

3 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] English Roots Guilt of suspect was usually assumed. In English towns and cities, law enforcement initially relied on watchman, who performed night watch. They would watch for fires and thieves and rouse up people when something was spotted.

4 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] English Roots The Statute of Winchester codified modern police practices. The statute established a: Watch and ward system Draft of men to serve as watchmen Formal hue and cry system in which citizens who did not respond to cries for help could be punished Mandate that all homes contain a weapon, for use in responding to cries

5 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] English Roots The emergence of gin is said to have fueled the creation of a formal law enforcement. Gin was potent, inexpensive, and readily available. Binge drinking, rioting, and crime became a problem. The British government needed to come up with a better system of policing, as people could no longer be counted on to perform watch duties.

6 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Bow Street Runners In 1750, Sir Henry Fielding became magistrate of London’s Bow Street region. –He attracted a number of dedicated men to serve as officers, patrolling streets and highways leading to London. –They became known as the Bow Street Runners.

7 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The New Police: London Metropolitan Police In 1829, Sir Robert Peel established what is now considered the world's first modern police force. 1,000 officers called bobbies made up this force of new police, which: –was uniformed –was structured along military lines –became a model for police forces worldwide

8 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The Early American Experience Early American law enforcement was based on England’s experience yet unique to the reality of colonialism and expansionism. –Police were decentralized and dispersed from the start.

9 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The Frontier The frontier was home to many outlaws. –Frontier lands lacked established police forces, so many settlers took to vigilantism.

10 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The Early Cities Larger cities had small-scale, organized police forces early on. –Many were keeping a close eye on the performance of the Metropolitan Police of London. –1844 – New York City Police Department –1855 – Boston Police Department

11 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The 20 th Century The 20th Century saw great social change and law enforcement reform. –1902—International Association of Chiefs of Police formed. –1910—The first policewoman hired (in Los Angeles). –1915—Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) established. –1915—25 cities employed policewomen –Inventions like the telephone, automobiles, and radios impacted police…

12 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The 20 th Century Inventions, like the telephone, automobiles, and radios impacted police Call-box system of telephones Bureau of Investigation, later became the FBI

13 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Prohibition and Police Corruption During Prohibition: –There was a lot of crime in support of the sale of “bootlegged” liquor. –Corruption flourished as some police officers were accepting “payoffs” to look away. –The Wickersham Commission eventually recognized that Prohibition was unenforceable and contributed to corruption.

14 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The Last Half of the 20 th Century The 1960s and 1970s were a time of great cultural change. During this time: –The U.S. Supreme Court enumerated many individual rights for suspects. –Police operations were scrutinized. –The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) was formed. –The National Advisory Commission on Criminal –Justice Standards and Goals issued strategies for improving law enforcement.

15 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Evidence-Based Policing The LEAA dedicated a lot of money to preventing and reducing crime. –The LEAA spent $8 billion. –The LEAA was abolished in 1982 The LEAA started a tradition of scientific police management—applying social science techniques to the study of police administrating in order to: Increase effectiveness Reduce citizen complaints Enhance efficiency

16 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The Kansas City Experiment The Kansas City Experiment tested the use of preventive patrol on crime rates and citizens’ fear of crime. The experiment revealed that: –Crime rates were not impacted by preventive patrol. –Preventive patrol does not impact fear of crime. –Directed patrol is a better way to productively use patrol officers.

17 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Evidence-Based Policing Today Uses research into everyday police procedures to evaluate current practices and to guide officers and police executives in future decision making. –Has been called the single “most powerful force for change” in policing today

18 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Selected Scientific Studies in Law Enforcement

19 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Selected Scientific Studies in Law Enforcement

20 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] American Policing Today American law enforcement is very complex. There are thousands of different agencies involved in law enforcement, with not a lot of uniformity among them. Three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions exist: –Federal –State –Local Supplementing these are thousands of private security companies.

21 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Federal Agencies Federal law enforcement agencies are distributed among 14 U.S. government departments and 28 non-departmental entities. Additionally, many other government officers are involved in enforcement of laws through inspection, regulation, and control activities.

22 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] American Policing: Federal Law Enforcement Agencies

23 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The FBI may be the world’s most famous law enforcement agency. It was developed in 1908 and called the Bureau of Investigation. It was designed originally to help the federal government investigate political and business corruption.

24 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The Mission of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) “The mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against terrorists and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners.”

25 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The FBI is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and has 56 field offices and 400 satellite offices. The FBI also operates: –“Legal attaché” offices in other nations, to help coordinate international law enforcement efforts and information sharing –The National Computer Crime Squad (NCCS) –The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) –A Criminal Justice Information Services Division –A full-scale crime laboratory –A National Academy Program

26 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] The FBI and Counterterrorism The focus of the FBI changed as a result of the September 11th terrorist attacks, centering now on counterterrorism efforts. The FBI maintains: –A Counterterrorism Division –A national threat warning system –Flying Squads –The Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF)

27 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Recent FBI Focus In 2009, mortgage and financial fraud investigations consumed significant investigative effort. Property flipping analytical computer application

28 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] State-Level Agencies Most state police agencies were created in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. –The Texas Rangers were the first. Today, there is a lot of diversity among the different state police agencies.

29 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Models of State Police Agencies Centralized Combine criminal investigations duties and state highway patrol Assist local departments Operate identification bureaus Maintain a criminal records repository Patrol highways Provide training for local officers Decentralized Separates state highway patrol from other duties Other duties performed by adjunct state-level law enforcement agencies

30 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Local Agencies Local agencies encompass a wide variety of agencies, including: –Municipal departments –Sheriffs departments –Specialized groups, like campus police and transit police

31 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Municipal Police Departments Municipal police departments are city- or town-based. –Any municipality can create its own police department; not every one does. –The majority have fewer than ten full- time officers. –Many utilize part-time officers. –Some contract with private security firms

32 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Sheriffs Departments Sheriffs departments are responsible for law enforcement throughout their counties. –Mostly patrol the unincorporated areas that lie between municipalities –Jurisdiction is throughout the entire county –Operate county jails –Serve court papers –Maintain security in state courtrooms –Most departments have fewer than twenty-five full-time officers

33 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Private Protective Services Constitute the fourth level of enforcement activity in the U. S. today These organizations: –Are privately funded, for-profit agencies. –Provide a variety of security-related services to their clientele (which include governments). –Employ more people than public police. –Find support in ASIS International programming.

34 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] American Policing: Private Security Agencies

35 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Growth of Private Protective Services An increase in crimes in the workplace An increase in fear of crime and terrorism The fiscal crises of states An increased public and business awareness and use of more cost- effective private security products and services

36 Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Test to the 21st Century Frank Schamalleger Copyright ©2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Pearson [imprint] Integrating Public and Private Security As the private security field grows, the relationship between public and private security is becoming more integrated with more of a cooperative crime-fighting potential.


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