2English RootsMuch of early American policing was based on the British model. English law enforcement started around 1200.At that time:All able-bodied men responded to cries for help by joining together in a posse to search for the suspect.Posses were either led by the shire reeve (county leader) or one of the few the comites stabuli (mounted officers).
3English Roots Guilt of suspect was usually assumed. In English towns and cities, law enforcement initially relied on watchman, who performed night watch.They would watch for fires and thieves and rouse up people when something was spotted.
4English RootsThe Statute of Winchester codified modern police practices. The statute established a:Watch and ward systemDraft of men to serve as watchmenFormal hue and cry system in which citizens who did not respond to cries for help could be punishedMandate that all homes contain a weapon, for use in responding to cries
5English RootsThe emergence of gin is said to have fueled the creation of a formal law enforcement.Gin was potent, inexpensive, and readily available.Binge drinking, rioting, and crime became a problem.The British government needed to come up with a better system of policing, as people could no longer be counted on to perform watch duties.
6Bow Street RunnersIn 1750, Sir Henry Fielding became magistrate of London’s Bow Street region.He attracted a number of dedicated men to serve as officers, patrolling streets and highways leading to London.They became known as the Bow Street Runners.
7The New Police: London Metropolitan Police In 1829, Sir Robert Peel established what is now considered the world's first modern police force.1,000 officers called bobbies made up this force of new police, which:was uniformedwas structured along military linesbecame a model for police forces worldwide
8The Early American Experience Early American law enforcement was based on England’s experience yet unique to the reality of colonialism and expansionism.Police were decentralized and dispersed from the start.
9The Frontier The frontier was home to many outlaws. Frontier lands lacked established police forces, so many settlers took to vigilantism.
10The Early CitiesLarger cities had small-scale, organized police forces early on.Many were keeping a close eye on the performance of the Metropolitan Police of London.1844 – New York City Police Department1855 – Boston Police Department
11The 20th CenturyThe 20th Century saw great social change and law enforcement reform.1902—International Association of Chiefs of Police formed.1910—The first policewoman hired (in Los Angeles).1915—Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) established.1915—25 cities employed policewomenInventions like the telephone, automobiles, and radios impacted police…
12The 20th CenturyInventions, like the telephone, automobiles, and radios impacted policeCall-box system of telephonesBureau of Investigation, later became the FBI
13Prohibition and Police Corruption During Prohibition:There was a lot of crime in support of the sale of “bootlegged” liquor.Corruption flourished as some police officers were accepting “payoffs” to look away.The Wickersham Commission eventually recognized that Prohibition was unenforceable and contributed to corruption.
14The Last Half of the 20th Century The 1960s and 1970s were a time of great cultural change. During this time:The U.S. Supreme Court enumerated many individual rights for suspects.Police operations were scrutinized.The Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) was formed.The National Advisory Commission on CriminalJustice Standards and Goals issued strategies for improving law enforcement.
15Evidence-Based Policing The LEAA dedicated a lot of money to preventing and reducing crime.The LEAA spent $8 billion.The LEAA was abolished in 1982 The LEAA started a tradition of scientific police management—applying social science techniques to the study of police administrating in order to:Increase effectivenessReduce citizen complaintsEnhance efficiency
16The Kansas City Experiment The Kansas City Experiment tested the use of preventive patrol on crime rates and citizens’ fear of crime. The experiment revealed that:Crime rates were not impacted by preventive patrol.Preventive patrol does not impact fear of crime.Directed patrol is a better way to productively use patrol officers.
17Evidence-Based Policing Today Uses research into everyday police procedures to evaluate current practices and to guide officers and police executives in future decision making.Has been called the single “most powerful force for change” in policing today
20American Policing Today American law enforcement is very complex.There are thousands of different agencies involved in law enforcement, with not a lot of uniformity among them.Three major legislative and judicial jurisdictions exist:FederalStateLocalSupplementing these are thousands of private security companies.
21Federal AgenciesFederal law enforcement agencies are distributed among 14 U.S. government departments and 28 non-departmental entities.Additionally, many other government officers are involved in enforcement of laws through inspection, regulation, and control activities.
22American Policing: Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
23Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The FBI may be the world’s most famous law enforcement agency.It was developed in 1908 and called the Bureau of Investigation. It was designed originally to help the federal government investigate political and business corruption.
24The Mission of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) “The mission of the FBI is to protect and defend the United States against terrorists and foreign intelligence threats, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, and to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state, municipal, and international agencies and partners.”
25Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) The FBI is headquartered in Washington, D.C. and has 56 field offices and 400 satellite offices. The FBI also operates:“Legal attaché” offices in other nations, to help coordinate international law enforcement efforts and information sharingThe National Computer Crime Squad (NCCS)The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS)A Criminal Justice Information Services DivisionA full-scale crime laboratoryA National Academy Program
26The FBI and Counterterrorism The focus of the FBI changed as a result of the September 11th terrorist attacks, centering now on counterterrorism efforts.The FBI maintains:A Counterterrorism DivisionA national threat warning systemFlying SquadsThe Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF)
28State-Level AgenciesMost state police agencies were created in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century.The Texas Rangers were the first.Today, there is a lot of diversity among the different state police agencies.
29Models of State Police Agencies CentralizedCombine criminal investigations duties and state highway patrolAssist local departmentsOperate identification bureausMaintain a criminal records repositoryPatrol highwaysProvide training for local officersDecentralizedSeparates state highway patrol from other dutiesOther duties performed by adjunct state-level law enforcement agencies
30Local AgenciesLocal agencies encompass a wide variety of agencies, including:Municipal departmentsSheriffs departmentsSpecialized groups, like campus police and transit police
31Municipal Police Departments Municipal police departments are city- or town-based.Any municipality can create its own police department; not every one does.The majority have fewer than ten full-time officers.Many utilize part-time officers.Some contract with private security firms
32Sheriffs DepartmentsSheriffs departments are responsible for law enforcement throughout their counties.Mostly patrol the unincorporated areas that lie between municipalitiesJurisdiction is throughout the entire countyOperate county jailsServe court papersMaintain security in state courtroomsMost departments have fewer than twenty-five full-time officers
33Private Protective Services Constitute the fourth level of enforcement activity in the U. S. todayThese organizations:Are privately funded, for-profit agencies.Provide a variety of security-related services to their clientele (which include governments).Employ more people than public police.Find support in ASIS International programming.
35Growth of Private Protective Services An increase in crimes in the workplaceAn increase in fear of crime and terrorismThe fiscal crises of statesAn increased public and business awareness and use of more cost-effective private security products and services
36Integrating Public and Private Security As the private security field grows, the relationship between public and private security is becoming more integrated with more of a cooperative crime-fighting potential.