# Time Measurement Training 1. Time Measurement Objective: By the end of this lesson you will be able to identify process elements and record the time associated.

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Time Measurement Training 1

Time Measurement Objective: By the end of this lesson you will be able to identify process elements and record the time associated with each element.

3 The Purpose of the Time Measurement is: To identify a fair measurement of the time needed to perform the process by capturing the most repeating time for each work element. To Identify and break down the elements of an operation or process, and capture the associated time for each of the operation elements. To identify fluctuations in cycle times due to abnormal conditions or problems occurring during the process.

4 Time Measurement Definitions 1. Time measurement is the determination of the actual time required to perform a process, an element or a step by T/Ms or equipment. 2. A Time Study is the concrete observation, documentation and description of operation elements and the associated time for each element. 3. Takt Time = total shift production time / total shift production requirement. 4. Target Cycle Time = Takt Time adjusted to meet a targeted efficiency. 5. Actual Cycle Time = Actual measured time it takes a T/M (or equipment) to perform one work cycle. (the sum of the times for the operation elements) 6. If the Actual Cycle Time is less than the Target Cycle Time, the difference is Wait Time. 7. Time Fluctuation is the inconsistency of cycle times in a process. Fluctuation is the difference in the high cycle time and the low cycle time. 8. Standard Time is the lowest most repeatable time observed rounded to the nearest second. A standard time cannot be determined until time fluctuation is under control.

5 Time Definitions - Visual Example Example of Time Definitions (determined 95% efficiency) Takt Time = 160 sec (1 unit every 160 sec) Target Cycle Time = Takt Time x 95% efficiency = 152 sec Actual Cycle Time = The actual time it takes a T/M to perform a process Wait Time = Target Cycle Time - Actual

6 Practical Reasons for Time Measurement Time Measurement is the basis for : Identifying and planning Standardized work Identification of the following: instabilities and variations of processes due to fluctuations in Cycle Times deviations from the Standardized Work inadequate tools lack of training / training differences equipment failure/breakdown Grasping the current condition of a process during C. I. activities. Developing an Elemental Wall. Breakdown of the process by noting specific elements or steps occurring during the process.

7 Work Cycle Definition 1st element 2nd element 3rd element 4th element 1st element 2nd element 3rd element 4th element 1 work cycle next work cycle a work cycle is the repeated performance of elements in the same operation. First - watch the performed work process carefully Second - identify the single elements of the observed work process. The time between the start of the 1st element of the cycle and the end of the last element of the cycle is the cycle time. If the cycle time is less than the target cycle time, the difference is wait time. Cycle times can be measured both for team member and equipment

8 Definition of Element Starting Points 1st starting point1st ending point = 2nd starting point 2nd ending point = 3rd starting point 3rd ending point = 4th starting point 4th ending point 1st element 2nd element 3rd element 4th element time for one work cycle = cycle time time for element 1 time for element 2 time for element 3 time for element 4 each element has a defined starting and ending point the ending point of an element is the starting point of the following element the time for one element is the difference of ending time and starting time the sum of all times of the single elements is the cycle time

9 1. Stop Watch 2. Time Measurement Tool Using the Time Measurement Tool

10 Operating the Stop Watch Press for first starting point Press for ending point Press for all other starting points beginning with 2nd (LAP). Also Use to clear time. Press to review individual element times Number of element Cumulative time or cycle time Times for each operation element or single step Cycle through Modes

11 Time Fluctuation It is important to identify time fluctuation in a process in order to establish a standard time for the process. Time Fluctuation is the inconsistency of cycle times in a process. Time Fluctuation allows the recorder to: - identify abnormal conditions or inconsistent work occurring during the process and the reasons why - identify any high or low cycle times in a process and the reasons why - identify production wastes due to process deviations and abnormal conditions. Time Fluctuation is used to identify and solve problems in a process: - provides analysis for problem solving in a process to ensure that element and cycle times are stable before documenting a standard time for the process. Time Fluctuation Boundary scale

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20 Suggestions for the Time Measurement 1. Inform Team Member in advance 2. Focus on average performer ( training / speed / efficiency) 3. It is best not to target Time Measurement directly at the beginning of shift or directly after breaks. 4. Don’t interfere with the T/M observed 5. Confirm that Team Member is following standardized work. 6. Time Measurement for a minimum of 5 cycles for the same performer. 7. Identify fluctuations. Observe points such as interruptions, safety/quality problems, irregular steps, and working ahead/behind which have impact on the process.

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