Presentation on theme: "LEARNING VALUES THROUGH GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK"— Presentation transcript:
1 LEARNING VALUES THROUGH GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK NJC SH Geography TeamTing Siew Ping HelenaKavitha d/o AnnadhuraiLim Li YanOng Chye Meng Fred
2 OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION Aims of studyLiterature reviewThe studyThe findingsKey takeaways
3 AIMS OF STUDYArgue that geographical fieldwork is useful as a platform for inculcating values among studentsDemonstrate how Kolb's (1984) model of experiential learning can be used to frame the teaching of geographical fieldworkIllustrate the integrative use of Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy in developing and deepening students’ thinking
4 GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK AND VALUES Other than fulfilling a variety of purposes such as the attainment of intellectual, academic and technical achievements, geographical fieldwork is also critical in developing the affective domain of learning (see Boyle et al, 2007; Hope, 2009)Builds confidence and resilience amongst studentsEnables students to develop their understanding of perspectives on a wide range of issuesEnables students to clarify and justify their own values while learning to acknowledge and respect values of others(see Job, Day and Smyth, 1999)
5 GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK AND VALUES Geographical fieldwork has been argued to be particularly useful in the development of insight and empathy as well as the critical reflection about social and personal values (see Ooi, 2008)The “direct experience” that geographical fieldwork offers is therefore integral to the social and personal development of students, especially in terms of the cultivation and nurturing of values (see Job, Day and Smyth, 1999; Boyle, et al, 2007; Ooi, 2008; Hope, 2009)
6 EXPERIENCING GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK Given that geographical fieldwork is an experience which is crucial in the development of values, Kolb’s (1984) model of experiential learning — which is often regarded as a “theoretical rationale” to geographical fieldwork (see Healey and Jenkins, 2000; Drummer et al, 2008; Krakowka, 2012) — is thus useful as a means of framing geographical fieldworkIts significance extends beyond the conduct of fieldwork, but rather the focus on reflection — it “makes explicit the importance of encouraging students to reflect and providing them with feedback to reinforce their learning” (see Healey and Jenkins, 2000:186)
7 EXPERIENCING GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK Concrete Experience(DO)Active Experimentation(PLAN)Reflective Observation(OBSERVE)Abstract Conceptualisation(THINK)[Modified from Healey and Jenkins (2000:187)]
8 EXPERIENCING GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK Stages in Kolb’s ModelProposed ActivitiesPlanned ActivitiesAbstract ConceptualisationWhere learner is being presented with/or trying to conceptualise atheory or model of what is (to be) observedPre-fieldwork in-class teaching and learningActive ExperimentationWhere learner is trying to plan how to test a model or theory or plan for a forthcoming experiencePlanning for fieldworkConcrete ExperienceWhere learner is actively experiencing an activityConduct of fieldworkReflective ObservationWhere learner is consciously reflecting back on that experiencePost-fieldwork reflection
9 REFLECTIONS IN GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK With the focus of Kolb’s (1984) model of experiential learning on reflections, the development of tools to deepen reflections is hence crucial.Effective questioning via two scaffolding frameworks: Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of QuestionsPaul’s Wheel provides scaffolding for critical and evaluative thinking — after all, it is based on the eight elements of critical thought (see Paul and Elder, 2008)Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy provides scaffolding for the attainment of higher-order thinking from lower-order thinking (see Krathwohl, 2002)
13 THE STUDYUse of Kolb’s (1984) model to frame the teaching of geographical fieldwork on the topic of Urban Issues and Challenges (more specifically, “Managing Urban Environments — Housing problems in LDCs and DCs”)Use of Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy to structure questions at various stages of Kolb’s (1984) model to develop and deepen students’ reflectionsUse of pre- and post-fieldwork surveys (including geographical imaginations), written reflections and group reflective task to examine how values have been inculcated through geographical fieldwork
14 THE STUDY Concrete Experience (DO) Research Task: Conduct of fieldwork Active Experimentation(PLAN)Research Task: Planning and consultationReflective Observation(OBSERVE)Group Reflective TaskAbstract Conceptualisation(THINK)Task on group presentations and in-class teaching
15 STAGE: ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALISATION Task on group presentationRemembering &UnderstandingUnderstanding & AnalysingAnalysing & Evaluating
16 STAGE: ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALISATION Paul’s Wheel of ReasoningSamples of Questions Asked during Student PresentationsPoints of viewHave you considered the perspectives of workers who have to travel long distances from the rural fringe into the city centre? How will congestion charging affect them?InformationWhere did you get the evidence to support your assertion that slums in India might not necessarily be slums of despair?ConceptsWhat exactly does homelessness mean? Do city governments around the world adhere to the same definition of homelessness?AssumptionsYou claim that the resettlement of slum-dwellers benefits them because they are given new housing and monetary compensation for their movement. One of the assumptions that your argument is based on is the fact that these slum-dwellers are willing to resettle. What if they were forced to resettle from their initial locations? What happens to the community ties which they have built with their neighbours over the decades of staying together?
18 STAGE: ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALISATION Bloom’s Revised TaxonomySamples of Questions Asked during In-class Teaching (after Video Has Been Screened)CreateCome up with a plan to investigate how these strategies are received among the residents of Hong Kong.EvaluateHow effective are the strategies in solving housing issues in Hong Kong?AnalyzeHow are the housing issues of Hong Kong and Singapore different or similar?ApplyAccording to the video, why are the residents of Hong Kong facing such a situation? What is the government’s role in dealing with housing issues?UnderstandWhat are the causes of the housing issues?What are the other consequences of the rapid urbanisation?RememberWhat were the housing issues covered previously?What are the strategies that various governments have used to deal with these housing issues?Points of viewInformation
19 STAGE: ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION Research task: Planning and consultationUnderstandingApplyingAnalysingEvaluating
20 STAGE: ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION Sample questions asked during one of the consultation sessions:What is the objective of your fieldwork? What are you trying to find out?Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning: Purpose Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: UnderstandDo the methods you have chosen help you to achieve these objectives, or are there other methods which you could use?Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning: Point of view Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: ApplyWhat do you think are some potential shortcomings of your methods? Would you still continue with your chosen method or would you consider switching to another method?Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: EvaluatePaul’s Wheel of Reasoning: Assumptions
21 STAGE: CONCRETE EXPERIENCE Research task: Conduct of fieldworkDaily reflectionsIdentify an emotion you felt during your fieldwork today.Explain why you felt that emotion.How will this emotion be different if you had conducted the same fieldwork in Singapore?UnderstandingAnalysingRemembering
22 STAGE: REFLECTIVE OBSERVATION Group Reflective TaskConsidering other points of view (Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning)Evaluating (Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy)Creating (Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy)
24 THE RESULTS Methods Employed: Pre-fieldwork geographical imaginationsPost-fieldwork geographical imaginationsDaily written reflectionsPost-fieldwork attitude and perception surveyResponses in reflective tasksAnalysis of findings affirmed that geographical fieldwork had indeed been useful in inculcating valuesIn our case, the Socio-Emotional Learning (SEL) competency of social awareness is the value that is the most prominently expressed by students
25 SOCIAL AWARENESS MOE (SEL) Your child has social awareness if he has the ability to accurately discern different perspectives, recognise and appreciate diversity, empathise with and respect others.CASELThe ability to take the perspective of and empathise with others from diverse backgrounds and cultures, to understand social and ethical norms for behavior, and to recognise family, school, and community resources and supports.ACARAThis element involves students recognising others’ feelings and knowing how and when to assist others. Students learn to show respect for and understand others’ perspectives, emotional states and needs. They learn to participate in positive, safe and respectful relationships, defining and accepting individual and group roles and responsibilities. Students gain an understanding of the role of advocacy in contemporary society and build their capacity to critique societal constructs and forms of discrimination, such as racism and sexism. In developing and acting with personal and social capability, studentsappreciate diverse perspectives,contribute to civil society, andunderstand relationships.
26 THE RESULTS Differences in Pre- and post-fieldwork geographical imaginations for students who participated in the entire experience of geographical fieldwork (i.e., went for the Hong Kong fieldtrip)Post-fieldwork geographical imaginations for students who participated in the entire experience of geographical fieldwork (i.e., went for the Hong Kong fieldtrip) and those who did notThese suggest that the fieldwork process had enabled students to recognise and appreciate diversity
27 THE RESULTSDaily written reflections and post-fieldwork survey revealedGreater appreciation for home country’s housing issues,Tendency to sympathise with others, andStronger sense of self-awareness.
28 THE RESULTSStudents’ responses for the reflective tasks showed that they were able to consider multiple perspectives and evaluate these perspectives before coming up with a proposal to address the issue that was posed to them.
29 KEY TAKEAWAYSGeographical fieldwork is necessary not only for students’ “deep learning”, but also also for the cultivation of values among students.Kolb's model of experiential learning has been useful in our design of curriculum, especially for the purposes of integrating fieldwork with classroom teaching and learning.Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy are tools that we would like to better utilise in our teaching and learning, so as to deepen students’ reflections on their academic endeavours, as well as their value systems.
30 REFERENCESDrummer, T.J.B., Cook, I.G., Parker, S.L., Barrett, G.A. and Hull, A.P. (2008). Promoting and assessing ‘deep learning’ in Geography Fieldwork: An evaluation of reflective field diaries. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 32(3),Healey, M. and Jenkins, A. (2000). Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory and Its Application in Geography in Higher Education. Journal of Geography, 99(5),Hope, M. (2009). The Importance of Direct Experience: A Philosophical Defence of Fieldwork in Human Geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 33(2),Job, D., Day, C. and Smyth, T. (1999) Beyond the Bikesheds: Fresh Approaches to Fieldwork in the School Locality. Sheffield: Geographical Association.Krathwohl, D.R. (2002) A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy. Theory into Practice, 41(4),Krakowka, A.R. (2012). Field trips as valuable learning experiences in Geography courses. Journal of Geography, 111(6),Ooi, G.L. (2008). ‘Where are the buses?’ - Role of Geography Fieldwork in a Socially Fragmented World. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 17(1):