OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION Aims of study Literature review The study The findings Key takeaways
AIMS OF STUDY 1.Argue that geographical fieldwork is useful as a platform for inculcating values among students 2.Demonstrate how Kolb's (1984) model of experiential learning can be used to frame the teaching of geographical fieldwork 3.Illustrate the integrative use of Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy in developing and deepening students’ thinking
GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK AND VALUES Other than fulfilling a variety of purposes such as the attainment of intellectual, academic and technical achievements, geographical fieldwork is also critical in developing the affective domain of learning (see Boyle et al, 2007; Hope, 2009) o Builds confidence and resilience amongst students o Enables students to develop their understanding of perspectives on a wide range of issues o Enables students to clarify and justify their own values while learning to acknowledge and respect values of others (see Job, Day and Smyth, 1999)
GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK AND VALUES Geographical fieldwork has been argued to be particularly useful in the development of insight and empathy as well as the critical reflection about social and personal values (see Ooi, 2008) The “direct experience” that geographical fieldwork offers is therefore integral to the social and personal development of students, especially in terms of the cultivation and nurturing of values (see Job, Day and Smyth, 1999; Boyle, et al, 2007; Ooi, 2008; Hope, 2009)
EXPERIENCING GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK Given that geographical fieldwork is an experience which is crucial in the development of values, Kolb’s (1984) model of experiential learning — which is often regarded as a “theoretical rationale” to geographical fieldwork (see Healey and Jenkins, 2000; Drummer et al, 2008; Krakowka, 2012) — is thus useful as a means of framing geographical fieldwork o Its significance extends beyond the conduct of fieldwork, but rather the focus on reflection — it “makes explicit the importance of encouraging students to reflect and providing them with feedback to reinforce their learning” (see Healey and Jenkins, 2000:186)
EXPERIENCING GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK [Modified from Healey and Jenkins (2000:187)] Concrete Experience (DO) Active Experimentation (PLAN) Reflective Observation (OBSERVE) Abstract Conceptualisation (THINK)
EXPERIENCING GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK Stages in Kolb’s Model Proposed ActivitiesPlanned Activities Abstract Conceptualisation Where learner is being presented with/or trying to conceptualise a theory or model of what is (to be) observed Pre-fieldwork in-class teaching and learning Active Experimentation Where learner is trying to plan how to test a model or theory or plan for a forthcoming experience Planning for fieldwork Concrete Experience Where learner is actively experiencing an activity Conduct of fieldwork Reflective Observation Where learner is consciously reflecting back on that experience Post-fieldwork reflection
REFLECTIONS IN GEOGRAPHICAL FIELDWORK With the focus of Kolb’s (1984) model of experiential learning on reflections, the development of tools to deepen reflections is hence crucial. o Effective questioning via two scaffolding frameworks: Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Questions o Paul’s Wheel provides scaffolding for critical and evaluative thinking — after all, it is based on the eight elements of critical thought (see Paul and Elder, 2008) o Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy provides scaffolding for the attainment of higher-order thinking from lower-order thinking (see Krathwohl, 2002)
THE STUDY Use of Kolb’s (1984) model to frame the teaching of geographical fieldwork on the topic of Urban Issues and Challenges (more specifically, “Managing Urban Environments — Housing problems in LDCs and DCs”) Use of Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy to structure questions at various stages of Kolb’s (1984) model to develop and deepen students’ reflections Use of pre- and post-fieldwork surveys (including geographical imaginations), written reflections and group reflective task to examine how values have been inculcated through geographical fieldwork
THE STUDY Concrete Experience (DO) Research Task: Conduct of fieldwork Active Experimentation (PLAN) Research Task: Planning and consultation Reflective Observation (OBSERVE) Group Reflective Task Abstract Conceptualisation (THINK) Task on group presentations and in-class teaching
STAGE: ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALISATION Task on group presentation Remembering & Understanding Analysing & Evaluating Understanding & Analysing
STAGE: ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALISATION Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning Samples of Questions Asked during Student Presentations Points of view Have you considered the perspectives of workers who have to travel long distances from the rural fringe into the city centre? How will congestion charging affect them? Information Where did you get the evidence to support your assertion that slums in India might not necessarily be slums of despair? Concepts What exactly does homelessness mean? Do city governments around the world adhere to the same definition of homelessness? Assumptions You claim that the resettlement of slum-dwellers benefits them because they are given new housing and monetary compensation for their movement. One of the assumptions that your argument is based on is the fact that these slum- dwellers are willing to resettle. What if they were forced to resettle from their initial locations? What happens to the community ties which they have built with their neighbours over the decades of staying together?
STAGE: ABSTRACT CONCEPTUALISATION Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Samples of Questions Asked during In-class Teaching (after Video Has Been Screened) Create Come up with a plan to investigate how these strategies are received among the residents of Hong Kong. Evaluate How effective are the strategies in solving housing issues in Hong Kong? Analyze How are the housing issues of Hong Kong and Singapore different or similar? Apply According to the video, why are the residents of Hong Kong facing such a situation? What is the government’s role in dealing with housing issues? Understand What are the causes of the housing issues? What are the other consequences of the rapid urbanisation? Remember What were the housing issues covered previously? What are the strategies that various governments have used to deal with these housing issues? Information Points of view
STAGE: ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION Research task: Planning and consultation Understanding Applying Analysing Evaluating
STAGE: ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION Sample questions asked during one of the consultation sessions: o What is the objective of your fieldwork? What are you trying to find out? Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning: Purpose Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: Understand o Do the methods you have chosen help you to achieve these objectives, or are there other methods which you could use? Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning: Point of view Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: Apply o What do you think are some potential shortcomings of your methods? Would you still continue with your chosen method or would you consider switching to another method? Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy: Evaluate Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning: Assumptions
STAGE: CONCRETE EXPERIENCE Research task: Conduct of fieldwork o Daily reflections Identify an emotion you felt during your fieldwork today. Explain why you felt that emotion. How will this emotion be different if you had conducted the same fieldwork in Singapore? Remembering Understanding Analysing
STAGE: REFLECTIVE OBSERVATION Group Reflective Task
THE RESULTS Methods Employed: o Pre-fieldwork geographical imaginations o Post-fieldwork geographical imaginations o Daily written reflections o Post-fieldwork attitude and perception survey o Responses in reflective tasks Analysis of findings affirmed that geographical fieldwork had indeed been useful in inculcating values o In our case, the Socio-Emotional Learning (SEL) competency of social awareness is the value that is the most prominently expressed by students
SOCIAL AWARENESS MOE (SEL) Your child has social awareness if he has the ability to accurately discern different perspectives, recognise and appreciate diversity, empathise with and respect others. CASEL The ability to take the perspective of and empathise with others from diverse backgrounds and cultures, to understand social and ethical norms for behavior, and to recognise family, school, and community resources and supports. ACARAThis element involves students recognising others’ feelings and knowing how and when to assist others. Students learn to show respect for and understand others’ perspectives, emotional states and needs. They learn to participate in positive, safe and respectful relationships, defining and accepting individual and group roles and responsibilities. Students gain an understanding of the role of advocacy in contemporary society and build their capacity to critique societal constructs and forms of discrimination, such as racism and sexism. In developing and acting with personal and social capability, students ●appreciate diverse perspectives, ●contribute to civil society, and ●understand relationships.
THE RESULTS Differences in o Pre- and post-fieldwork geographical imaginations for students who participated in the entire experience of geographical fieldwork (i.e., went for the Hong Kong fieldtrip) o Post-fieldwork geographical imaginations for students who participated in the entire experience of geographical fieldwork (i.e., went for the Hong Kong fieldtrip) and those who did not These suggest that the fieldwork process had enabled students to recognise and appreciate diversity
THE RESULTS Daily written reflections and post-fieldwork survey revealed o Greater appreciation for home country’s housing issues, o Tendency to sympathise with others, and o Stronger sense of self-awareness.
THE RESULTS Students’ responses for the reflective tasks showed that they were able to consider multiple perspectives and evaluate these perspectives before coming up with a proposal to address the issue that was posed to them.
KEY TAKEAWAYS 1.Geographical fieldwork is necessary not only for students’ “deep learning”, but also also for the cultivation of values among students. 2.Kolb's model of experiential learning has been useful in our design of curriculum, especially for the purposes of integrating fieldwork with classroom teaching and learning. 3.Paul’s Wheel of Reasoning and Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy are tools that we would like to better utilise in our teaching and learning, so as to deepen students’ reflections on their academic endeavours, as well as their value systems.
REFERENCES Drummer, T.J.B., Cook, I.G., Parker, S.L., Barrett, G.A. and Hull, A.P. (2008). Promoting and assessing ‘deep learning’ in Geography Fieldwork: An evaluation of reflective field diaries. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 32(3), 459-479 Healey, M. and Jenkins, A. (2000). Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory and Its Application in Geography in Higher Education. Journal of Geography, 99(5), 185- 195 Hope, M. (2009). The Importance of Direct Experience: A Philosophical Defence of Fieldwork in Human Geography. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 33(2), 169-182 Job, D., Day, C. and Smyth, T. (1999) Beyond the Bikesheds: Fresh Approaches to Fieldwork in the School Locality. Sheffield: Geographical Association. Krathwohl, D.R. (2002) A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy. Theory into Practice, 41(4), 212-218. Krakowka, A.R. (2012). Field trips as valuable learning experiences in Geography courses. Journal of Geography, 111(6), 236-244 Ooi, G.L. (2008). ‘Where are the buses?’ - Role of Geography Fieldwork in a Socially Fragmented World. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 17(1): 33-41.