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Three World Religions: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam EQ: Explain the similarities and differences between the world’s three largest monotheistic religions.

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Presentation on theme: "Three World Religions: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam EQ: Explain the similarities and differences between the world’s three largest monotheistic religions."— Presentation transcript:

1 Three World Religions: Judaism, Christianity, & Islam EQ: Explain the similarities and differences between the world’s three largest monotheistic religions.

2 MONOTHEISM MONOTHEISM FJudaism, Christianity, and Islam are major faiths that are examples of monotheism, or belief in one supreme god. FJFJudaism, Christianity, and Islam are major faiths that are examples of monotheism, or belief in one supreme god.

3 I. JUDAISM FFirst practiced by a small group of people in Southwest Asia called the Israelites. FFollowers today are known as Jews. FHoly book is the Torah. FFirst practiced by a small group of people in Southwest Asia called the Israelites. FFollowers today are known as Jews. FHoly book is the Torah.

4 Jewish Beliefs: FBelieve that they descended from Abraham and Sarah, the first people to worship Yahweh (God). Abraham lived at least 3,700 years ago in what is now Iraq. FTorah says that God made an agreement, or covenant, with Abraham (move to Canaan [Palestine] and he will be blessed). FBecause of this, Jews believe they are God’s “chosen people”. FBelieve that they descended from Abraham and Sarah, the first people to worship Yahweh (God). Abraham lived at least 3,700 years ago in what is now Iraq. FTorah says that God made an agreement, or covenant, with Abraham (move to Canaan [Palestine] and he will be blessed). FBecause of this, Jews believe they are God’s “chosen people”.

5 Ten Commandments FMost important of God’s laws. FGod gave the commandments to Moses (a prophet, or messenger of God). FHe moved Israelites out of Egypt, where they were slaves. FCommandments said that all people are equal, whether they are rich or poor. FMost important of God’s laws. FGod gave the commandments to Moses (a prophet, or messenger of God). FHe moved Israelites out of Egypt, where they were slaves. FCommandments said that all people are equal, whether they are rich or poor.

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7 Jerusalem, Israel

8 Diaspora FOver the centuries, the Jews would be conquered and forced to leave their homeland many times. FEventually, they spread to countries in many parts of the world. FScattering of the Jews = Diaspora. FIn many areas, the Jews were treated cruelly… FOver the centuries, the Jews would be conquered and forced to leave their homeland many times. FEventually, they spread to countries in many parts of the world. FScattering of the Jews = Diaspora. FIn many areas, the Jews were treated cruelly…

9 Jewish Diaspora

10 Holy Days FPassover: festival that retells the story of the Israelites fleeing Egypt. FRosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year’s Day. FYom Kippur: known as the Day of Atonement. People fast (go without food) and pray on this day. FPassover: festival that retells the story of the Israelites fleeing Egypt. FRosh Hashanah: Jewish New Year’s Day. FYom Kippur: known as the Day of Atonement. People fast (go without food) and pray on this day.

11 II. Christianity II. Christianity FArose from Judaism in Southwest Asia. FA Jew named Jesus began preaching in what today is Israel, the West Bank, and Jordan. FTaught that God loved all people, even those that have sinned. FSome Jews greeted him as the messiah, or savior, who would deliver them from the Romans. FArose from Judaism in Southwest Asia. FA Jew named Jesus began preaching in what today is Israel, the West Bank, and Jordan. FTaught that God loved all people, even those that have sinned. FSome Jews greeted him as the messiah, or savior, who would deliver them from the Romans.

12 Jesus FA.D. 30, Jesus and his disciples, or followers, went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover. FMany Jews greeted him as the messiah, and this worried other Jews and Romans. FJesus was convicted of treason under Roman law and crucified, or executed. FA.D. 30, Jesus and his disciples, or followers, went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover. FMany Jews greeted him as the messiah, and this worried other Jews and Romans. FJesus was convicted of treason under Roman law and crucified, or executed.

13 Jesus FDisciples proclaimed that Jesus had risen from the dead. FThey began preaching that Jesus was the Son of God, and they called him Christ (Greek for “messiah”). FThey spread Jesus’ teachings throughout the Roman world and beyond. FThe holy book of the Christians is the Bible; stories about Jesus became the New Testament. FDisciples proclaimed that Jesus had risen from the dead. FThey began preaching that Jesus was the Son of God, and they called him Christ (Greek for “messiah”). FThey spread Jesus’ teachings throughout the Roman world and beyond. FThe holy book of the Christians is the Bible; stories about Jesus became the New Testament.

14 Christianity Spreads… FA.D. 300: Christians were persecuted until Roman emperor Constantine became one and proclaimed it a lawful religion. FChristianity later divided into Roman Catholics (Pope in Italy), Eastern Orthodox, and Protestants (Martin Luther). FHas more followers than any other religion. FA.D. 300: Christians were persecuted until Roman emperor Constantine became one and proclaimed it a lawful religion. FChristianity later divided into Roman Catholics (Pope in Italy), Eastern Orthodox, and Protestants (Martin Luther). FHas more followers than any other religion.

15 Holy Days FChristmas: Jesus’ birthday. FGood Friday: day Jesus was crucified. FEaster: most important day of Christian calendar; believed to be the day that Jesus rose from the dead. FCFChristmas: Jesus’ birthday. FGFGood Friday: day Jesus was crucified. FEFEaster: most important day of Christian calendar; believed to be the day that Jesus rose from the dead.

16 III. ISLAM FBegan in the A.D. 600s in the Arabian Peninsula (Southwest Asia). FIn Arabic, Islam means “surrender” to the will of Allah (God). FFollowers of Islam are called Muslims. FBelieve that Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet of Islam, following Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. FBegan in the A.D. 600s in the Arabian Peninsula (Southwest Asia). FIn Arabic, Islam means “surrender” to the will of Allah (God). FFollowers of Islam are called Muslims. FBelieve that Muhammad is the last and greatest prophet of Islam, following Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.

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18 Muhammad FBorn A.D. 570 in Makkah (Mecca), city in western Arabia. FA.D. 610, he heard the voice of angel Gabriel telling him to preach about God. FTold the people there is only one God, Allah, and all believers in him are equal. FUrged the rich to share with the poor. FSaw life as a preparation for the Day of Judgment (when Allah would reward the good and punish the bad). FBorn A.D. 570 in Makkah (Mecca), city in western Arabia. FA.D. 610, he heard the voice of angel Gabriel telling him to preach about God. FTold the people there is only one God, Allah, and all believers in him are equal. FUrged the rich to share with the poor. FSaw life as a preparation for the Day of Judgment (when Allah would reward the good and punish the bad).

19 Muhammad’s swords Muhammad’s hat, robe, and staff

20 A piece of Muhammad’s hair! One of Muhammad’s sandals

21 Hijrah FMuhammad’s message angered the rich merchants of Makkah. FA.D. 622, he was forced to flee for safety to Madinah. FHis departure is known as the Hijrah, or migration. FHis forces eventually defeated armies who came to Madinah. FMade Madinah the center of Islam. FBy the time of his death in A.D. 632, most of Arabia had accepted Islam. FMuhammad’s message angered the rich merchants of Makkah. FA.D. 622, he was forced to flee for safety to Madinah. FHis departure is known as the Hijrah, or migration. FHis forces eventually defeated armies who came to Madinah. FMade Madinah the center of Islam. FBy the time of his death in A.D. 632, most of Arabia had accepted Islam.

22 Makkah to Madinah

23 The Green Dome in Madinah Muhammad’s grave lies under the Green Dome. (Above is his casket.)

24 The Quran FThe Muslim holy book is the Quran. FDescribes the Five Pillars of Faith (obligations all Muslims must fulfill). FThe Muslim holy book is the Quran. FDescribes the Five Pillars of Faith (obligations all Muslims must fulfill).

25 Five Pillars of Faith: F1. Confession, or statement, of faith. F2. Pray 5 times a day, facing Makkah. F3. Give charity to people in need. F4. Fast during daylight during Ramadan (the month in which God began to reveal the Quran to Muhammad). F5. Make the hajj, or journey, to Makkah to pray (once in each Muslim’s lifetime). F1. Confession, or statement, of faith. F2. Pray 5 times a day, facing Makkah. F3. Give charity to people in need. F4. Fast during daylight during Ramadan (the month in which God began to reveal the Quran to Muhammad). F5. Make the hajj, or journey, to Makkah to pray (once in each Muslim’s lifetime).

26 The Grand Mosque in Makkah The Grand Mosque in Makkah


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