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“Convicting Those Who Contradict”

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1 “Convicting Those Who Contradict”
Helping Saints Prepare to Answer and Persuade Those in Error

2 Introduction Title: “Convicting Those Who Contradict” (Titus 1:9)
Our Three-fold Goal: Use “sound doctrine” to persuade those “who contradict”. Determine what is “sound doctrine” versus “contradiction”. Consider how to determine what is “sound doctrine”. Selection: Significant, Local Threats to Christianity

3 Aside: Approaching People
Welcome to Visitors!  Class questions represent “worst case” hostility. “A soft answer turns away wrath, But a harsh word stirs up anger.” (Proverbs 15:1; Romans 12:17-21) “Speech with grace, seasoned with salt … know how to answer each one” (Colossians 4:6) Patiently “reason”, explain … not browbeat, intimidate (Acts 19:8-9; II Timothy 2:25-26). Say what each person needs (Mark 10:21-23).

4 Aside: Approaching People
Start with love’s benefit of the doubt (I Corinthians 13:4-8). Assume they are – at worst – innocently mistaken or confused, not willfully blind and hardened. React on an individual level with other person’s best interest in mind (I Corinthians 13:4-8): “Now we exhort you, brethren, warn those who are unruly, comfort the fainthearted, uphold the weak, be patient with all.” (I Thessalonians 5:14; see also Jude 22-23) Realize “power” is in the “gospel” (Romans 1:16; Ephesians 6:17), not socialization (I Cor. 2:1-5). Work toward fundamental point of difference!

5 Introduction … Motivation: Why have this class?
Even if we have studied these topics previously, why might this class be important for us to study now? Integrity … Personal conscience for self and before the Lord. Integrity! ... Answer others fairly, accurately, and appropriately. Integrity!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Teach our children to teach their children, teach others, and have integrity themselves.

6 Introduction … Direction: Answer 2 questions on every topic:
How do I know “they” are not right? How can I convince “them” of the truth?

7 Administrivia Questions available in the back …
Audio, slides, and questions on church web-site: Questions in “Member Files” section … … always being updated. Material divided into sections with questions … Cover roughly 10 questions per class … All quotations from NKJV, unless …

8 Synopsis – Sections Introduction to Careful Bible Study (5)
Catholicism (2) Calvinism (8) Seventy Day Adventist (3) Common Denominational Errors (2) Charismatic Errors (3) Introduction to Answering Cult Errors (1) Mormonism (3)

9 Synopsis – Sections Introduction to Careful Bible Study (~4)
Catholicism (~2) Calvinism (~5) Common Denominational Errors (~3) Charismatic Errors (~3) Introduction to Answering Cult Errors (~1) Seventy Day Adventist (~1) Mormonism (~3) Jehovah’s Witnesses (~3)

10 “Axe Laid to the Root …” “Give me six hours to chop down a tree and I will spend the first four sharpening the axe.” – Abraham Lincoln “If the ax is dull, And one does not sharpen the edge, Then he must use more strength; But wisdom brings success.” (Ecclesiastes 10:10) See also: Luke 3:9

11 Introduction to Careful Bible Study
Section #1 Introduction to Careful Bible Study

12 Overview of the Bible Authorship Organization Unity of Message
Imagine you were beginning a study with a neighbor, and they asked, “What is the Bible about?” How would you explain the central theme of the Bible?

13 Unity of Message Imagine you were beginning a study with a neighbor, and they asked, “What is the Bible about?” How would you explain the central theme of the Bible? God’s plan to save a remnant of mankind from their sins. Old Testament (Galatians 3:24-25; Romans 7:13) New Testament (Ephesians 3:10-11; Colossians 1:27- 29) Tree of life lost, regained (Genesis 3; Revelation 22).

14 Major Bible Periods Patriarchal – Hebrews 1:1 … Genesis 6:13; 7:1; 18:19; 26:3, 24; 28:13; Job 1:5 …Genesis 14:18; 20:7; Numbers 22:1-20; Exodus 18:1-12; Job 42:7- 10 Mosaical – From giving of the Law of Moses to Jesus’ death on the cross. (One special people, Israelites). Christian – From Jesus’ death on the cross until …? Open to all people!

15 Overcoming Barriers to Bible study
What spiritual virtues are essential for a proper understanding of God’s Word and resolving differences about the meaning of Scripture? “Get wisdom! Get understanding! Do not forget, nor turn away from the words of my mouth. Do not forsake her, and she will preserve you; Love her, and she will keep you. Wisdom is the principal thing; Therefore get wisdom. And in all your getting, get understanding. … When you walk, your steps will not be hindered, And when you run, you will not stumble. Take firm hold of instruction, do not let go; Keep her, for she is your life.” (Proverbs 4:4-13)

16 Barrier #1 – Failures IN MOTIVATION
Overcoming Barriers Barrier #1 – Failures IN MOTIVATION

17 4. “But, I am already a Christian!”
Unity: Division Is A Barrier To Evangelism “I do not pray for these alone, but also for those who will believe in Me through their word; that they all may be one, as You, Father, are in Me, and I in You; that they also may be one in Us, that the world may believe that You sent Me.” (John 17:20-21)

18 4. “But, I am already a Christian!”
Unity: Unity Enhances the Work of the Church “Now the whole earth had one language and one speech And the LORD said, ‘Indeed the people are one and they all have one language, and this is what they begin to do; now nothing that they propose to do will be withheld from them.’” (Genesis 11:1-6)

19 5. “One is as good as another!”
Salvation: Division Is Not Acceptable: “Now I plead with you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment.” (I Corinthians 1:10)

20 5. “One is as good as another!”
Salvation: Believing False Doctrine Can Condemn You or Me: “And their message will spread like cancer. Hymenaeus and Philetus are of this sort, who have strayed concerning the truth, saying that the resurrection is already past; and they overthrow the faith of some. (II Timothy 2:17-18; also, Galatians 5:4; Matthew 7:21-23; Luke 6:39)

21 6. “I don’t argue about religion!”
We do not have to “argue”. Inappropriate Fighting is Condemned: And a servant of the Lord must not quarrel but be gentle to all, able to teach, patient, … (II Timothy 2:24)

22 6. “I don’t argue about religion!”
However, We Must Correct and Contend: … in humility correcting those who are in opposition, if God perhaps will grant them repentance, so that they may know the truth, and that they may come to their senses and escape the snare of the devil, having been taken captive by him to do his will. (II Timothy 2:25-26) Beloved, … I found it necessary to write to you exhorting you to contend earnestly for the faith which was once for all delivered to the saints. (Jude 3)

23 Tip #1: Watch speech and tone
Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer each one. (Colossians 4:6)

24 FLAWED Methods of Interpretation
Unbelieving Rational Mystical Hierarchical Majority Allegorical Literal Spiritual Reflects upon God as Revelator and Creator There is no Bible. Bible is Hopeless. Man is Hopeless. Bible has no literary orientation.

25 Barrier #2 – Insufficiency of Scripture
Overcoming Barriers Barrier #2 – Insufficiency of Scripture

26 7. “Words cannot contain infinite God!”
The Bible contains what we need to know: “… as His divine power has given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness, through the knowledge of Him who called us by glory and virtue.” (II Peter 1:3; also, II Timothy 3:16-17) No one limits God, but God can limit Himself (Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:17-18; II Timothy 2:13).

27 7. “Words cannot contain infinite God!”
The Bible IS sufficient! It can be read and understood: “… how that by revelation He made known to me the mystery (as I have briefly written already, by which, when you read, you may understand my knowledge in the mystery of Christ), which in other ages was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed by the Spirit to His holy apostles and prophets.” (Ephesians 3:3-5)

28 9. “I Just Don’t Get It!” Some parts of the Bible are difficult to understand: “… be diligent to be found by Him in peace, without spot and blameless; … as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you, as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures. You therefore, beloved, since you know this beforehand, beware lest you also fall from your own steadfastness, being led away with the error of the wicked;” (II Peter 3:14-18)

29 9. “I Just Don’t Get It!” Understanding them requires diligence:
“Be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who does not need to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.” (II Timothy 2:15) God designed us as well as the Bible. If He said we can understand, then we can understand! “Who has made man's mouth? … Have not I, the LORD?” (Exodus 4:1) “Have I not commanded you? Be strong and of good courage; do not be afraid, nor be dismayed, for the LORD your God is with you wherever you go.” (Joshua 1:9)

30 8. “That is your interpretation!”
Presumes one interpretation is as good (or, as bad) as another. “… God, who cannot lie …” (Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:17-18) “For God is not the author of confusion but of peace, as in all the churches of the saints.” (I Corinthians 14:33) Despairs that truth (God’s Word) is essentially unknowable or non-existent, but it is knowable and sufficient for all we need (II Timothy 3:16-17). “Do you believe you are right?”

31 Tip #2: Adapt! For though I am free from all men, I have made myself a servant to all, that I might win the more; and to the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might win Jews; to those who are under the law, as under the law, that I might win those who are under the law; to those who are without law, as without law (not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that I might win those who are without law; to the weak I became as weak, that I might win the weak. I have become all things to all men, that I might by all means save some. Now this I do for the gospel's sake, that I may be partaker of it with you. (I Corinthians 9:19-23)

32 Barrier #3 – Wrong Standard
Overcoming Barriers Barrier #3 – Wrong Standard

33 “Holy Spirit Helps Interpret”
So, the Scriptures are insufficient? I can’t read and understand? How do you know it is the Holy Spirit leading you? Could be the Devil or his servants! (II Thessalonians 2:9-12; II Corinthians 11:13-15) Could be yourself! (Jeremiah 14:14; 23:16-36; 29:8-9) Modern revelation cannot contradict the ancient. But even if we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel to you than what we have preached to you, let him be accursed. As we have said before, so now I say again, if anyone preaches any other gospel to you than what you have received, let him be accursed. (Galatians 1:8-9) See also: I John 4:1, 6; I Corinthians 14:33, 37; John 5:31-47

34 Review: Welcome to Visitors! 
“A soft answer turns away wrath, But a harsh word stirs up anger.” (Proverbs 15:1; Romans 12:17-21) Identify common platform, and build toward resolving fundamental point of difference. Identify and question assertions, assumptions. What we believe matters (Galatians 5:4). Identify differences in approaching the Bible. Don’t forget the sufficiency of the Scriptures for man (Ephesians 3:3-5; II Timothy 3:16-17; II Peter 1:2-3)!

35 “I feel this is right!” If you were talking to a friend, convicting them of some sin, and they responded, “I feel this is right,” how would you answer? Our feelings cannot be trusted: “There is a way that seems right to a man, But its end is the way of death.” (Proverbs 14:12; also, Proverbs 16:2; Jeremiah 10:23)

36 “I feel this is right!” For example, Paul was sincerely wrong:
Then Paul, looking earnestly at the council, said, “Men and brethren, I have lived in all good conscience before God until this day.” (Acts 23:1) “I persecuted this Way to the death, binding and delivering into prisons both men and women …” (Acts 22:4) “… I was formerly a blasphemer, a persecutor, and an insolent man; but I obtained mercy because I did it ignorantly in unbelief.” (I Timothy 1:13)

37 “My Parents Could Answer …”
What if you were studying with a schoolmate, and they answered, “My parents and my pastor could answer all of these questions!” What would you say? Who comes first, Jesus or ancestry? “If anyone comes to Me and does not hate his father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he cannot be My disciple.” (Luke 14:26; also, Matthew 10:34-39; Galatians 1:13-14)

38 “My Pastor Could Answer …”
“Great! I would love to study with him too. ” Whose traditions comes first, God’s or man’s? He answered and said to them, “Why do you also transgress the commandment of God because of your tradition? … ‘And in vain they worship Me, Teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’” (Matthew 15:3, 9) We stand on our own before God on Judgment – not with anyone else including one’s pastor: “For we must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that each one may receive the things done in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad.” (II Corinthians 5:10)

39 “All Christians believe this!”
Imagine you were talking to a schoolmate about instrumental music, and they responded, “But, all Christians use mechanical instruments in worship!” What would be your answer? Previously, God condemned the world and saved few! …who formerly were disobedient, when once the Divine longsuffering waited in the days of Noah, while the ark was being prepared, in which a few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water. (I Peter 3:20)

40 “All Christians believe this!”
Jesus has foretold that only a few will go to heaven! “Enter by the narrow gate; for wide is the gate and broad is the way that leads to destruction, and there are many who go in by it. Because narrow is the gate and difficult is the way which leads to life, and there are few who find it.” (Matthew 7:13-14) Lesson: How can the majority be a standard, if the majority are not even going to heaven?

41 Required Attitudes and Virtues
Approaching the Bible Required Attitudes and Virtues

42 Ultimate Love of Truth II Timothy 3:6-8 – “… always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth” Romans 10:1-3 – “… that they be saved. … they have a zeal for God, but not according to knowledge.” Luke 16:15 – “You are those who justify yourselves before men, but God knows your hearts.” Matthew 13:14-15 – “Their eyes they have closed, Lest they should see with their eyes and hear with their ears, Lest they should understand with their hearts and turn, So that I should heal them.”

43 Ultimate Love of Truth “The coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with all power, signs, and lying wonders, and with all unrighteous deception among those who perish, because they did not receive the love of the truth, that they might be saved. And for this reason God will send them strong delusion, that they should believe the lie, that they all may be condemned who did not believe the truth but had pleasure in unrighteousness.” (II Thessalonians 2:11-12) People hear the truth, and they reject it and love of it. God sends “strong delusion”. People believe the lie instead, and are condemned.

44 God Cannot Lie or Tempt unto Sin
… in hope of eternal life which God, who cannot lie, promised before time began … (Titus 1:2 NKJV, see also, Hebrews 6:18) Let no one say when he is tempted, “I am tempted by God”; for God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He Himself tempt anyone. But each one is tempted when he is drawn away by his own desires and enticed. Then, when desire has conceived, it gives birth to sin; and sin, when it is full-grown, brings forth death. (James 1:13-15) “Thus says the LORD: ‘Behold, I will fill all the inhabitants of this land - - even the kings who sit on David's throne, the priests, the prophets, and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem -- with drunkenness! And I will dash them one against another, even the fathers and the sons together,’ says the LORD.” (Jeremiah 13:12-15) Recall: Jehu & Ahab, Assyria & Israel, Babylon & Assyria & Judah

45 More on Love of Truth … Common, repeated, and emphasized theme throughout the Scriptures: John 3:19-21 – “… this is the condemnation, that the light has come into the world, and men loved darkness rather than light, because their deeds were evil” II Chron. 18:1-34; I Kings 22:1-36 – Ahab & Micaiah Isaiah 66:2-4 – God says, “they have chosen their own ways, … So will I choose their delusions.” Proverbs 23:23 – “Buy the truth and sell it not!” Psalm 11:4 – “His eyelids tests the sons of men”

46 More on Love of Truth … II Corinthians 3:14-4:4 – Blinded minds – even while reading Scripture – by the god of this age through crafty, deceitful handling of Scripture. John 7:17 – “If anyone wants to do His will, he shall know concerning the doctrine, whether it is from God” Romans 1:28-32 – God “gave them up to a reprobate mind”, because they did not like to “retain God in their knowledge”. Matthew 11:25-27 – Truth was hidden from wise and prudent, but revealed to babes by God’s design.

47 More on Love of Truth … I Corinthians 1:18-31 – Cross is foolishness, a stumbling block – “not many wise … not many mighty … not many noble” II Peter 3:5 – “this they willfully forget”, “willfully ignorant” Proverbs 18:13 – “He who answers a matter before he hears it, It is folly and shame to him.” Luke 22:67-68 – Asking questions with intent to ignore answer. Acts 22:21-22 – Prejudicial listening. Rejection upon 1 word.

48 More on Love of Truth … Jeremiah 5:30-31 – “The prophets prophesy falsely … And My people love to have it so” Isaiah 30:9-15 – Wanted prophets to speak smooth deceits, turn out of the path, and remove God from before them. Deuteronomy 16:19 – “A bribe blinds the eyes of the wise and twists the words of the righteous.” What is the Devil offering? Jer. 23:16-32; 27:12-28:17; 29:8; Ez. 13:1-16 – Speaks against self-induced dreams and visions. People dream what they want to dream and hope it is from God.

49 Exegesis vs. Eisegesis exegesis – interpret, “lead out” meaning
eisegesis – inject meaning … Thus says the Lord GOD: “Everyone of the house of Israel who 1sets up his idols in his heart, and puts before him what causes him to stumble into iniquity, 2and then comes to the prophet, 3I the LORD will answer him who comes, according to the multitude of his idols, that I may seize the house of Israel by their heart, because they are all estranged from Me by their idols.” (Ezekiel 14:4-10) The Bible pattern is to always hear then believe – not believe then hear! (Rom. 10:17; John 6:45; Acts 2:41)

Overcoming Barriers Barrier #4 – EMOTIONAL ESCAPES

51 14. “As long as you are doing your best”
“Why do you think your judgment of yourself is enough?” For I know nothing against myself, yet I am not justified by this; but He who judges me is the Lord. (I Corinthians 4:4)

52 14. “As long as you are doing your best”
Sincerity and good works in Jesus’ name is not enough! “Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ shall enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father in heaven. Many will say to Me in that day, ‘Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in Your name, cast out demons in Your name, and done many wonders in Your name?’ And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness!’” (Matthew 7:21-23) Lesson: Obey the standard by which we will be judged (John 12:48).

53 15. “As long as IT’s To God’s Glory …”
How does disobedience ever glorify God? Then Samuel said: “Has the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, As in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, And to heed than the fat of rams. For rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, And stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry. Because you have rejected the word of the LORD, He also has rejected you from being king.” (I Samuel 15:22-23) God desires obedience over sacrifice. Devoting to God does not justify (Matthew 15:3-6).

54 16. “You’re Only ONEs going to Heaven?”
What “we” think is irrelevant. “We” are not the authority. Furthermore, there is no “we”. It’s only God and us. Let “us” determine what God says “we all” must do. “I think whoever pleases God will go to heaven. Let’s study the Bible to learn how we can do that together!”

55 17. “But, Jesus Told Us Not To Judge!”
Not a blanket, absolute statement. Refers only to a certain kind of judgment: “Do not judge according to appearance, but judge with righteous judgment.” (John 7:24) Ours is not a judgment of condemnation but of warning before unavoidable condemnation is upon us all: “For if we would judge ourselves, we would not be judged. But when we are judged, we are chastened by the Lord, that we may not be condemned with the world.” (I Corinthians 11:31-32)

56 Conclusion Answer and answer with grace.
Many errors trace to a misunderstanding of how to understand Scripture. Many flawed methods to interpret trace to bad assumptions about God. Scriptures are sufficient. We can read and understand. God’s design of us is sufficient. We can read and understand. Understanding requires diligent study. Examine assumptions and bring out the true standard.

57 Tip #4: Do Your Homework! But sanctify the Lord God in your hearts, and always be ready to give a defense to everyone who asks you a reason for the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear … (I Peter 3:15) Let your speech always be with grace, seasoned with salt, that you may know how you ought to answer each one. (Colossians 4:6)

58 Reasonable interpretation of Scripture
Understanding the Bible Reasonable interpretation of Scripture

59 Reasonable interpretation of ANYTHING
Understanding the Bible Reasonable interpretation of ANYTHING

60 Common Sense Observations
Put Everything Together – Titus 1:1-3, 9; I Corinthians 14:33

61 Putting Everything Together?

62 Common Sense Observations
Put Everything Together – Titus 1:1-3, 9; I Corinthians 14:33 Context, Context, Context! Let Simple Clarify Difficult – II Peter 3:15-18; Hebrews 5:13-14 Consider Parallel Passages Beware Unnecessary Speculation – Deut. 29:29; Coloss. 2:18-19; I Timothy 1:3-7; II Timothy 2:14-15 Beware Allurement of the Fantastic & Mystical – II Cor. 11:2-3; Colossians 2:6-8; I Corinthians 1:22-31

63 Bible Examples in Careful Reasoning
Understanding the Bible Bible Examples in Careful Reasoning

64 “Are you not of more value?”
Explain the reasoning that Jesus expected us to use to move from a recognition of God’s care of the birds and the lilies to a confidence that we would be fed and clothed (Matthew 6:25-31). Argument from the lesser to the greater: Demonstrate truth in “lesser” case. Identify cause for truthfulness in “lesser” case. Demonstrate increase of cause in “greater” case. Conclude truth with greater certainty in “greater” case.

65 “Are you not of more value?”
“… Look at the birds of the air, for they neither sow nor reap nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not of more value than they? Which of you by worrying can add one cubit to his stature? So why do you worry about clothing? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow: they neither toil nor spin; and yet I say to you that even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Now if God so clothes the grass of the field, which today is, and tomorrow is thrown into the oven, will He not much more clothe you, O you of little faith? …” (Matthew 6:25-30)

66 “Seek And You Will Find”
Does Jesus’ promise recorded in Matthew 7:7-11, that our seeking will always yield results, apply to all things for which we could seek, or just some specific types of things? How do you know? Also see, Luke 11:9-13. Context: Don’t worry about wealth (Matthew 6:19-34). Consider the parallel passage in Luke 11:9-13 … Put Everything Together: “Asking amiss”, praying for our “lusts” or “pleasures” is ignored (James 4:1-5). Guarantee for spiritual blessings that we need (for example, James 1:5-8)

67 “Seek And You Will Find”
“Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives, and he who seeks finds, and to him who knocks it will be opened. Or what man is there among you who, if his son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, will he give him a serpent? If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give good things to those who ask Him!” (Matthew 7:7-11)

68 “Seek And You Will Find”
“So I say to you, ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you. For everyone who asks receives, and he who seeks finds, and to him who knocks it will be opened. If a son asks for bread from any father among you, will he give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, will he give him a serpent instead of a fish? Or if he asks for an egg, will he offer him a scorpion? If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask Him!” (Luke 11:9-13)

69 Pray for Physical Needs?
Question: If the promise of always receiving the object of any prayer is not the point of Matthew 7:7-11, is there any passage that justifies praying for physical needs? James 5:14-15 – Also about spiritual “sickness”, not physical. Matthew 6:9-11 – “Give us this day our daily bread.” Acts 12:12-17 – Saints praying for Peter’s release II Cor. 12:7-9 – Prayed 3 times for “thorn in the flesh” I Tim. 2:1 – Pray for government, “quiet, peaceable life” Philemon 22 – Prayed for Paul’s deliverance III John 2 – Prayed, “prosper in all things and be in health” Hebrews 5:7 – Jesus prayed to be delivered from cross.

70 Greatest, Levi Or Melchizedek?
Does God expect us to draw conclusions and reason from the Bible? Whose priesthood was greater, Levi or Melchizedek? What reasoning does the Hebrew writer use to prove this (Hebrews 7:4-10)? Order: Melchizedek > Abraham > Levi > Israelites Conclusion: Covenant built on priesthood after Melchizedek is superior to covenant built on Levi’s.

71 Greatest, Levi Or Melchizedek?
Now consider how great this man was, to whom even the patriarch Abraham gave a tenth of the spoils. And indeed those who are of the sons of Levi, who receive the priesthood, have a commandment to receive tithes from the people according to the law, that is, from their brethren, though they have come from the loins of Abraham; but he whose genealogy is not derived from them received tithes from Abraham and blessed him who had the promises. Now beyond all contradiction the lesser is blessed by the better. Here mortal men receive tithes, but there he receives them, of whom it is witnessed that he lives. Even Levi, who receives tithes, paid tithes through Abraham, so to speak, for he was still in the loins of his father when Melchizedek met him. (Hebrews 7:4-10)

72 “Moses Showed at the Bush”
How did “Moses show at the burning bush passage that the dead are raised”? What reasoning did Jesus use (Luke 20:27-40)? See: Mark 12:18-27; Matt. 22:23-32 Parallel: “Are you not therefore mistaken, because you do not know the 1Scriptures nor the 2power of God? ... But concerning the dead, that they rise, have you not read in the book of Moses, in the burning bush passage, how God spoke to him, saying, ‘I am the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not the God of the dead, but the God of the living. You are therefore greatly mistaken.” (Mark 12:24-27) … Pulling it all together

73 God Expects Us To Use Our Brains! 
Understanding the Bible God Expects Us To Use Our Brains! 

74 Interpreting Figurative Language
Understanding the Bible Interpreting Figurative Language

75 Recognizing Figurative Language
Try to take things literally (I Cor. 14:33), unless … Explicitly stated as symbolic – Revelation 1:1; 12:3 “… things which must shortly take place. And He sent and signified it by His angel to His servant John” Came by a dream or vision, which needed interpretation – Daniel 7:1; 5:12; Numbers 12:6 Literal interpretation is too ridiculous: “Herod wants to kill you.” … “Go tell that fox …” (Luke 13:31-32) “I am the door. If anyone enters by Me, he will be saved” (John 10:7-9)

76 Types of Figurative Language
Parable – Matthew 13:3-9, 18-23 Fable – II Kings 14:8-10 Allegory – Galatians 4:21-31 Apocalyptic – Revelation and Zechariah Simile – I Peter 1:24 Metaphor – John 10:9 Metonymy – I Corinthians 11:26-27 Synecdoche – Acts 17:12; 3:19; 19:5 Hyperbole – Psalm 6:6; Matthew 7:3-5

77 Types of Figurative Language
Irony, Sarcasm – I Kings 18:27; 22:15-18 Interrogation, Rhetorical Question – John 7:50-51 Elliptical – II Corinthians 5:21; John 6:27; 12:44 Prolepsis – Matthew 10:4 Personification, Anthropomorphism – Luke 11:20; Psalm 98:1; John 4:24; Luke 24:39 We will use many of these before the quarter ends! 

78 Bible Examples of Figurative Language
Understanding the Bible Bible Examples of Figurative Language

79 “A Great, Fiery Red Dragon”
“Behold, a great, fiery red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads. His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. And the dragon stood before the woman who was ready to give birth, to devour her Child as soon as it was born” (Revelation 12:3-4), is an example of what kind of figurative language? Apocalyptic! Greek, apokalupsis → “revelation” (see Revelation 1:1)

80 “Then He Took THE Cup” Some advocate that Christians should only use one cup in the Lord’s Supper, because the relevant texts only reference a single cup (for example, Matthew 26:27). Could “the cup” be a figure of speech for the contents of the cup? If so, how do you know from the related contexts, and which type of figure would this be?

81 “Then He Took THE Cup” Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you. For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom.” (Matthew 26:27-29)

82 “Then He Took THE Cup” Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, “Drink from [Gr., ek] it, all of you. For this is My blood of the new covenant, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of [Gr., ek] this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father's kingdom.” (Matthew 26:27-29)

83 “Then He Took THE Cup” Some advocate that Christians should only use one cup in the Lord’s Supper, because the relevant texts only reference a single cup (for example, Matthew 26:27). Could “the cup” be a figure of speech for the contents of the cup? If so, how do you know from the related contexts, and which type of figure would this be? Metonymy! Parallel: Then He took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, “Take this and divide it among yourselves; for I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes.” (Luke 22:17-18)

84 Born Wicked and Depraved?
“The wicked are estranged from the womb; They go astray as soon as they are born, speaking lies” (Psalm 58:3). Are the wicked born able to talk, much less speaking lies? What kind of figure is this? What does this verse prove about man’s sinfulness from birth? Hyperbole! Man is no more born guilty of sin than he is born speaking. But, man does become wicked quickly!

85 “The Trees Said to the Bramble”
“Then all the trees said to the bramble, ‘You come and reign over us!’” is an example of what kind of figure? What lesson does Judges 9:6-20 teach? Fable! All of the nobler plants were too busy to rule as king. The “bramble” was willing and did so cruelly. Lesson: Those most unfit to rule are often asked and do so rule.

86 Just Figurative Language?
“How can I give you up, Ephraim? How can I hand you over, Israel? How can I make you like Admah? How can I set you like Zeboiim? My heart churns within Me; My sympathy is stirred” (Hosea 11:8-9). Some argue this is anthropomorphism for God, and that He has no real sympathy or pity for man, but rather He is personified like man in this text. Is this a fair argument? How do you know from the context? “I will not execute the fierceness of My anger; I will not again destroy Ephraim. For I am God, and not man, The Holy One in your midst; And I will not come with terror” (Hosea 11:9). …. The context’s point is to contrast God against man!

87 Conclusion Use some common sense: Put everything together
Observe context. Consider parallel passages. Beware unnecessary speculation & mystical. God expects us to use our brains. Let the Bible show you how to interpret itself, like any book. Try a simple, literal interpretation unless it doesn’t fit.

88 Logical Fallacies What Are They?

89 Logical Fallacies Erroneous thinking: 2 + 2 = 5 !!!!
Formal versus Informal Logical Fallacy Informal Fallacy Families: Relevance Presumption Ambiguity Much more information, including verses, than have time to cover in class … Need handouts for questions …

90 Demonstrated In the Bible
Hasty Generalization – John 18:37-38; Malachi 1:2, 6 False Cause – Jeremiah 44:17-23; Isaiah 36:7 Slippery Slope – baptism -> salvation by works Weak Analogy – Ezekiel 18:1-4 Appeal to Authority – Matthew 15:1-9; John 7:47-48 Ad populum – “Most doubt hell exists.” Ad hominem – Luke 7:33-34 Appeal to Emotion – John 19:12-13 Appeal to Ignorance – Matthew 22:23-33; Malachi 2:17

91 Demonstrated In the Bible
Straw Man – Ezekiel 33:10-11 Red Herring – Genesis 3:4-5; Acts 23:6-10 False Dichotomy – Matthew 22:15-22 Circular Reasoning – “The Bible says it’s from God.” Equivocation – Genesis 3:4-5 (*) Non sequitur – Mark 2:5-12; John 10:30-38 Scoffing – John 7:46-49; II Peter 3:3-6; Proverbs 9:7- 8; 15:12 Poisoning the Well – John 1:45-46

92 Barrier #5 – Identifying Logical Fallacies
Overcoming Barriers Barrier #5 – Identifying Logical Fallacies

93 Justifiable Fear or Paranoia?
“If we permit ladies’ classes, they may want to have them at the building, and if they have them at the building, they may use the auditorium, and if they use the auditorium, they may use the pulpit, and if they use the pulpit, they will want to become preachers! Therefore, we should not have ladies’ classes.” Slippery slope! Assumes the conclusion is not only likely, but also practically unavoidable, when it is both unlikely and easily avoidable.

94 To the Man “‘Is this not the carpenter, the Son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? And are not His sisters here with us?’ And they were offended at Him.” (Mark 6:3) Ad Hominem – Attacking the man, not his argument. Used in “reverse” too: “I know this man. He’s a good man. I have known him all my life. ….” … Supporting the man, not his argument.

95 Because Preachers Are Never Wrong …
“My preacher said that baptism was an outward sign of an inward grace, so I don't have to be baptized to be saved, because I am saved already!” Appeal to Authority – Who made any preacher an authority above Scripture? Appeal to Unaccepted Authority – We all look to various “authorities” or “experts”. The key is to dig deep enough to find authorities that are upheld by both “sides”. May turn into a discussion over witness credibility or authority’s qualification…

96 “Slanderously Reported to Say”
“And why not say, ‘Let us do evil that good may come’? – as we are slanderously reported and as some affirm that we say. Their condemnation is just” (Romans 3:8). Straw Man! Paul did not preach, ‘Let us do evil that good may come’. This was misrepresentation (“slander”). But, the “condemnation” of that statement was “just”. Can occur deliberately or accidentally. …

97 Because Scientists are never wrong …
“No real scientist believes in God!” Appeal to Authority – Who made scientists the “priests”? Ad populum – There are no scientists who believe in God? Scoffing – Believers can’t practice real science? Circular Reasoning – So, you have defined science so that it denies the possibility of the supernatural as a premise of science? That’s not science. That’s naturalism, physicalism – and, it’s circular reasoning!

98 Conclusion Beware logical fallacies – use critical thinking!
Three families of logical fallacies: Relevance Presumption Ambiguity The Bible deals with many logical fallacies. … and so must we! 

99 References Adams, Wilson, Fast Facts About False Teachings, Tops Printing, Bryan, Texas, 2010. Barnett, Maurice James, By What Authority, The Scheme of Redemption, Vol, 3, Maurice Barnett, Phoenix, Arizona, 2005. Dungan, D. R., Hermeneutics, Gospel Light Publishing Company, Delight, Arkansas. Harkrider, Robert, Basic Bible Doctrine, Books 1-4, Impressive Image Production, Russellville, Alabama, 1987. Jenkins, Ferrell, Introduction to Christian Evidences, Guardian of Truth Foundation, Bowling Green, Kentucky,

100 Tip #5: Speak to each person.
Then Jesus, (1) looking at him, (2) loved him, and (3) said to him, “One thing you lack: Go your way, sell whatever you have and give to the poor, and you will have treasure in heaven; and come, take up the cross, and follow Me.” (Mark 10:21) Now we exhort you, brethren, warn those who are unruly, comfort the fainthearted, uphold the weak, be patient with all. (I Thessalonians 5:14) And on some have compassion, making a distinction; but others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire, hating even the garment defiled by the flesh. (Jude 1:22-23)

101 Leftovers Manner of Confrontation: Eph. 4:15; II Tim. 2:25; Col. 4:6
Contend for the faith – Jude 3; I John 4:1; Rev 2:1-2; timothy ? Nothing new – Eccl. 1:9 Exclusiveness of Christianity: John 14:6; Acts 4:12 Willingness to change & obey: Jam. 1:21-25 Cannot conflict: 1cor ; Eph. 4:3-7; Tit. 1:1-2 Speak as the oracles of God: 1 Pet. 4:11

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