2Living & Nonliving Things The difference between living and nonliving things are found by observing their properties.Properties can describe how an object1. looks2. feels3. behavesAll things have properties.
3Properties of Nonliving Things Both living and nonliving things have properties.Nonliving things have properties that you can see and feel.Unlike living things, nonliving things do not carry out life activities. They do not move, develop, or reproduce.Nonliving things are NOT made of cells.
4Properties of Living Things Living things carry out life activities.They move, grow, and reproduce.They sense and react to their environment (surroundings)Another word for a living thing is an organism.Both large living things, like a human or tree, and small living things, like bacteria, are organisms.Bacteria are the simplest organisms that carry out life activities.
5Organisms & Organs An organism is a complete, individual living thing. The organ in organism comes from the Latin word that means “tool.”Just like a tool, an organ performs a certain job in living things.Simple organisms, like bacteria, do not have organs.
6How Organisms Are Classified Living things can be very different from one another.Scientists divide living things into five groups or kingdoms.The five kingdoms are:1. plant2. animal3. protist4. fungi5. moneraMost living things that we know are in the plant or animal kingdoms.Taxonomy is when organisms are classified.
7The Plant Kingdom Plants don’t move from place to place like animals. Plants make their own food, using sunlight and other substances around them.All plants have many cells.Many plants also have organs.
8The Animal Kingdom Animal cannot make their own food. They get food from other living things.Most animals move around to capture or gather their food.Moving also helps animals find shelter, escape danger, and find mates.All animals have many cells. In all animals except the sponge, these cells form tissues. In most animals, these tissues form organs.
9The Protist KingdomAfter the microscope was invented, biologists began to discover microorganisms.These microorganisms did not fit into either the plant or animal kingdoms.Biologists put them in a separate kingdom called protists.Most protists have only one cell. A few have many cells.
10More ProtistsSome protists make their own food. Others absorb food from other sources.All protists carry out basic life activities.Algae is an example of plant-like protists. Algae can make its own food and is food for other organisms.Protozoans are animal-like protists. They behave like animals by getting food and moving.
11Protozoans Protozoans can use flagella, cilia, or pseudopods to move. Flagella are whip-like tails that help one-celled organisms move. Euglena is an organism that has a flagellum.
12ProtozoansAmoebas push out part of their cell which pulls the amoeba along. This is called a pseudopod.
13ProtozoansParamecium use cilia to move. Cilia are tiny hair-like structures that move like boat paddles.
14The Fungi KingdomFungi are organisms that have many cells and decompose material for food.Examples of fungi are mushrooms and mold.At one time, fungi were classified as plants because they do not move around by themselves. However, unlike plants, fungi do not make their food.
15More Fungi Fungi are important because of the way they get food. Fungi release special chemicals on dead plants and animal matter.These chemicals break down the matter. This is called decomposition.This decomposed material is either:a. absorbed by the fungi ORb. gets into the soil for plants and other organisms touse.
16More Fungi Some fungi are parasites. Parasites absorb food from living organisms.Examples of parasites are:a. Dutch Elm disease killing trees.b. ringworm, which is a human skin disease.
17The Monera Kingdom Monera means alone. The monera kingdom has only one kind of organism.Monerans are usually one-celled organisms that do not have organelles.Bacteria are in the monera kingdom. Bacteria do not have organelles.
18Bacteria Some bacteria cause disease, like strep throat. Most bacteria are harmless. Many are even helpful.Bacteria also help to decompose the remains of plants and animals.People also use bacteria to make cheese and yogurt.