4Read the following passage and identify of function of verb-ing. Cars are the leading ( ) causes of air pollution in the world today.Realizing( ) how serious the problem has become, the government has been encouraging people to walk, cycle or make better use of the underground system.定语 adj.状语 adv.
5v-ing like an adjective She sat beside the window, watching the falling leaves floating in the air.2. It is an exciting match.Conclusion: it usually expresses an action that is going on, or what something is like.
6The police found the stolen car. Part one a v-ed or a v-ing like an adjectivedifferencesThe police found the stolen car.2. There was a thick layer of fallen leaves on the ground.3. Many excited people wanted to travel on the underground.express passive meaningrefer to a finished actiontell how we feel about something.
7Have you read the book _________ to him? (relate) relatedIt is a book ________ by J.K. Rowling. It’s an____________ book most teenagers like.(write, interest)writteninterestingWill you feel ________ if Harry Porter is your teacher? (excite)excited
8express reason or cause Part two a v-ed or a v-ing like an adverb.1. Realizing he would have to take two different trains, he decided to take a taxi instead.2. Encouraged by the success of the Metropolitan Railway Company, Metropolitan District Railway opened another line in 1868.express reason or cause
9refer to time3. Traveling through the tunnel, the man felt uncomfortable because of the noise.4. When asked how old the underground system was, she made no reply.
10express manner5. The train headed for London, puffing and rattling.He walked down the hill, singing softly to himself.
11express condition7. Turning to the left at the crossroads, you will see the railway station on your right.8. Given another chance, I’ll do it much better.
12Please rewrite the following sentences with proper conjunctions. 1. Being ill, he didn’t go to school.2. Walking in the street, I met a friend.3. He watched TV , drinking beer.4. Given more time, I would finish the work on time._________ he was ill, he didn’t go to school.Because_______ I walked in the street, I met a friend.When’He watched TV_______ drank beer.and4. If I were given more time, I would finish the work on time.
13Carrying________so many things, the cat felt very tired. (carry)______ the picture, I feel very funny. (see)SeeingThe cat carried many things, _______.(sing)singing______ more money, I would buy more presents for my wife. (give)Given
14Part three passive and perfect forms of v-ing 1. The underground system being built in the city will be open next year.2. Having seen the situation, a wealthy American businessman, Charles Yerkes tried to improve the system.3. Having been developed over many years, the underground system is now able to transport millions of people effectively.being + done被动进行式主动完成式被动完成式haivng + donehaving been + done
15Please rewrite the following sentences. It is said that the second line of Nanjing Underground is being built and it will reach Ma Qun.After the government has realized how serious the financial crisis is, it has been taking many measures to help people out of difficulty.After the plan had been revised many times, it was carried out last month.It is said that the second line of Nanjing Underground being built will reach Ma Qun.Having realized how serious the financial crisis is, the government has been taking many measures to help people out of difficulty.Having been revised many times, the plan was carried out last month.
16A________ the differences between London Underground and Nanjing Underground, our government took some measures to improve the underground system.Having comparedComparedHaving been comparedbeing compared
17Having been trapped in traffic, he was late for work. Part four the subject of v-ing or v-ed clauseThe understood subject of v-ing or v-ed clause is the same as the subject of the main clause.Having been trapped in traffic, he was late for work.Do you think we can rewrite the previous sentence in this way?Having compared the differences between London Underground and Nanjing underground, some measures were taken by our government to improve the undergroud system.
18珍惜资源，爱好地球 ________ this public service advertisement, we think … (see) ________ on internet or other media, the public service advertisement can call on more people to… (show)SeeingShown
19___________ what to buy, consumers may turn to ads for information ___________ what to buy, consumers may turn to ads for information. That is to say, ______ ads, you will get a better understanding of each product. However, some consumers may also be cheated by __________ advertisements. _________ by these ads, they are likely to make wrong decisions.So what attitude will you take to ads?Sometimes commercial advertisements can be useful.mislead, know, guide, readNot knowingreadingmisleadingGuided
20HomeworkPlease finish the exercise A, B on page 57.