5 Main differences between somatic motor and visceral motor n. EffectorsSkeletal musclesCardiac, smooth muscles and glandsKind of fibersOneTwo: sympathetic and parasympatheticFrom lower center to effect requireSingle neuronTwo neurons: preganglionic neuron (fiber) and postganglionic neuron (fiber)FibersThick myelinatedPreganglionic: thin myelinatedpostganglionic: unmyelinatedDistributive formNerve trunkNerve plexusesControlVoluntary (consciousness)Involuntary (unconsciousness )
6 Sympathetic part 交感部Lower center: located in lateral gray horn of spinal cord segments T1~L3Sympathetic gangliaParavertebral ganglia 椎旁节Prevertebral ganglia 椎前节
7 Paravertebral ganglia 椎旁节 Arranged on either side of vertebral columnConsist of 19~22 of oval-shaped gangliaThree cervical10~12 thoracic4 lumbar2~3 sacralGanglion impar奇神经节: unpaired on the anterior face of coccyx
9 Sympathetic trunk 交感干Formed by paravertebral ganglia and interganglionic branchesLie on either side of vertebral column from base of skull to coccyxThe trunks of two side unite in front of the coccyx at a small swelling, the ganglion impar
10 Prevertebral ganglia 椎前节 Lie anterior to vertebral column and near the arteries for which they are namedCeliac ganglion 腹腔神经节Aorticorenal ganglion 主动脉肾节Superior mesenteric ganglion 肠系膜上神经节Inferior mesenteric ganglion肠系膜下神经节
11 Three fates of preganglionic fibers 15 pairs white communicating branchPreganglionic fibersSympathetic trunk(only spinal levels T1~L3 havewhite communicating branch)
12 Three fates of preganglionic fibers Relay in corresponding ganglionAscend or descend in sympathetic trunk and relay in higher or lower gangliaPass without synapse to a prevertebral ganglion for relay
13 Greater splanchnic nerve 内脏大神经 formed by preganglionic fibers from T5~T9 ganglia, and relay in celiac ganglion.Lesser splanchnic nerve 内脏小神经 formed by preganglionic fibers from T10~T12 ganglia, and relay in aorticorenal ganglion.The postganglionic fibers supply the liver, spleen, kidney and alimentary tract as far as the left colic flexure.
14 Lumbar splanchnic nerve 腰内脏神经 Formed by preganglionic fibers from L1~L4 ganglia, and relay in prevertebral ganglia.The postganglionic fibers supplydescending and sigmoid colon, rectum, pelvic viscera and lower limbs.
15 Three fates of postganglionic fibers Back to a spinal nerve along gray communicating branches ( 31 pairs ) to terminate in blood vessels, arrectores pilorum and sweat glands of head, neck, trunk and limbsThe fibers from their networks around blood vessels passing to visceral end organsTerminate directly in certain organs
16 Distribution of sympathetic nerve Preganglionic fibersPostganglionic fibersT1~T5Head, neck, upper limb and thoracic visceraT5~T12Abdominal visceraL1~L3Pelvic viscera and lower limb
17 Parasympathetic part 副交感部 Lower center: located in four pairs parasympathetic nuclei in brain stem and in sacral parasympathetic nucleus of spinal cord segments S2~S4Parasympathetic ganglia: terminal ganglia are near or within the wall of a visceral organPara-organ ganglia 器官旁节：Ciliary ganglion 睫状神经节Pterygopalatine ganglion 翼腭神经节Submandibular ganglion 下颌下神经节Otic ganglion 耳神经节Intramural ganglia 壁内节
18 Cranial portion颅部 Ⅲ sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles ciliary ganglionlacrimal glandⅦpterygopalatine ganglionsublingual glandsubmandibular glandⅨsubmandibular ganglionⅩparotid glandotic ganglionheart, lungs, liver, spleenkidneys,alimentary tractas far as left colic flexureterminal ganglia
19 Cranial portion颅部Ⅲaccessory oculomotor nucleus 〈○ sphincter pupillae and ciliary musclesciliary ganglionpterygopalatine ganglionⅦ 〈○ lacrimal glandsuperior salivatory nucleus〈○ sublingual glandsubmandibular ganglion submandibular glandⅨinferior salivator nucleus 〈○ parotid glandotic ganglionⅩ heart, lungs, liver, spleen,dorsal nucleus of vagus n 〈○ kidneys,alimentary tractterminal ganglia as far as left colic flexure
20 Sacral portion 骶部Preganglionic fibers from sacral parasympathetic nucleus leave spinal cord with anterior roots of the spinal nerves S2~S4,Then leave sacral nerves and form pelvic splanchnic nerve and travel by way of pelvic plexus to terminal ganglia in pelvic cavityPostganglionic fibers terminate in descending and sigmoid colon, rectum and pelvic viscera
22 Main differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic
23 Main differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic Lower centerLateral gray horn of spinal cord segments T1~L3Four pairs parasympathetic nuclei and sacral parasympathetic nucleusGangliaParavertebral, prevertebralTerminalPreganglionic f.ShorterLongerPostganglionic f.Pre: Postganglionic1: many more1: a fewDistributionsThroughout the bodyLimited primarily to head and viscera of thorax, abdomen, and pelvisDifferent actionPrepares for emergency situation (fight or flight)Conserve and restore body energy (rest and relaxation)
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