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The Visceral Nervous System. Composition Visceral motor nerves (autonomic nervous system) Sympathetic part Parasympathetic part Visceral sensory nerves.

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Presentation on theme: "The Visceral Nervous System. Composition Visceral motor nerves (autonomic nervous system) Sympathetic part Parasympathetic part Visceral sensory nerves."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Visceral Nervous System

2 Composition Visceral motor nerves (autonomic nervous system) Sympathetic part Parasympathetic part Visceral sensory nerves

3 Visceral motor nerves

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5 Main differences between somatic motor and visceral motor n. SomaticVisceral EffectorsSkeletal muscles Cardiac, smooth muscles and glands Kind of fibersOneTwo: sympathetic and parasympathetic From lower center to effect require Single neuron Two neurons: preganglionic neuron (fiber) and postganglionic neuron (fiber) FibersThick myelinated Preganglionic: thin myelinated postganglionic: unmyelinated Distributive form Nerve trunkNerve plexuses ControlVoluntary (consciousness ) Involuntary (unconsciousness )

6 Sympathetic part Lower center: located in lateral gray horn of spinal cord segments T1~L3 Sympathetic ganglia Paravertebral ganglia Prevertebral ganglia

7 Paravertebral ganglia Arranged on either side of vertebral column Consist of 19~22 of oval-shaped ganglia Three cervical 10~12 thoracic 4 lumbar 2~3 sacral Ganglion impar : unpaired on the anterior face of coccyx

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9 Sympathetic trunk Formed by paravertebral ganglia and interganglionic branches Lie on either side of vertebral column from base of skull to coccyx The trunks of two side unite in front of the coccyx at a small swelling, the ganglion impar

10 Prevertebral ganglia Lie anterior to vertebral column and near the arteries for which they are named Celiac ganglion Aorticorenal ganglion Superior mesenteric ganglion Inferior mesenteric ganglion

11 Three fates of preganglionic fibers Preganglionic fibers 15 pairs white communicating branch Sympathetic trunk (only spinal levels T1~L3 have white communicating branch)

12 Three fates of preganglionic fibers Relay in corresponding ganglion Ascend or descend in sympathetic trunk and relay in higher or lower ganglia Pass without synapse to a prevertebral ganglion for relay

13 Greater splanchnic nerve formed by preganglionic fibers from T5~T9 ganglia, and relay in celiac ganglion. Lesser splanchnic nerve formed by preganglionic fibers from T10~T12 ganglia, and relay in aorticorenal ganglion. The postganglionic fibers supply the liver, spleen, kidney and alimentary tract as far as the left colic flexure.

14 Lumbar splanchnic nerve Formed by preganglionic fibers from L1~L4 ganglia, and relay in prevertebral ganglia. The postganglionic fibers supplydescending and sigmoid colon, rectum, pelvic viscera and lower limbs.

15 Three fates of postganglionic fibers Back to a spinal nerve along gray communicating branches ( 31 pairs ) to terminate in blood vessels, arrectores pilorum and sweat glands of head, neck, trunk and limbs The fibers from their networks around blood vessels passing to visceral end organs Terminate directly in certain organs

16 Distribution of sympathetic nerve Preganglionic fibersPostganglionic fibers T1~T5Head, neck, upper limb and thoracic viscera T5~T12Abdominal viscera L1~L3Pelvic viscera and lower limb

17 Parasympathetic part Lower center: located in four pairs parasympathetic nuclei in brain stem and in sacral parasympathetic nucleus of spinal cord segments S2~S4 Parasympathetic ganglia: terminal ganglia are near or within the wall of a visceral organ Para-organ ganglia Ciliary ganglion Pterygopalatine ganglion Submandibular ganglion Otic ganglion Intramural ganglia

18 Cranial portion ciliary ganglion sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles pterygopalatine ganglion lacrimal gland submandibular ganglion sublingual gland submandibular gland otic ganglion parotid gland terminal ganglia heart, lungs, liver, spleen kidneys,alimentary tract as far as left colic flexure

19 Cranial portion accessory oculomotor nucleus sphincter pupillae and ciliary muscles ciliary ganglion pterygopalatine ganglion lacrimal gland superior salivatory nucleus sublingual gland submandibular ganglion submandibular gland inferior salivator nucleus parotid gland otic ganglion heart, lungs, liver, spleen, dorsal nucleus of vagus n. kidneys,alimentary tract terminal ganglia as far as left colic flexure

20 Sacral portion Preganglionic fibers from sacral parasympathetic nucleus leave spinal cord with anterior roots of the spinal nerves S2~S4, Then leave sacral nerves and form pelvic splanchnic nerve and travel by way of pelvic plexus to terminal ganglia in pelvic cavity Postganglionic fibers terminate in descending and sigmoid colon, rectum and pelvic viscera

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22 Main differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic

23 SympatheticParasympathetic Lower centerLateral gray horn of spinal cord segments T1~L3 Four pairs parasympathetic nuclei and sacral parasympathetic nucleus GangliaParavertebral, prevertebral Terminal Preganglionic f.ShorterLonger Postganglionic f.LongerShorter Pre: Postganglionic1: many more1: a few DistributionsThroughout the bodyLimited primarily to head and viscera of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis Different actionPrepares for emergency situation (fight or flight) Conserve and restore body energy (rest and relaxation)

24 Visceral plexuses Cardiac plexuses Superficial, below aortic arch Deep, anterior to bifurcation on trachea Pulmonary plexus Celiac plexus Abdominal aortic plexus Hypogastric plexus Superior hypogastric plexus Inferior hypogastric plexus (pelvic plexus)

25 Visceral sensory nerves Enteroceptors, Nucleus of solitary tract Sympathetic nerve Pelvic splanchnic nerve Posterior horn Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebral cortex Somatic motor neurons visceral motor neuclei Effectors

26 Referred pain


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