2 Required Skills Identifying selections of text that are unclear Determining prior knowledge concerning unclear textChoosing and utilizing one or more fix-up strategies to clarify meaningReread slower or aloudRead ahead or backStudy word partsAnalyze denotations of wordsExamine text featuresAsk specific questions to determine answers to unclear textCreate additional strategies
3 Strategies Each strategy is fully explained with examples. Make sure each strategy is modeled before having students complete on their own.It is recommended after modeling a strategy, students practice with a partner before attempting it independently.
4 Fix Up StrategiesAll strategies should be taught to be used and applied in all content areas. Students must be encouraged to attempt a variety of Fix Up Strategies until they find the best one that works for them.
5 Fix Up Strategies to Activate Prior Knowledge: Teachers must develop thought provoking questions to generate thinking about what has been read.Ask- “What do I already know about this topic?”
6 Fix Up Strategies for Clarifying Words: Reread the sentence at a slower paceReread the sentence aloudCheck for word parts (affixes, word roots, syllables) that are recognizableAsk for assistanceCross reference key words or concepts in the glossary or dictionary
7 Fix Up Strategies for Clarifying Confusing Ideas: Check visuals and text featuresReread the challenging text at a slower paceReview information from earlier in the textLook forward in the text to locate informationSummarize earlier information from the text
8 Point of View GuidePoint of View Guides assist students to process material deeply and to encourage mental recitation. The students process the information by adding their own facts as they are reading and transcribing the material through their own words.There are multiple types of guides for students to use before, during, and after reading.
9 Clarifying PromptsPrompts can be used before, during, and after readingI had trouble pronouncing…I don’t know what _________ meansI don’t understand…It doesn’t make sense…I am confused by…I am confused because…I am not sure…
10 Annotating TextAs students read a text, have them annotate or mark the text by identifying questions they have. They may question a selection that is confusing, why an author used a particular word, why an author used a certain example, or why a person or character commits different actions. Teachers must reinforce the idea that students should question an author, the reliability, motives, etc. Questions are not always used to address confusion.Their questions can be compared and used as discussions.Students can create their own journal topics form annotating text.