2Objectives Objectives After studying this chapter, you will be able to:Name the parts of the body treated in dentistryDescribe the function of each body part treated in dentistryDefine combining forms used in building words that relate to dental practiceIdentify the meaning of related abbreviationsName the common diagnostic, pathological, and treatment terms related to dental practiceRecognize common pharmacological agents used in dental practice
3Terms in Dental Practice DentistryDentistryThe profession that studies, diagnoses, and treats the teeth, gums and any other part of the oral cavity and facial structure that interacts with the teeth and gums.Includes:The Dental Teampreventiondiagnosistreatmentsurgery-reconstructive-cosmeticDentistDental hygienistsDental technicians or assistants
4Terms in Dental Practice Oral CavityOral CavityPart of the digestive systemThe teeth and gums help with:Gumsalso called gingivaedense fibrous tissue that forms a protective covering around the sockets of the teethchewing foodspeechgeneral appearance
5Terms in Dental Practice TeethTeethPrimary teeth (deciduous teeth) erupt at about 6 months oldDeciduous teeth equals 20 and are usually in place by age 4 yearsSecondary teeth (permanent teeth) begin to erupt at age 6By the mid-twenties, usually all 32 permanent teeth have developedNOTE: Permanent teeth are not replaced by the body if they are lost.
6Terms in Dental Practice Parts of a ToothParts of a ToothRootCrown-part below the jaw line-held in place by cementum-root canals carry the blood vessels and nerves from the bottom of the jaw into the pulp cavity-part projecting above the jaw line-consists of an outer layer (enamel) and inner layer (dentin)Pulp Cavity-central portion of the tooth-contains connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves
7Terms in Dental Practice Structure of a ToothStructure of a ToothEnamelCrownDentinPulp cavityRootRoot canalPeriodontalligamentCementum
8Terms in Dental Practice Types of Primary TeethTypes of Primary TeethCentral incisorLateral incisorIncisors-cutting teeth located on either side of the center line of the jaw-central incisors are on either side of the center line-lateral incisors are located next to the cuspidsCuspids-also known as canines or eyeteethCuspidCenter line
9Types of Primary Teeth Part 2 Terms in Dental PracticeTypes of Primary Teeth Part 2Types of Primary Teeth (cont’d)Types of Secondary TeethMolars-the first molar sits next to the cuspid-the second molar is located at the back of the child’s jawPermanent teeth include:-incisors-cuspids-molars-bicuspidsBicuspids-located next to each cuspid-present only as permanent teethNote: There are three molars present with permanent teeth. The third molar is often called the wisdom tooth.
10Terms in Dental Practice Permanent TeethIncisorsCuspid (canine)Permanent TeethBicuspids(premolars)MolarsMolarsBicuspids(premolars)Cuspid (canine)Incisors
11Outer Surfaces of Teeth Terms in Dental PracticeOuter Surfaces of TeethMediallineOuter Surfaces of TeethLabial Surface-parts of the teeth that meet when the mouth is closedLabialsurfaceMesial surfaceLingualsurfaceBuccal Surface-sides of teeth nearest the cheekDistal surfaceOcclusal surfaceBuccal surfaceLingual Surface-inside surface nearest the tongueDistal Surface-short side of tooth farthest from the median of the jaw lineMesial Surface-short side of the tooth nearest the median of the jaw line
12Combining Forms & Abbreviations (dent) Combining Forms and AbbreviationsCombining Forms & Abbreviations (dent)Combining FormMeaningdent(o), dentigingiv(o)odont(o)toothgumtooth
13Combining Forms & Abbreviations (DDS) Combining Forms and AbbreviationsCombining Forms & Abbreviations (DDS)AbbreviationMeaningDDSdefDEFdmfDMFRDHTMJdoctor of dental surgerydecayed, extracted, or filled (primary teeth)decayed, extracted, or filled (permanent teeth)decayed, missing, or filled (primary teeth)decayed, missing, or filled (permanent teeth)registered dental hygienisttemporomandibular joint
14Prevention of Tooth Decay Diagnostic, Pathological, andTreatment TermsPrevention of Tooth DecayPrevention of Tooth DecayMost dental work begins with preventing tooth decay by insisting on:cleaning of teethcleaning of gumsfluoride treatment for someRegular cleaning of teeth and gums removes plaque which is microorganisms that grow on the crowns and along the roots of teeth causing decay of teeth and damage to the gums.
15Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment TermsTooth DecayTooth Decaycan be detected early using dental x-rayscauses toothaches (odontalgia)may require a filling if decay has not reached the central part of the toothFillingsdental restorationdrilling is done to remove the decayed areaamalgam is placed into the space
16Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment TermsDental SpecialistsIf decay is deeper within the tooth, an abscess may result.Endodontists-specialize in root canal workPeriodontists-specialize in treating gum diseaseDentalSpecialistsOrthodontists-specialize in the correction and prevention of irregularities in the placement and appearance of teeth
17Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment TermsTreatmentsTreatmentsDentures-replacement teeth-partials replace one or more tooth-partials attached to other teeth are called bridges-full dentures replace all teethBraces-malocclusions can be corrected with braces or surgery
18Diagnostic, Pathological, and Treatment TermsOther TreatmentsOther TreatmentsTemporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctionCosmetic SurgeryBleaching of teeth
19Commonly Used Anesthetics Pharmacological TermsCommonly Used AnestheticsLocal anesthetics are used during certain treatments to numb the area.Commonly Used AnestheticsNovocaine-is injected near the site to be treatedNitrous oxide-gas inhaled by the patient-also called laughing gasDentists may prescribe antibiotics and pain killers after a procedure but they have limitations to the amount and strength of medication they can prescribe.
20Apply Your Knowledge Apply Your Knowledge Brian, age 4 is requesting a snack. His mother can prepare food for a child having:A. 20 deciduous teethB. 15 deciduous teethC. 30 secondary teethAnswer: A. 20 deciduous teeth
21Apply Your Knowledge Part 2 Karen has fallen and “chipped” the outer coating of her tooth. Which of the following structures has she damaged?A. dentinB. enamelC. pulpAnswer: B. enamel
22Apply Your Knowledge Part 3 Central incisorIdentify the labeled teeth.Lateral incisorCuspid