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TemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperature. Temperature Plant processes influenced: –Photosynthesis –Respiration –Enzyme activity –Transpiration –Stomatal.

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Presentation on theme: "TemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperature. Temperature Plant processes influenced: –Photosynthesis –Respiration –Enzyme activity –Transpiration –Stomatal."— Presentation transcript:

1 TemperatureTemperatureTemperatureTemperature

2 Temperature Plant processes influenced: –Photosynthesis –Respiration –Enzyme activity –Transpiration –Stomatal opening –Pollination –Seed germination

3 Temperature This factor, more than any other, determines what plants can be grown in a particular areaThis factor, more than any other, determines what plants can be grown in a particular area

4 Temperature Temperature affects the maturity rate of garden productsTemperature affects the maturity rate of garden products

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6 Temperature Temperature can influence some diseases and insect problemsTemperature can influence some diseases and insect problems Temperature influences quality of most fruits and vegetablesTemperature influences quality of most fruits and vegetables Most plants will not grow below 40°F or above 96°FMost plants will not grow below 40°F or above 96°F

7 Temperature Cool season cropsCool season crops Day temperatures °FDay temperatures °F Night temperatures °FNight temperatures °F Tolerate some frostTolerate some frost –Spinach – Radish – Carrots –Cabbage – Beets – Onions –Lettuce – Peas

8 Temperature Warm season cropsWarm season crops Day temperatures °FDay temperatures °F Night temperatures °FNight temperatures °F Usually do not tolerate frostUsually do not tolerate frost Should not be planted until the ground warmsShould not be planted until the ground warms –Corn– Tomatoes –Beans – Vine crops

9 Temperature PhotosynthesisPhotosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 RespirationRespiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Therefore:Therefore: Photosynthesis leads to an increase in growth and storage Respiration leads to a decrease in storage and reduced growth

10 Temperature Growth and plant yield = P - RGrowth and plant yield = P - R During the day, both photosynthesis & respiration take place but at night, only respiration takes placeDuring the day, both photosynthesis & respiration take place but at night, only respiration takes place Best to keep temperatures warm during the day and cool at night!Best to keep temperatures warm during the day and cool at night! Respiration increases more than photosynthesis at high temperaturesRespiration increases more than photosynthesis at high temperatures

11 Relative rates 40°F96 °F Too cold for growth Sugars burned up as fast as made. No net growth photosynthesis respiration

12 Temperature Heat unitsHeat units Growing Degree Unit =Growing Degree Unit = Mean temperature - Base temperature Base = either 40 or 50 depending on cropBase = either 40 or 50 depending on crop

13 Heat units (example) * if mean is less than base, enter “0”

14 Temperature Uses of Heat Units:Uses of Heat Units: –Predict time to harvest PeasPeas ‘Accord’ takes 1150 GDU‘Accord’ takes 1150 GDU ‘Nugget’ takes 1570 GDU‘Nugget’ takes 1570 GDU ‘Alderman’ takes 1700 GDU‘Alderman’ takes 1700 GDU CornCorn ‘Aztec’ takes 1330 GDU‘Aztec’ takes 1330 GDU ‘Butter and Sugar’ takes 1570 GDU‘Butter and Sugar’ takes 1570 GDU

15 Temperature Uses of Heat Units: (continued)Uses of Heat Units: (continued) –Predict flowering date –Predict certain pest problems –Determine if a crop will grow in a certain area!

16 Phenology PhenologyPhenology –Relating the development of one plant to some aspect of another –Greek for “the science of appearances”

17 Phenology Lilac When in flower, time to plant tomatoes

18 Phenology Forsythia Rose When in flower, time to prune your roses!

19 Winter temperatures Winter injury often occurs from:Winter injury often occurs from: –Intercellular ice formation (between cells) –Intracellular ice formation (within cells)

20 Winter temperatures Factors that influence hardiness:Factors that influence hardiness: –Kind of plant (ex: apple vs. peach) –Temperature during autumn –Soil moisture –Light –Nutrition

21 Hardiness curve (degree of hardiness attained) A S O N D J F M A M J J Hardiness attained Low High Months

22 Winter temperatures Minimum temperature and when it occursMinimum temperature and when it occurs Rate of freezingRate of freezing Length of time frozenLength of time frozen Number of times frozenNumber of times frozen Amount of snow coverAmount of snow cover WindWind

23 Winter temperatures Symptoms of winter injurySymptoms of winter injury –Dead flower buds –Dieback of shoots –Brown needles –Bark splits (common on Norway maple) –Sunscald –Root injury/low vigor –Frost heaving

24 Winter damage catfacing

25 Bark split Fungi

26 Winter injury Winter injury is often associated with a particular set of conditions:Winter injury is often associated with a particular set of conditions: –Plants grow too late in the fall (Japanese maple)

27 Winter injury –Extreme cold too early in fall or winter –Drying winds –Mid-winter warm period followed by severe cold –Lack of snow cover

28 Winter damage Snow line

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