2ObjectivesDescribe the structure of ATP and how it stores energy.Give examples of work that cells perform.Summarize the ATP cycle.Key TermATP
3The carbohydrates, fats, and proteins obtained from food do not drive work in your cells in any direct way.The chemical energy stored in these compounds must first be converted to energy stored in another molecule
4ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate. The "adenosine" part consists of a nitrogen-containing compound called adenine and a five-carbon sugar called riboseThe triphosphate "tail" consists of three phosphate groups. The tail is the "business" end of ATP—it is the source of energy used for most cellular work.
6Each phosphate group is negatively charged Each phosphate group is negatively charged. Because like charges repel, the crowding of negative charge in the ATP tail contributes to the potential energy stored in ATP.When ATP is involved in a chemical reaction that breaks one or both of these phosphate bonds, potential energy is released.
7In most cases of cellular work, only one phosphate group is lost from ATP. Then the tail of the molecule has only two phosphate groups left. The resulting molecule is called adenosine diphosphate, or ADP.
8ATP and Cellular Work During a chemical reaction that breaks one of ATP's bonds, the phosphate group is transferred from ATP to another molecule. Specific enzymes enable this transfer to occur. The molecule that accepts the phosphate undergoes a change, driving the work.
9Your cells perform three main types of work: chemical work, mechanical work, and transport work. An example of chemical work is building large molecules such as proteins. ATP provides the energy for the dehydration synthesis reaction that links amino acids together.
10An example of mechanical work is the contraction of a muscle An example of mechanical work is the contraction of a muscle. In your muscle cells, ATP transfers phosphate groups to certain proteins. These proteins change shape, starting a chain of events which cause muscle cells to contract.An example of transport work is pumping solutes such as ions across a cellular membrane. Again, the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP causes the receiving membrane protein to change shape, enabling ions to pass through
12The ATP Cycle ATP is continuously converted to ADP as your cells do work. Fortunately, ATP is "recyclable." For example, ATP can be restored from ADP by adding a third phosphate group. Like compressing a spring, adding the phosphate group requires energy.
13The source of this energy is the organic molecules from food The source of this energy is the organic molecules from food. Thus, ATP operates in a cycle within your cells. Work consumes ATP, which is then regenerated from ADP and phosphate.