Presentation on theme: "URBANISATION. Sao Paulo, Brazil Largest city in Brazil 5 th Largest city in the world."— Presentation transcript:
Sao Paulo, Brazil Largest city in Brazil 5 th Largest city in the world.
Industry in Sao Paulo G.D.P of Sao Paulo is the same as new south Wales, Australia. Ford General Motors
Changes to Urbanisation 1960 – 75% of Brazilians lived in Rural areas 2000 – 25% of Brazilians lived in Rural areas
Rapid Urbanisation Push Factors from Rural Areas 31% of rural households have no land. They have to rent land or find work as labourers. Increased Mechanisation has meant that a number of jobs have been lost in the countryside. Infant Mortality is higher in the rural areas 175 per 1,000. In favelas it is 82 per 1,000. Housing in the cities will have services near by. In the rural areas they are far from the services. Bahia in Northern Brazil suffers from drought. In this region 32 million people suffer from malnutrition. Aid is given to grow subsistence rice but little is left after local officials have taken their cut. Overpopulation has led to a shortage of jobs and shelters in rural areas. Land in rural areas has been taken from subsistence farmers by large land owners.
Large Natural Increase
Pull Factors to Sao Paulo In the 1960s there was a shortage of labour in Sao Paulo due to rapid industrialisation of 226%. Expectations of a better quality of life in the city. Word sent by successful villages makes the city seem much better than it actually is. Migration from rural areas has slowed won in Brazil, although there is still migration between urban areas. The growth rate has slowed down from 1.2% between 1980 – to 03% between 1191 – % of rural households have no land. They have to rent land or find work as labourers.
Advantages to rapid urbanisation in Sao Paulo Farmers around Sao Paulo can increase their profits by producing more food for the urban market. Wages from workers are sometimes sent back to Sao Paulo. This will help the economy there. The growth of the urban areas eases the population of the north east Brazil so that there are more jobs available and fewer mouths to feed. The informal sector of Sao Paulo still pays better than the farmers in the countryside.
Disadvantages of Rapid Urbanisation in MEDCs. The Shanty Towns around the city congregate and develop. Clean water is only available from stand pipes, which have to supply hundreds of people. Sewage and pit latrines are inadequate to cope with the large population. There is a shortage of housing 650,000 people are living in 600 favelas, a further 3 million live in corticos ( rented accommodation usually tenements). Favelas have no electricity supply and bottled gas is expensive.
Pipe installed by favela residents - now broken - to carry sewage directly into the river below. (Only 30% of Sao Paulo city residents' sewage is treated, at least 70% flows directly into rivers. Electrical wires for houses with electricity from the electric company. All extra wires are "gatos," illegally attached to the formal wires The rivers that run through the city are very polluted as much sewage runs down the streets of favellas into the rivers.
One or two rooms are shared by families in Favelas. Unemployment is high at 19% which is surprisingly high for the wealthiest city in Brazil. Sao Paulo has over 9 million cars, trucks, buses and 250 km of grid locked roads which increases air pollution.
Coping with Rapid Growth in Sao Paulo. 1970s the government decided to bull doze the favelas. 1990s Self help scheme was set up. Building materials were provided by the council to build secure dwellings. Cingapura housing project 1994 – US$227 million were invested by the government bank.
The impact of Air Pollution
Cingapura Housing Project The project will replace the Favelas with buildings storey buildings. Each floor will have four apartments. Most areas are 42 square meters with two bedrooms, a sitting room, kitchen, laundry and bedroom. They have nothing inside – no flooring or tiles and only a the front door and bathroom have doors. The people who are displaced are put into temporary shelter barrack like conditions. When the apartments are built the families who can afford to move in. No Studies have been done to assess whether this is what they want. Householders will have to pay a initial US$60 and then $26 a month. The new apartments have been close to the better areas of the city and the major route ways. In order to finance this project 32% less funding as been put into the self help scheme. The provision of electricity to the favellas is 54%. Money for tennement housing has been reduced by 90%.
It was probably a good thing that only 14,000 of the 140,000 projected apartments were actually built. Success of the Scheme The new apartments were too much of a change of environment. They did not like the fact they couldn't extend on their new apartments, and many attempted to bring their livestock into the flats.
This site is alongside a polluted stream. Home to 3,800 people living in 400 huts and slum tenement housing. On the Southern Suburbs near the capital trading centre. Favella Monte Azul 17 years ago Ute Craemer established the association in log house near the Shanty Town. Since then this organisation has organised Nurseries, Schools, Clinics a bakery and a cultural centre and a library.
Industrial Estates They have been set up one on a 37ha site which was developed due to multitude of share holders. 3 factories are in operation, a printing works, an industrial solvents company and a clothing factory. The industrial estates provide jobs for people who live in the favellas. This is one of the ways that the Sao Paulo has coped with unemployment.
Favella Monte Azul: A shanty town with a difference. It has over 120 volunteers. The first project was to clean up the stream to provide fresh water through pipelines and to provide sanitation a wooden clinic was built and then replaced as a 3 storey brick house. The centre is run by 12 doctors and 4 dentists. The residents then focused on quality of life and as a result the centre was built by run by volunteers. A woodshop was built that selss wooden products outside the shanty town. The weaving department started in 1995 sells it products in markets in SAO Paulo. The bakery now employs 3 people and 3 students who are learning about the business including production and sales costs. The money for these developments comes from a number of sources including the Tobia Charitable Association.
Sustainable Policies Caritas, am Australian charity, has helped some residents in favellas to set up their own bank accounts with each resident making a small contribution. The intention is to use the money to buy the land that the favella is on. Encourage young people to remain in the villages.
A Succesful Sustainable Approach Pedra Bela Association Village 100km from Sao Paulo a group of villagers set up the Pedra Bela Association. Led by Kirsten Balonyi, it started out with a grant of $45,000 from the Danish Government. It has taught local women and young people to grow crops other than potatoes and to sew and weave. Villagers are taught many skills, including making rugs and cheese. The lessons now take place in a carpentry workshop. 300 people have received the training. 20 at a time. Their crafts are sold in Sao Paulo once a month and several shops in the city now sell it without comission.