Presentation on theme: "UG: What were the purposes of the Declaration of Independence?"— Presentation transcript:
1UG: What were the purposes of the Declaration of Independence?
2COMMON SENSE Thomas Paine— Argument for independence from British rule at a time when the question of independence was still undecided
3COMMON SENSE Thomas Paine in Jan. 1776….. Came to America in 1774 from England and got caught up in the Revolutionary SpiritKing George was a tyrant and declaring independence from Great Britain was our only choice.
4Reconciliation and ruin are nearly related…. TIS TIME TO PART COMMON SENSEIn the following pages I offer nothing more than simple facts, plain arguments, and common sense……The sun never shined on a cause of greater worth….…Everything that is right or natural pleads for separation…”TIS TIME TO PART”……The king has shown himself an enemy to liberty and discovered a thirst for arbitrary power.Reconciliation and ruin are nearly related…. TIS TIME TO PART
6Plantation owner from Virginia Eventually the 3rd President Social contractTHOMAS JEFFERSONPlantation owner from VirginiaEventually the 3rd PresidentOwned slaves (hanky panky)Representative to the 2nd Continental Congress from VirginiaFather of the Declaration of Independence.
7DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 1.New theory of government (democracy---people rule)2. Grievances (27) listed against King George3.Declaration of WarBecome a separate Nation
827 grievancesHe has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our People.He has erected a Multitude of New Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their substance.For cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World.For quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us.For imposing Taxes on us without our consent.
10CONTINENTAL ARMYFirst US Army made up of volunteers, militias and Minutemen.George Washington chosen as the first Commanding General.Not an army of professionals but mostly farmers.Lacked the discipline of a professional army at first….Lacked resources, men weren’t paid and some quit after the first few battles.2nd Continental Congress lacked $$$$ to supply army…
11British vs. United States PopulationManufacturingMoneyArmyLeadersGeographyNavyWill to FightApproximately 12 millionHighly developedRichest country in the worldLarge, well trained army plus HessiansFew officers capable of leadingStrange land---difficult to re-supply troopsNaval world powerTrained soldiers---but no heartApproximately 3 million and 1/3 loyal to England.Practically noneNo $$$ to support the warVolunteers, poorly equippedDedicated officers plus foreign leadersFamiliar land, easy access to suppliesNo navyDefending homeland---will to fight
12Attrition: Wear down the British MILITARY STRATEGIESThe AmericansAttrition: Wear down the BritishGuerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]Alliances: make with one of Britain’s enemies.
13Break the colonies in half. MILITARY STRATEGIESThe BritishBreak the colonies in half.Blockade ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.“Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
14British War Plans: Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776] Phase II: NY & PA [ ]Phase III: The Southern Strategy [ ]
19The Battle of Yorktown (1781) Count de RochambeauAdmiral De Grasse
20General Washington learned through Spies! Map-yorktownBattle of YorktownThe British General wanted to rest for the winter n the South believing the war would be won in the Spring…..Yorktown was chosen because it provided easy Ocean access to be reinforced and re-suppliedGeneral Washington learned through Spies!
21Using the French navy, a blockade surrounds the British. Battle of YorktownUsing the French navy, a blockade surrounds the British.They Run out of Supplies!
22Battle of Yorktown15,000 American and French troops surrounded 8,000 British troops on land.The British are trapped forced to his surrender his troops to WashingtonBrings war to an end
24Cornwallis’ Surrender at YorktowN “The World Turned Upside Down!”Painted by John Trumbull, 1797
25Why did the British Lose??? Couldn’t Win on the RoadOverconfidenceLittle CommunicationUS had more will to fightC’s Alliances with France.
26United States after the Revolutionary War Treaty of Paris, 1783Great Britain recognized the independence of the United StatesUS acquired land from the Great Lakes to Florida and Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River.British were to remove troops and forts from US Land.USAUnited States after the Revolutionary WarBritish Forts