Topics to be Discussed Introduction Principles of Construction Quality Quality Tools Applicable Tools Study Stage Design Stage Construction Stage
Introduction Quality is a universal phenomenon, which has been a matter of great concern throughout the recorded history of human kind. It was always the determination of builders and makers of the products to ensure that their products meet the customer’s desire. With advent of globalization and competitive market, the emphasis on quality management has increased. Quality has become the most important single factor for the survival and success of the companies.
Introduction Customer demands for better products and services at the lowest possible costs have put tremendous pressure on organizations to improve the quality of products, services and processes to compete in the market and improve business results. It became important that construction projects be more qualitative, competitive, and economical to meet owner’s expectations.
Construction Projects What is Construction Project? Construction is translating Owner’s goals and objectives, by the contractor, to build the facility as stipulated in the contract documents, plans, specifications within budget and on schedule. Construction projects are custom oriented and custom design having specific requirements set by the customer/owner to be completed within finite duration and assigned budget.
Quality Definition (Construction Projects) What is Construction Quality? The definition of quality for construction projects is different to that of manufacturing or services industries as the product is not repetitive, but unique piece of work with specific requirements. Quality in construction project is not only the quality of product and equipment used in the construction of facility, it is the total management approach to complete the facility. TABLE 1 illustrates Principles of Construction Quality.
Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1) PrincipleConstruction Project’s Principle Principle 1Owner, Consultant, Contractor are fully responsible for application of quality management system to meet defined scope of work in the contract documents Principle 2Consultant is responsible to provide Owner's requirements explicitly and clearly defining in the contract documents Principle 3Method of payments (Work progress, material, equipment..etc.) to be clearly defined in the contract documents. Rate analysis of BOQ or BOM item to be agreed before signing of contract Principle 4Contract documents should include a clause to settle the dispute arising during construction stage Principle 5tendering/bidding stage and submit his proposal taking into consideration all the requirements specified in the contract documents
Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1)-Contd PrincipleConstruction Project’s Principle Principle 6Contractor shall follow an agreed upon quality assurance and quality control plan Consultant shall be responsible to oversee the compliance with contract documents and specified standards Principle 7Contractor is responsible to provide all the resources, manpower, material, equipment.etc. to build the facility as per specifications Principle 8Contractor shall follow the submittal procedure specified in the contract documents Principle 9Each member of project team should participate in all the functional areas to continuously improve quality of project
Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1)-Contd PrincipleConstruction Project’s Principle Principle 10Contractor is responsible to construct the facility as specified and use the material, products, equipment, and methods which satisfy the specified requirements. Principle 11Contractor to build the facility as stipulated in the contract documents, plan, specifications within budget and on schedule to meet owner's objectives Principle 12Contractor should perform the works as per agreed upon construction program and handover the project as per contracted schedule.
Quality in Construction Project Quality management in construction projects is different to that of manufacturing. Quality of construction projects can be defined as follows: Construction Project quality is fulfillment of owner’s needs as per defined scope of works within a budget and specified schedule to satisfy owner’s/user’s requirements. The phenomenon of these three components can be called as “Construction Project Trilogy” and is illustrated in Figure QCP.1
Quality in Construction Project (Figure QCP.1)
Quality Tools What is Quality Tools? Quality tools are the charts, check sheets, diagrams, graphs, techniques, and methods which are used to create an idea, engender planning, analyze the cause, analyze the process, foster evaluation and create a wide variety of situations for continuous quality improvement. What is the befit of applying Quality Tools? Applications of tools enhance chances of success and help maintain consistency, accuracy, increase efficiency and process improvement.
Quality Tools There are several types of tools, techniques, methods, in practice, which are used as quality improvement tools and have variety of applications in manufacturing and process industry. However all of these tools are not used in construction projects due to the nature of construction projects which are customized and non repetitive.
Quality Tools How many categories of Quality Tools are used in Construction Projects? There are ten most common broader categories of Quality Management Tools used in Construction Projects. Each of these categories have various types of tools. Some of these quality management tools that are most commonly used in construction industry are listed under following broader categories (TABLE 2);
Categories of Quality Tools (TABLE 2) CategoriesSerial Number Classic Quality Tools1 Management and Planning Tools2 Process Analysis Tool3 Process Improvement Tools4 Innovation and Creative Tools5 Lean Tools6 Cost of Quality7 Quality Function Deployment8 Six Sigma9 Triz10
Development of Construction Projects Construction project development has three major elements. These are; Study Design Construction As the project develops, more information and specifications are developed. TABLE 3 Illustrates various activities during Study Stage
Study Stage (TABLE 3) ElementDescription Problem Statement/Need Identification Define project needs, goals, objectives Need Assessment Identification of needs Prioritization of needs Leveling of needs Deciding what needs to be addressed Need analysis Perform project need analysis/study to outline the scope of issues to be considered in the planning phase. Feasibility StudyTechnical studies, economics assessment, financial assessment, market demand, environmental and social assessment. Establish Project objectives/Goals Scope, time, cost, quality.
Study Stage (TABLE 3)-Contd ElementDescription Identify project delivery system Establish how the participants, owner, designer (A/E), and contractor will be involved to construct the project/facility. (Design/Build/Bid, Design/Build, Guaranteed Maximum Price, CM type, PM type, BOT, Turnkey..etc) Identify project teamSelect Designer (A/E) firm if Design/Bid/Build type of contract system is selected. Select other team members based on project delivery system requirements. Identify alternatives (Conceptual alternatives) Identify alternatives based on a predetermined set of performance measures. Preliminary resources Estimate resources Preliminary scheduleEstimate the duration for completion of project/facility
Study Stage (TABLE 3)-Contd ElementDescription Preliminary financial implications Preliminary budget estimates of total project cost (life cycle cost) on the basis of any known research and development requirements. This will help arrange the finances. (funding agency). Authorities clearanceIdentify issues, sustainability, impacts, project constraints and potential approvals (environmental authorities, permits) required so that subsequent design and authority approval processes. Select alternativesSelect preferred alternative. Project initiationProject charter
Development of Construction Projects TABLE 4 Illustrates various activities during Design Stage
Design Stage (TABLE 4) ElementDescription Develop concept design Report, drawings, models, presentation Project planningPrepare project plan Schematic designPreliminary design, value engineering Design developmentDetailed design Construction documents Construction contract documents
Development of Construction Projects TABLE 5 Illustrates various activities during Construction Stage
Construction Stage (TABLE 5) ElementDescription Bidding/TenderingBidding package and request for proposal. Contractor selectionMost competitive bidder ConstructionContractor to execute contracted works. Monitoring & ControlMonitor and control scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk, procurement of the project. Commissioning and Handover Testing, commissioning and handover. Project close outClose the project.
Applicable Tools (Study Stage) Study Stage Some of the Tools which are useful for application during Study Stage are as follows; 5W2H (FIGURE 1) Need Analysis (TABLE 6) Brainstorming (FIGURE 2) Delphi Techniques (FIGURE 3)
5W2H (FIGURE 1) Serial Number 5W2HRelated Analyzing Questions 1WhyNew project 2WhatWhat advantage it will have over other similar projects 3WhoWho will be the customer for this project 4WhereWhere can we find market for the project 5WhenWhen the project will be ready for use 6How manyHow many such projects are in the market 7How muchHow much market share we will have by this project
Need Analysis (TABLE 6) Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis 1Is the project in line with organization’s strategy/strategic plan and mandated by management in support of a specific objective? 2Is the project a part of mission statement of the organization? 3Is the project a part of vision statement of the organization? 4Is the need mandated by regulatory body? 5Is the need for meeting government regulations? 6Is the need to fulfill the deficiency/gap of such type of project(s) in the market? 7Is the need created to meet market demand
Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis 8Is the need to meet the research and development requirements? 9Is the need for technical advances? 10Is the need generated to construct a facility/project which is innovative in nature? 11Is the need aims to improve the existing facility? 12Is the need a part of mandatory investment? 13Is the need to develop infrastructure? 14Is the need will serve the community and fulfill social responsibilities?
Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis 15 Is the need created to resolve specific problem? 16 Is the need will have effect on environment? 17Is the need has any time frame to implement? 18Is the need has financial constraints? 19Is the need has major risk? 20Is the need within capability of the owner/client, either alone or in cooperation with other organizations? 21Is the need can be managed and implemented?
Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis 22 Is the need realistic and genuine? 23 Is the need measurable? 24Is the need shall be beneficial? 25Is the need comply with environmental protection agency requirements? 26Is the need comply with government’s health and safety regulations?
Brainstorming (FIGURE 2) Identify Team Members Select Team Members Define the Problem or Issue to Team Members Circulate Problem Statement (Facilitator) Explain Brainstorming Rules ( Facilitator) General Ideas (Team Members) Record Ideas Modify Ideas Evaluate Ideas Select Idea(s) Implement Idea(s) Point Scale Criteria Highest Score On White Board or Flip Chart Checklist or Any other technique No criticism Free Flow of Ideas Freewheel Thinking Large Quantity of Ideas Variety of Ideas
Delphi Technique (FIGURE 3) Identify/Select Subject Matter Identify Team Members having Expertise/Kno wledge of the Subject Select Team Members/ Panel of Experts Circulate Questions to Team Members Response from Team Members Summarize Response Accept Idea(s) Proceed with the Idea(s)/Solution Check for Conse nsus YES Re-circulate Feedback/ Answers to Team Check for Consen sus Iteration Accept Idea(s) Proceed with the Idea(s)/ Solution NO YES NO
Applicable Tools (Design Stage) Design Stage Some of the Tools which are useful for application dusting Design Stage are as follows; PDCA DMADV Mistake Proofing Cost of Quality
PDCA during Design(FIGURE 4)
Fundamental Objectives of DMADV (FIGURE 5) 1Define—What is important? Define the project goals and customer deliverables 2Measure—What is needed? Measure and determine customer needs and specifications 3Analyze—How we fulfill? Analyze process options and prioritize based on capabilities to satisfy customer requirements 4Design—How we build it? Design detailed process (es) capable of satisfying customer requirements 5Verify—How do we know it will work? Verify design performance capability
Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6) Serial Number ItemsPoints to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes 1Information1. Terms of Reference (TOR) 2. Client’s preferred requirements matrix 3. Data collection 4. Regulatory requirements 5. Codes and Standards 6. Historical Data 7. Organizational requirements
Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6)-Contd Serial Number ItemsPoints to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes 2Mismanagement1. Compare production with actual requirements 2. Interdisciplinary coordination 3. Application of different codes and Standards 4. Drawing size of different trades/specialist consultant (s) 3Omission1. Review and check design with TOR 2. Review and check design with client requirements 3. Review and check design with Regulatory requirements
Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6)-Contd Serial Number ItemsPoints to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes 3Omission4. Review and check design with Codes and Standards 5. Check for all required documents 4Selection1. Qualified team members 2. Available material 3. Installation method
Cost of Quality during Design Phase Categories of Quality costs related to design phase of construction projects can be summarized as follows; 1.Internal Failure Costs 2.External Failure Costs 3.Appraisal Costs 4.Prevention Costs
Applicable Tools (Construction Stage) Construction Stage Some of the Tools which are useful for application dusting Construction Stage are as follows; DMAIC Networking Arrow Diagram Cost of Quality
Fundamental Objectives of DMAIC (FIGURE 7) 1Define—What is important? Define the project goals and customer deliverables 2Measure—How are we doing? Measure and determine current performance 3Analyze—How we fulfill? Analyze and determine root cause of the defects 4Improve—What needs to be done? Improve the process by permanently removing the defects 5Control—How do we guarantee performance? Control the improved process’s performance to ensure sustainable results
Networking Arrow Diagram (FIGURE 8) ABCD F GH E ExcavationCompactionWaterproofing Formwork Reinforcement Installation of Utilities Concrete Casting
PDCA during Execution(FIGURE 9)
Flow Diagram (FIGURE 10) Approved shop drawing/ Approved composite drawing Preparation of Related Works Site Co- ordination Quality Check by Contractor Submit Checklist Inspection by Consultant Approved Material Proceed Next Activity Functional Relationship Approved Not Approved
Conclusion Thus it can be summarized that with implementation of quality tools, qualitative, compitative and economical construction can be achieved.
THANKS to Publisher This material is derived from the book titled; “Quality Tools for Managing Construction Projects” Author: Abdul Razzak Rumane Publisher: CRC Press (A Taylor & Francis Group Company) Florida, USA ISBN: