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Quality Tools for Construction Projects

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Presentation on theme: "Quality Tools for Construction Projects"— Presentation transcript:

1 Quality Tools for Construction Projects
By Dr. Abdul Razzak Rumane, PhD, FIE, FCQI, AVS World Quality Congress Mumbai June 27-28, 2014, © 2014 by Rumane

2 Topics to be Discussed Introduction Principles of Construction Quality
Quality Tools Applicable Tools Study Stage Design Stage Construction Stage

3 Introduction Quality is a universal phenomenon, which has been a matter of great concern throughout the recorded history of human kind. It was always the determination of builders and makers of the products to ensure that their products meet the customer’s desire. With advent of globalization and competitive market, the emphasis on quality management has increased. Quality has become the most important single factor for the survival and success of the companies.

4 Introduction Customer demands for better products and services at the lowest possible costs have put tremendous pressure on organizations to improve the quality of products, services and processes to compete in the market and improve business results. It became important that construction projects be more qualitative, competitive, and economical to meet owner’s expectations.

5 Construction Projects
What is Construction Project? Construction is translating Owner’s goals and objectives, by the contractor, to build the facility as stipulated in the contract documents, plans, specifications within budget and on schedule. Construction projects are custom oriented and custom design having specific requirements set by the customer/owner to be completed within finite duration and assigned budget.

6 Quality Definition (Construction Projects)
What is Construction Quality? The definition of quality for construction projects is different to that of manufacturing or services industries as the product is not repetitive, but unique piece of work with specific requirements. Quality in construction project is not only the quality of product and equipment used in the construction of facility, it is the total management approach to complete the facility. TABLE 1 illustrates Principles of Construction Quality.

7 Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1)
Construction Project’s Principle Principle 1 Owner, Consultant, Contractor are fully responsible for application of quality management system to meet defined scope of work in the contract documents Principle 2 Consultant is responsible to provide Owner's requirements explicitly and clearly defining in the contract documents Principle 3 Method of payments (Work progress, material, equipment..etc.) to be clearly defined in the contract documents. Rate analysis of BOQ or BOM item to be agreed before signing of contract Principle 4 Contract documents should include a clause to settle the dispute arising during construction stage Principle 5 tendering/bidding stage and submit his proposal taking into consideration all the requirements specified in the contract documents

8 Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1)-Contd
Construction Project’s Principle Principle 6 Contractor shall follow an agreed upon quality assurance and quality control plan Consultant shall be responsible to oversee the compliance with contract documents and specified standards Principle 7 Contractor is responsible to provide all the resources, manpower, material, equipment.etc. to build the facility as per specifications Principle 8 Contractor shall follow the submittal procedure specified in the contract documents Principle 9 Each member of project team should participate in all the functional areas to continuously improve quality of project

9 Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1)-Contd
Construction Project’s Principle Principle 10 Contractor is responsible to construct the facility as specified and use the material, products, equipment, and methods which satisfy the specified requirements. Principle 11 Contractor to build the facility as stipulated in the contract documents, plan, specifications within budget and on schedule to meet owner's objectives Principle 12 Contractor should perform the works as per agreed upon construction program and handover the project as per contracted schedule.

10 Quality in Construction Project
Quality management in construction projects is different to that of manufacturing. Quality of construction projects can be defined as follows: Construction Project quality is fulfillment of owner’s needs as per defined scope of works within a budget and specified schedule to satisfy owner’s/user’s requirements. The phenomenon of these three components can be called as “Construction Project Trilogy” and is illustrated in Figure QCP.1

11 Quality in Construction Project (Figure QCP.1)

12 Quality Tools What is Quality Tools?
Quality tools are the charts, check sheets, diagrams, graphs, techniques, and methods which are used to create an idea, engender planning, analyze the cause, analyze the process, foster evaluation and create a wide variety of situations for continuous quality improvement. What is the befit of applying Quality Tools? Applications of tools enhance chances of success and help maintain consistency, accuracy, increase efficiency and process improvement.

13 Quality Tools There are several types of tools, techniques, methods, in practice, which are used as quality improvement tools and have variety of applications in manufacturing and process industry. However all of these tools are not used in construction projects due to the nature of construction projects which are customized and non repetitive.

14 Quality Tools How many categories of Quality Tools are used in Construction Projects? There are ten most common broader categories of Quality Management Tools used in Construction Projects. Each of these categories have various types of tools. Some of these quality management tools that are most commonly used in construction industry are listed under following broader categories (TABLE 2);

15 Categories of Quality Tools (TABLE 2)
Serial Number Classic Quality Tools 1 Management and Planning Tools 2 Process Analysis Tool 3 Process Improvement Tools 4 Innovation and Creative Tools 5 Lean Tools 6 Cost of Quality 7 Quality Function Deployment 8 Six Sigma 9 Triz 10

16 Development of Construction Projects
Construction project development has three major elements. These are; Study Design Construction As the project develops, more information and specifications are developed. TABLE 3 Illustrates various activities during Study Stage

17 Study Stage (TABLE 3) Element Description
Problem Statement/Need Identification Define project needs, goals, objectives Need Assessment Identification of needs Prioritization of needs Leveling of needs Deciding what needs to be addressed Need analysis Perform project need analysis/study to outline the scope of issues to be considered in the planning phase. Feasibility Study Technical studies, economics assessment, financial assessment, market demand, environmental and social assessment. Establish Project objectives/Goals Scope, time, cost, quality.

18 Study Stage (TABLE 3)-Contd
Element Description Identify project delivery system Establish how the participants, owner, designer (A/E), and contractor will be involved to construct the project/facility. (Design/Build/Bid, Design/Build, Guaranteed Maximum Price, CM type, PM type, BOT, Turnkey..etc) Identify project team Select Designer (A/E) firm if Design/Bid/Build type of contract system is selected. Select other team members based on project delivery system requirements. Identify alternatives (Conceptual alternatives) Identify alternatives based on a predetermined set of performance measures. Preliminary resources Estimate resources Preliminary schedule Estimate the duration for completion of project/facility

19 Study Stage (TABLE 3)-Contd
Element Description Preliminary financial implications Preliminary budget estimates of total project cost (life cycle cost) on the basis of any known research and development requirements. This will help arrange the finances. (funding agency). Authorities clearance Identify issues, sustainability, impacts, project constraints and potential approvals (environmental authorities, permits) required so that subsequent design and authority approval processes. Select alternatives Select preferred alternative. Project initiation Project charter

20 Development of Construction Projects
TABLE 4 Illustrates various activities during Design Stage

21 Design Stage (TABLE 4) Element Description Develop concept design
Report, drawings, models, presentation Project planning Prepare project plan Schematic design Preliminary design, value engineering Design development Detailed design Construction documents Construction contract documents

22 Development of Construction Projects
TABLE 5 Illustrates various activities during Construction Stage

23 Construction Stage (TABLE 5)
Element Description Bidding/Tendering Bidding package and request for proposal. Contractor selection Most competitive bidder Construction Contractor to execute contracted works. Monitoring & Control Monitor and control scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk, procurement of the project. Commissioning and Handover Testing, commissioning and handover. Project close out Close the project.

24 Applicable Tools (Study Stage)
Some of the Tools which are useful for application during Study Stage are as follows; 5W2H (FIGURE 1) Need Analysis (TABLE 6) Brainstorming (FIGURE 2) Delphi Techniques (FIGURE 3)

25 5W2H (FIGURE 1) Serial Number 5W2H Related Analyzing Questions 1 Why
New project 2 What What advantage it will have over other similar projects 3 Who Who will be the customer for this project 4 Where Where can we find market for the project 5 When When the project will be ready for use 6 How many How many such projects are in the market 7 How much How much market share we will have by this project

26 Need Analysis (TABLE 6) Serial Number
Points to be considered for Need Analysis 1 Is the project in line with organization’s strategy/strategic plan and mandated by management in support of a specific objective? 2 Is the project a part of mission statement of the organization? 3 Is the project a part of vision statement of the organization? 4 Is the need mandated by regulatory body? 5 Is the need for meeting government regulations? 6 Is the need to fulfill the deficiency/gap of such type of project(s) in the market? 7 Is the need created to meet market demand

27 Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd
Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis 8 Is the need to meet the research and development requirements? 9 Is the need for technical advances? 10 Is the need generated to construct a facility/project which is innovative in nature? 11 Is the need aims to improve the existing facility? 12 Is the need a part of mandatory investment? 13 Is the need to develop infrastructure? 14 Is the need will serve the community and fulfill social responsibilities?

28 Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd
Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis 15 Is the need created to resolve specific problem? 16 Is the need will have effect on environment? 17 Is the need has any time frame to implement? 18 Is the need has financial constraints? 19 Is the need has major risk? 20 Is the need within capability of the owner/client, either alone or in cooperation with other organizations? 21 Is the need can be managed and implemented?

29 Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd
Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis 22 Is the need realistic and genuine? 23 Is the need measurable? 24 Is the need shall be beneficial? 25 Is the need comply with environmental protection agency requirements? 26 Is the need comply with government’s health and safety regulations?

30 Brainstorming (FIGURE 2)
Define the Problem or Issue to Team Members Circulate Problem Statement (Facilitator) Explain Brainstorming Rules ( Facilitator) Identify Team Members Select Team Members Checklist or Any other technique No criticism Free Flow of Ideas Freewheel Thinking Large Quantity of Ideas Variety of Ideas General Ideas (Team Members) On White Board or Flip Chart Implement Idea(s) Select Idea(s) Evaluate Ideas Modify Ideas Record Ideas Highest Score Point Scale Criteria

31 Delphi Technique (FIGURE 3)
Identify Team Members having Expertise/Knowledge of the Subject Select Team Members/ Panel of Experts Circulate Questions to Team Members Response from Team Members Identify/Select Subject Matter Summarize Response Proceed with the Idea(s)/Solution Accept Idea(s) Check for Consensus Proceed with the Idea(s)/ Solution YES Check for Consensus YES Re-circulate Feedback/ Answers to Team Accept Idea(s) NO Iteration NO

32 Applicable Tools (Design Stage)
Some of the Tools which are useful for application dusting Design Stage are as follows; PDCA DMADV Mistake Proofing Cost of Quality

33 PDCA during Design(FIGURE 4)

34 Fundamental Objectives of DMADV (FIGURE 5)
1 Define—What is important? Define the project goals and customer deliverables 2 Measure—What is needed? Measure and determine customer needs and specifications 3 Analyze—How we fulfill? Analyze process options and prioritize based on capabilities to satisfy customer requirements 4 Design—How we build it? Design detailed process (es) capable of satisfying customer requirements 5 Verify—How do we know it will work? Verify design performance capability

35 Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6)
Serial Number Items Points to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes 1 Information 1. Terms of Reference (TOR) 2. Client’s preferred requirements matrix 3. Data collection 4. Regulatory requirements 5. Codes and Standards 6. Historical Data 7. Organizational requirements

36 Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6)-Contd
Serial Number Items Points to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes 2 Mismanagement 1. Compare production with actual requirements 2. Interdisciplinary coordination 3. Application of different codes and Standards 4. Drawing size of different trades/specialist consultant (s) 3 Omission 1. Review and check design with TOR 2. Review and check design with client requirements 3. Review and check design with Regulatory requirements

37 Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6)-Contd
Serial Number Items Points to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes 3 Omission 4. Review and check design with Codes and Standards 5. Check for all required documents 4 Selection 1. Qualified team members 2. Available material 3. Installation method

38 Cost of Quality during Design Phase
Categories of Quality costs related to design phase of construction projects can be summarized as follows; Internal Failure Costs External Failure Costs Appraisal Costs Prevention Costs

39 Applicable Tools (Construction Stage)
Some of the Tools which are useful for application dusting Construction Stage are as follows; DMAIC Networking Arrow Diagram Cost of Quality

40 Fundamental Objectives of DMAIC (FIGURE 7)
1 Define—What is important? Define the project goals and customer deliverables 2 Measure—How are we doing? Measure and determine current performance 3 Analyze—How we fulfill? Analyze and determine root cause of the defects 4 Improve—What needs to be done? Improve the process by permanently removing the defects 5 Control—How do we guarantee performance? Control the improved process’s performance to ensure sustainable results

41 Networking Arrow Diagram (FIGURE 8)
B C D Formwork Excavation Compaction Waterproofing F E Installation of Utilities Reinforcement H G Concrete Casting

42 PDCA during Execution(FIGURE 9)

43 Flow Diagram (FIGURE 10) Not Approved Approved Approved shop drawing/
Approved composite drawing Preparation of Related Works Site Co-ordination Quality Check by Contractor Not Approved Approved Material Inspection by Consultant Submit Checklist Approved Functional Relationship Proceed Next Activity

44 Conclusion Thus it can be summarized that with implementation of quality tools, qualitative, compitative and economical construction can be achieved.

45 THANKS to Publisher This material is derived from the book titled;
“Quality Tools for Managing Construction Projects” Author: Abdul Razzak Rumane Publisher: CRC Press (A Taylor & Francis Group Company) Florida, USA ISBN:


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