2 Topics to be Discussed Introduction Principles of Construction Quality Quality ToolsApplicable ToolsStudy StageDesign StageConstruction Stage
3 IntroductionQuality is a universal phenomenon, which has been a matter of great concern throughout the recorded history of human kind.It was always the determination of builders and makers of the products to ensure that their products meet the customer’s desire.With advent of globalization and competitive market, the emphasis on quality management has increased.Quality has become the most important single factor for the survival and success of the companies.
4 IntroductionCustomer demands for better products and services at the lowest possible costs have put tremendous pressure on organizations to improve the quality of products, services and processes to compete in the market and improve business results.It became important that construction projects be more qualitative, competitive, and economical to meet owner’s expectations.
5 Construction Projects What is Construction Project?Construction is translating Owner’s goals and objectives, by the contractor, to build the facility as stipulated in the contract documents, plans, specifications within budget and on schedule.Construction projects are custom oriented and custom design having specific requirements set by the customer/owner to be completed within finite duration and assigned budget.
6 Quality Definition (Construction Projects) What is Construction Quality?The definition of quality for construction projects is different to that of manufacturing or services industries as the product is not repetitive, but unique piece of work with specific requirements.Quality in construction project is not only the quality of product and equipment used in the construction of facility, it is the total management approach to complete the facility.TABLE 1 illustrates Principles of Construction Quality.
7 Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1) Construction Project’s PrinciplePrinciple 1Owner, Consultant, Contractor are fully responsible for application of quality management system to meet defined scope of work in the contract documentsPrinciple 2Consultant is responsible to provide Owner's requirements explicitly and clearly defining in the contract documentsPrinciple 3Method of payments (Work progress, material, equipment..etc.) to be clearly defined in the contract documents. Rate analysis of BOQ or BOM item to be agreed before signing of contractPrinciple 4Contract documents should include a clause to settle the dispute arising during construction stagePrinciple 5tendering/bidding stage and submit his proposal taking into consideration all the requirements specified in the contract documents
8 Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1)-Contd Construction Project’s PrinciplePrinciple 6Contractor shall follow an agreed upon quality assurance and quality control plan Consultant shall be responsible to oversee the compliance with contract documents and specified standardsPrinciple 7Contractor is responsible to provide all the resources, manpower, material, equipment.etc. to build the facility as per specificationsPrinciple 8Contractor shall follow the submittal procedure specified in the contract documentsPrinciple 9Each member of project team should participate in all the functional areas to continuously improve quality of project
9 Principles of Construction Quality (TABLE 1)-Contd Construction Project’s PrinciplePrinciple 10Contractor is responsible to construct the facility as specified and use the material, products, equipment, and methods which satisfy the specified requirements.Principle 11Contractor to build the facility as stipulated in the contract documents, plan, specifications within budget and on schedule to meet owner's objectivesPrinciple 12Contractor should perform the works as per agreed upon construction program and handover the project as per contracted schedule.
10 Quality in Construction Project Quality management in construction projects is different to that of manufacturing. Quality of construction projects can be defined as follows:Construction Project quality is fulfillment of owner’s needs as per defined scope of works within a budget and specified schedule to satisfy owner’s/user’s requirements.The phenomenon of these three components can be called as “Construction Project Trilogy” and is illustrated in Figure QCP.1
12 Quality Tools What is Quality Tools? Quality tools are the charts, check sheets, diagrams, graphs, techniques, and methods which are used to create an idea, engender planning, analyze the cause, analyze the process, foster evaluation and create a wide variety of situations for continuous quality improvement.What is the befit of applying Quality Tools?Applications of tools enhance chances of success and help maintain consistency, accuracy, increase efficiency and process improvement.
13 Quality ToolsThere are several types of tools, techniques, methods, in practice, which are used as quality improvement tools and have variety of applications in manufacturing and process industry.However all of these tools are not used in construction projects due to the nature of construction projects which are customized and non repetitive.
14 Quality ToolsHow many categories of Quality Tools are used in Construction Projects?There are ten most common broader categories of Quality Management Tools used in Construction Projects.Each of these categories have various types of tools.Some of these quality management tools that are most commonly used in construction industry are listed under following broader categories (TABLE 2);
15 Categories of Quality Tools (TABLE 2) Serial NumberClassic Quality Tools1Management and Planning Tools2Process Analysis Tool3Process Improvement Tools4Innovation and Creative Tools5Lean Tools6Cost of Quality7Quality Function Deployment8Six Sigma9Triz10
16 Development of Construction Projects Construction project development has three major elements. These are;StudyDesignConstructionAs the project develops, more information and specifications are developed.TABLE 3 Illustrates various activities during Study Stage
17 Study Stage (TABLE 3) Element Description Problem Statement/Need IdentificationDefine project needs, goals, objectivesNeed AssessmentIdentification of needsPrioritization of needsLeveling of needsDeciding what needs to be addressedNeed analysisPerform project need analysis/study to outline the scope of issues to be considered in the planning phase.Feasibility StudyTechnical studies, economics assessment, financial assessment, market demand, environmental and social assessment.Establish Project objectives/GoalsScope, time, cost, quality.
18 Study Stage (TABLE 3)-Contd ElementDescriptionIdentify project delivery systemEstablish how the participants, owner, designer (A/E), and contractor will be involved to construct the project/facility.(Design/Build/Bid, Design/Build, Guaranteed Maximum Price, CM type, PM type, BOT, Turnkey..etc)Identify project teamSelect Designer (A/E) firm if Design/Bid/Build type of contract system is selected. Select other team members based on project delivery system requirements.Identify alternatives (Conceptual alternatives)Identify alternatives based on a predetermined set of performance measures.Preliminary resourcesEstimate resourcesPreliminary scheduleEstimate the duration for completion of project/facility
19 Study Stage (TABLE 3)-Contd ElementDescriptionPreliminary financial implicationsPreliminary budget estimates of total project cost (life cycle cost) on the basis of any known research and development requirements. This will help arrange the finances. (funding agency).Authorities clearanceIdentify issues, sustainability, impacts, project constraints and potential approvals (environmental authorities, permits) required so that subsequent design and authority approval processes.Select alternativesSelect preferred alternative.Project initiationProject charter
20 Development of Construction Projects TABLE 4 Illustrates various activities during Design Stage
22 Development of Construction Projects TABLE 5 Illustrates various activities during Construction Stage
23 Construction Stage (TABLE 5) ElementDescriptionBidding/TenderingBidding package and request for proposal.Contractor selectionMost competitive bidderConstructionContractor to execute contracted works.Monitoring & ControlMonitor and control scope, schedule, cost, quality, risk, procurement of the project.Commissioning and HandoverTesting, commissioning and handover.Project close outClose the project.
24 Applicable Tools (Study Stage) Some of the Tools which are useful for application during Study Stage are as follows;5W2H (FIGURE 1)Need Analysis (TABLE 6)Brainstorming (FIGURE 2)Delphi Techniques (FIGURE 3)
25 5W2H (FIGURE 1) Serial Number 5W2H Related Analyzing Questions 1 Why New project2WhatWhat advantage it will have over other similar projects3WhoWho will be the customer for this project4WhereWhere can we find market for the project5WhenWhen the project will be ready for use6How manyHow many such projects are in the market7How muchHow much market share we will have by this project
26 Need Analysis (TABLE 6) Serial Number Points to be considered for Need Analysis1Is the project in line with organization’s strategy/strategic plan and mandated by management in support of a specific objective?2Is the project a part of mission statement of the organization?3Is the project a part of vision statement of the organization?4Is the need mandated by regulatory body?5Is the need for meeting government regulations?6Is the need to fulfill the deficiency/gap of such type of project(s) in the market?7Is the need created to meet market demand
27 Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd Serial NumberPoints to be considered for Need Analysis8Is the need to meet the research and development requirements?9Is the need for technical advances?10Is the need generated to construct a facility/project which is innovative in nature?11Is the need aims to improve the existing facility?12Is the need a part of mandatory investment?13Is the need to develop infrastructure?14Is the need will serve the community and fulfill social responsibilities?
28 Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd Serial NumberPoints to be considered for Need Analysis15Is the need created to resolve specific problem?16Is the need will have effect on environment?17Is the need has any time frame to implement?18Is the need has financial constraints?19Is the need has major risk?20Is the need within capability of the owner/client, either alone or in cooperation with other organizations?21Is the need can be managed and implemented?
29 Need Analysis (TABLE 6)-Contd Serial NumberPoints to be considered for Need Analysis22Is the need realistic and genuine?23Is the need measurable?24Is the need shall be beneficial?25Is the need comply with environmental protection agency requirements?26Is the need comply with government’s health and safety regulations?
30 Brainstorming (FIGURE 2) Define the Problem or Issue to Team MembersCirculate Problem Statement (Facilitator)Explain Brainstorming Rules( Facilitator)Identify Team MembersSelect Team MembersChecklist or Any other techniqueNo criticismFree Flow of IdeasFreewheel ThinkingLarge Quantity of IdeasVariety ofIdeasGeneral Ideas(Team Members)On White Board or Flip ChartImplement Idea(s)Select Idea(s)Evaluate IdeasModify IdeasRecord IdeasHighest ScorePoint Scale Criteria
31 Delphi Technique (FIGURE 3) Identify Team Members having Expertise/Knowledge of the SubjectSelect Team Members/Panel of ExpertsCirculate Questions to Team MembersResponse from Team MembersIdentify/Select Subject MatterSummarize ResponseProceed with the Idea(s)/SolutionAccept Idea(s)Check for ConsensusProceed with the Idea(s)/SolutionYESCheck for ConsensusYESRe-circulate Feedback/Answers to TeamAccept Idea(s)NOIterationNO
32 Applicable Tools (Design Stage) Some of the Tools which are useful for application dusting Design Stage are as follows;PDCADMADVMistake ProofingCost of Quality
34 Fundamental Objectives of DMADV (FIGURE 5) 1Define—What is important?Define the project goals and customer deliverables2Measure—What is needed?Measure and determine customer needs and specifications3Analyze—How we fulfill?Analyze process options and prioritize based on capabilities to satisfy customer requirements4Design—How we build it?Design detailed process (es) capable of satisfying customer requirements5Verify—How do we know it will work?Verify design performance capability
35 Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6) Serial NumberItemsPoints to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes1Information1. Terms of Reference (TOR)2. Client’s preferred requirements matrix3. Data collection4. Regulatory requirements5. Codes and Standards6. Historical Data7. Organizational requirements
36 Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6)-Contd Serial NumberItemsPoints to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes2Mismanagement1. Compare production with actual requirements2. Interdisciplinary coordination3. Application of different codes and Standards4. Drawing size of different trades/specialist consultant (s)3Omission1. Review and check design with TOR2. Review and check design with client requirements3. Review and check design with Regulatory requirements
37 Mistake Proofing (FIGURE 6)-Contd Serial NumberItemsPoints to be Considered to Avoid Mistakes3Omission4. Review and check design with Codes and Standards5. Check for all required documents4Selection1. Qualified team members2. Available material3. Installation method
38 Cost of Quality during Design Phase Categories of Quality costs related to design phase of construction projects can be summarized as follows;Internal Failure CostsExternal Failure CostsAppraisal CostsPrevention Costs
39 Applicable Tools (Construction Stage) Some of the Tools which are useful for application dusting Construction Stage are as follows;DMAICNetworking Arrow DiagramCost of Quality
40 Fundamental Objectives of DMAIC (FIGURE 7) 1Define—What is important?Define the project goals and customer deliverables2Measure—How are we doing?Measure and determine current performance3Analyze—How we fulfill?Analyze and determine root cause of the defects4Improve—What needs to be done?Improve the process by permanently removing the defects5Control—How do we guarantee performance?Control the improved process’s performance to ensure sustainable results
41 Networking Arrow Diagram (FIGURE 8) BCDFormworkExcavationCompactionWaterproofingFEInstallation of UtilitiesReinforcementHGConcrete Casting
43 Flow Diagram (FIGURE 10) Not Approved Approved Approved shop drawing/ Approved composite drawingPreparation of Related WorksSiteCo-ordinationQuality Check by ContractorNot ApprovedApproved MaterialInspection by ConsultantSubmitChecklistApprovedFunctionalRelationshipProceed NextActivity
44 ConclusionThus it can be summarized that with implementation of quality tools, qualitative, compitative and economical construction can be achieved.
45 THANKS to Publisher This material is derived from the book titled; “Quality Tools for Managing Construction Projects”Author: Abdul Razzak RumanePublisher: CRC Press (A Taylor & Francis Group Company) Florida, USAISBN:
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