2Why do we have difficulty speaking about puberty? ArmLegBrainPenisKneeFootHandVaginaElbow
3What are some slang words used to represent the words below? VAGINAPENIS
4Questions: What is Puberty? At what ages do you think males and females typically begin puberty?Describe some instances that you have experienced where you have been aware of physical and or emotional changes during puberty.We can see external changes quite easily, but there are many more changes happening internally, which are also important. It is sometimes more embarrassing to discuss these parts because they are more private.
5Puberty Why do we experience Puberty? We know that puberty happens to prepare males and females to be able to reproduce.What do the words reproduce and reproduction mean?When we talk about the reproductive organs, we are talking about the parts of the body that help reproduction happen.
6Online ActivityLog on to following website and complete the changes associated with puberty on the male and female diagrams (handout)
7Girls and PubertyBrainstormVisible Changes to Girls
9Visible Changes to Girls Girls and PubertyVisible Changes to GirlsBreast DevelopmentBreasts may feel sore at timesOne breast often develops before the otherIt can take 3 – 5 years before breasts are fully grownBreasts are often unequal in size (e.g. one may be bigger than the other).Breast size is primarily determined by genes.Breast size can be affected by nutrition, pregnancy and/or surgery.Height and weight increases—an increase in body weight is normal and healthy.
10Visible Changes to Girls Girls and PubertyVisible Changes to GirlsWeight changes:About 25% of the female adult body is fat and 15% of the male adult body is fat. 23% of the female body is muscle and 40% of the male is muscle.This means, generally, that men have more strength (can lift more) and perhaps run faster.Women can endure some kinds of physical stress more easily than men. Women, in general, can survive famine, cold, and drought better and do very well in endurance sports (long distance swimming, marathons, etc.).Hips broaden to prepare for the delivery of a baby.Armpit hairPubic hair developsHair grows on the legs and arms.
11Discussion questions: Girls and PubertyDiscussion questions:What are breasts for?What determines whether a girl will have small breasts, medium sized breasts, or large breasts?Why might a girl worry about what size her breasts grow?Why do a girl’s hips get wider but a boy’s don’t?
12External Genitals females are born with are: Girls and PubertyExternal Genitals females are born with are:VulvaConsists of Labia Majora and Labia Minora (outer and inner folds of skin)Function as protection for the internal sex organsClitorisSmall, sensitive organ located above the opening to the vaginaFunction is one of sexual pleasureThree openingsUrethraVaginaAnus
13Internal Reproductive Organs Girls and PubertyInternal Reproductive OrgansAll girls are born with their reproductive organs but they do not start to develop and function until puberty.VaginaLeads to the other internal reproductive organsUsed for menstruation, intercourse, childbirthNot used for urination – opening just above vagina, called the urethra, is used for this purpose (side view diagram explains this concept best)A thin membrane (the hymen) surrounds the vaginal opening, may not be noticeable in someUterusAlso called the wombSpecial place in woman’s body where baby growsVery low in abdomen, nowhere near the stomach, about the size of a fistIt is the uterus that enlarges during pregnancy, not the stomach
14Internal Reproductive Organs Girls and PubertyInternal Reproductive OrgansFallopian tubesTwo tubes on either side of the uterusPassageway from the uterus to ovaryOvariesFemales have 1-2 ovariesReproductive glandsStart producing hormones at pubertyHold about 250,000 ova (eggs) until puberty when they start being released –one released per monthOvumAlso called egg cellSpecial cell which, when united with male sperm cell, can create a baby – this is called fertilization
15Female Anatomy Remember to label the diagram in your workbook Fallopian TubeOvaryUterusCervixEndometriumVaginaRemember to label the diagram in your workbook
17Menstrual Cycle Menstruation Uterus must prepare for growth of a baby if fertilization occursHormones from ovaries send message to uterus to grow a thick, soft lining of tissue and bloodThis lining contains nutrients that would be needed to nourish the egg and sperm if fertilization occurredIf the egg is not fertilized in the fallopian tube, the lining is not needed to nourish a baby, so a message from ovary (by hormone) tells the uterus to shed the lining, takes 5-7 days to shed lining – this is called menstruation (having a period)
18Menstrual Cycle Changes in reproductive organs at puberty. Discharge Keeps vagina clean and healthyOne of the early changes in puberty. A girl may notice some discharge on her underwear or on toilet paper. It varies from whitish and pasty to clear and slippery. This means a girl’s body is starting to mature and her period will be starting.If bad odour, itchy or unusual, may be an infectionOvulationOnce ovaries start producing hormones, the message is given to start releasing one ovum, once a month from one ovaryUsually a girl cannot feel this happeningIf egg is not fertilized in a day or so, it dissolves
19Menstrual Cycle Menstruation Usually menstruate once a month – bloody discharge trickles out of the body through the vagina, the lining is completely shed, a new lining begins to grow.Soon another egg is released, and if fertilization does not occur, the egg dissolves and that lining is shed. This continues to happen over and over again. That is why we call it the menstrual cycle.This is a normal change of puberty – something to be proud of – not something dirty or badSome women experience menstrual cramps which can be relieved with pain killers or hot water bottles
20Menstrual Cycle Discuss the following: How does it feel if you fall and get a cut on your knee?How does it feel if you have a nosebleed?Do you think having a period if more like cutting your knee or more like a nosebleed? Why?
21Menstrual Cycle Hygiene during menstruation Menstruation is a normal change of puberty. It is not a sickness – usually can continue to participate in regular daily activities (e.g. physical education classes, gymnastics, swimming, etc.)Personal hygiene (i.e. bathing) even more important at this time as oil secretion from hair and skin may increase and menstrual blood may get dried in pubic hairSanitary pads or tampons are used to absorb menstrual fluidYou may want to show samples and explain their useAlways wipe from front to back to help prevent infection
22Menstrual Cycle Discuss the following: Why does a girl get a period? How long does a period usually last?What does a girl use to absorb the menstrual blood?How does a woman decide which type of menstrual product she will use?
23Menstrual CyclePadsVarious sizes of pads available, as the flow variesPads have adhesive strip which sticks to underwearNecessary to wear protection 24 hours a dayMust change pads frequently, approximately every 3-4 hoursDispose of pads in bins provided rather than toilet (wrap in toilet paper first)Scented pads may irritate some people’s skin
24Menstrual Cycle Tampons Swimming requires the use of tampons With tampons, menstrual fluid is absorbed within the vaginaTampons often not used by girls when period first startsShould be changed every 3-4 hours (stress this point – toxic shock)Held in place by vagina – can’t get lost or fall outString used to remove tampon – very strongDispose of in bin provided (wrap in toilet paper first)Students log on to the following website, view the animated guide and complete the changes for the 4 stages of the menstrual cycle using handout
25Boys and PubertyBrainstormVisible Changes to Boys
26Visible Changes in Boys Boys and PubertyVisible Changes in BoysAdam’s apple will begin to showShoulders and chest will grow biggerMuscles will become biggerHair on face will appearBody hairs appears for some boys (e.g. underarms, face, pubic area, later maybe on chest/back)Voice changes for some boysTesticles gradually grow a little largerPenis will grow longer and wider as the rest of the body growsWill begin to have erections and “wet dreams”
27Visible Changes in Boys Boys and PubertyVisible Changes in BoysBreast development. This fact comes as a surprise to most students. Some boys will find that the area around one or both nipples can feel sore and may swell.This is because boys have some female hormones in their body. The soreness and swelling usually go away. This is normal.Feelings of sexual attraction emergeSudden mood changes occurWeight gain before growth spurt
28External Genitals Penis Boys and PubertyExternal GenitalsPenisTube-like organ of spongy tissue (leave rest of information about penis until later)Urethra runs lengthwise through centre of penisHead of penis is called the glans which is a source of sexual pleasureTesticlesMale sex glands (1-2) held in a sac called the scrotumOn outside of body to keep temperature cooler than body temperature for healthy sperm productionSometimes one can grow faster than the other at pubertyOne hangs lower – this is normalVery sensitive area – easily damaged – important to protect e.g. During sports activitiesNever deliberately kick anyone thereOnly need one testicle to be fertile (able to reproduce)At puberty, begin to produce hormones and sperm
29External Genitals Sperm Special cells produced in testicle at puberty Boys and PubertyExternal GenitalsSpermSpecial cells produced in testicle at pubertyVery small (over 300 million in 15 ml of semen)Millions are made every dayMix with fluid in glands to form a white sticky fluid called semenSwim up vagina, through uterus to fallopian tube to fertilize an egg
30Internal Reproductive Organs Boys and PubertyInternal Reproductive OrgansVas DeferensTube which carries sperm out of testiclesProstate GlandStarts producing a fluid at puberty in which sperm are kept aliveSperm + fluid = substance called semenUrethraTube which is located in penis2 branches – one to bladder, one to vas deferensTwo substances which come out of the urethra are urine and semen; they cannot come out at the same time. When penis is ready to release semen, a valve blocks off branch to the bladder so urine cannot escapeSeminal VesiclesTwo small pouches behind the bladder that produce fluidThis fluid mixes with sperm and other fluid to produce semen
31What starts happening more often to a boy’s penis at puberty? Boys and PubertyChanges at puberty:Production of sperm in the testiclesGrowth of penis and testiclesProduction of fluid in the prostate glandWhat starts happening more often to a boy’s penis at puberty?Erections: Penis gets bigger, harder, and stands out from the bodyHappens to babies and even before birth
32What are wet dreams. “Nocturnal Emissions” Boys and PubertyWhat are wet dreams. “Nocturnal Emissions”Ejaculation of semen during sleepSemen comes out without any extra touching of the penisCan be frightening and embarrassingImportant to understand that it is a normal part of growing upDoes not matter how many you have, some don’t have them, some adults may have them
33Why do erections happen. Boys and PubertyWhy do erections happen.Sexual thoughts send message to penis – thickens and sticks out from bodySpongy tissue fills up with extra bloodHappens for physical reasons even before pubertyCan happen when you least expect it or want it (e.g. First thing in the morning, during sleep, vibrations e.g. Riding a bus, not always related to sexual thoughts.)
34Why do erections happen Cont. Boys and PubertyWhy do erections happen Cont.Can be frightening and embarrassingImportant to realise that it is a normal process of growing upAn erection does not mean an ejaculation must occur – erection will go away on its ownSize of penis varies – all sizes work well – less of a difference when erectPenis continues to grow as you do
35Discussion questions: Boys and PubertyDiscussion questions:Some boys talk about having a “boner”. Is there a bone in the penis?What is an erection?How old are boys when they get their first erection?What causes a boy to get an erection?
36Discuss the following true anecdotes: Boys and PubertyDiscuss the following true anecdotes:A boy would often get an erection when he was sitting watching an exciting hockey game.A teenager would sometimes get an erection when he was concentrating on getting ready to run and do a high jump.Why do you think this happened?Were they thinking sexy thoughts?How do you think they felt when this happened?What is ejaculation?
37Usually it would be done soon after birth Boys and PubertyCircumcision:Usually it would be done soon after birthRemoval of covering over end of penisNormal either way (no difference in sensation, performance, etc.)Something they will have to decide about if they are parentsNo health reason to have it done (not medically necessary, but a personal choice). Boys who have not been circumcised should cleanse beneath the foreskin of the penis regularly.
38If the problem persists, see your doctor Boys and PubertyJock itch:Sometimes sweaty underwear or jockstraps can lead to a scaly, itchy rash in the genital areaIt is important to keep yourself clean, and the skin dry (e.g. use of baby powder)It can be treated with anti-fungal preparations available at the drugstore without a prescriptionIf the problem persists, see your doctor