Presentation on theme: "1 Year 12 exam questions Organise your notes, summarise into dot points or mind maps, revise and then attempt the exam questions…"— Presentation transcript:
1 Year 12 exam questions Organise your notes, summarise into dot points or mind maps, revise and then attempt the exam questions…
2 Short cuts to remembering Measurements of health status: Madeleine Marie Chaplin or Mum doesnt like ice-cream, mum buys healthy yogo pops instead.
3 Groups at risk of ill health Jack and Jill went up the hill to meet an aboriginal. Jack fell down and lost his money and Jills assets came tumbling after. Determinants of health BAGEL
4 How do we measure health? Measurements of health status What is health Health status Mortality rates Life expectancy Healthy life expectancy Health adjusted life expectancy Years of life lost Morbidity data Prevalence Incidence Burden of disease Dalys Infant Mortality
5 Health status – how do we measure health? Who definition
6 Definitions of health measurements Mortality rates Life expectancy Healthy life expectancy Health adjusted life expectancy Years of life lost Morbidity data prevalenceincidenceBurden of disease
7 Exam question1
8 Answer plan question 1a and1b Draw a Venn diagram to show the differences between males and females on the graph. Why do more males than females suffer from some diseases? Why do more females than males suffer from some diseases?
9 Answer to question 1a Males- high incidence of injury, e.g. traffic accidents, suicide, drug abuse, e.g alcohol and heroin. Also high in mental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. Females – high incidence in depression, social phobia and eating disorders
10 Answer to question1b Road traffic accidents are high for males because of their risk taking behaviour, eg. speed and drug use. Suicide and depression are high for males because men are less likely to communicate emotions, and more likely to hide feelings. Women seek help more often. Eating disorders for females are high because women are pressured to conform to unrealistic body images.
11 What factors affect our health? The determinants of health Biomedical factors – relate to the way the body works Lifestyle and behavioural factors Genetic factors Environmental factors physical environment social environment economic environment political background Education attitudes
12 Remembering the Determinants of Health B – biomedical factors A – attitudes, knowledge and beliefs G - genetics E – environmental and social factors L – lifestyle and behaviours
13 Biomedical factors how do they affect health? Biomedical factors High blood Glucose levels overweight High blood pressure High cholesterol levels
14 What are the lifestyle and behavioural factors that affect health? Lifestyle and Behavioural factors Add your own smoking Add your own
15 Exam question 3 a. Discuss the contribution of lifestyle and behaviour choices to burden of disease in Australia, as indicated in the graph above. (4 marks) b. Select an area of the National Health Priority Areas for Australia that is reflected by Statistics above. Outline a health promotion initiative that has focused on one of these risk factor areas. (6 marks)
16 answer plan 3a Which factors are lifestyle choices? Tobacco Physical inactivity Overweight and obesity Lack of fruit and veg Illicit drugs Occupation Unsafe sex There are two factors that are affected by lifestyle but are also Environmental. These are hypertension and high blood cholesterol
17 Answer plan 3a. Factors influencing Men more than women Tobacco Overweight obesity Lack of fruit and veg High blood cholesterol Illicit drugs Occupation Unsafe sex
18 Answer to exam question 3 a. Eight out of the ten risk factors are related to lifestyle choices. Hypertension and cholesterol are partly due to genetics. For men, drug use is markedly higher than for women, while females have higher risk from not exercising. b.NHPA areas include Cardiovascular health – an initiative would be the promotion of healthy foods in school canteens and sport participation in schools to reduce levels of obesity in children.
19 Groups who are at risk of ill health in Australia Indigenous and Torres Strait Islanders Socioeconomically disadvantaged Rural and Remote population groups Men and women
20 How to remember the four groups Jack and Jill (men and women) Went up the hill (rural and remote) To meet an aboriginal (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders) Jack fell down and lost his money and Jill came tumbling after (low socio economic/poor)
21 Tick the box Factors that influence Health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote population Indigenous Australians Males Smoking obesity Physical activity Lower Excessive drinking
22 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men and women stress Social isolation Despair Less likely to listen to health promotion messages
23 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men accidents Lower access to health care Lack of fresh food, higher cost of food Low income Fewer employment opportunities
24 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men and women Drought, floods and other environmental factors Poorer housing and living conditions discrimination Poor nutrition suicide
25 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men and women Risk takers Less health knowledge and less likely to adopt healthier lifestyle Less likely to seek medical advise
26 Nutrition status can be defined as the state of health of an individual or group in relation to their nutrient intake. Nutrition status is measured by:- Food consumption surveys: These measure food being consumed or available to be consumed Nutrition surveys- measure food and drink intake of a population and analyse the nutrient content Body mass index – measures the amount of body fat on a person
27 Nutrients required for hard and soft tissue, energy, blood and their food sources Put the information into a table so that you can look at the similarities and differences between the nutrients………………..
28 nutrientproteincalciumironwaterVit C Hard tissue nutrients Essential component of cells For hardening of bones Soft tissue nutrients Essential component of cells Connective tissue Nutrients required for blood Haemoglobin and red blood cells haemoglobinMajor component of blood Utilisation of iron for haemoglobin Nutrients required for energy Food sources Stage of the lifespan required
29 nutrientFolateCarbohydrates Simple/complex fatB group Vitamins B12 Hard tissue nutrients Soft tissue nutrients Development of genetic material in cells Cell membraes Nutrients required for blood Formation of red blood cells Nutrients required for energy Food sources Stage of the lifespan required
30 nutrientIodineVit AphosphorusVit D Hard tissue nutrients Soft tissue nutrients Nutrients required for blood Nutrients required for energy Food sources Stage of the lifespan required
31 Remembering nutrients Hard tissue Fine Dentists and chiro- A Vit A practors cuddle patients D Vit D C Vit C C Calcium P Protein P Phosphorus F flouride
32 Remembering nutrients Soft tissue Fat people carry frogs across water or Fat Funny Wet CAP Protein Vit C Water Folate Fats Vit A
33 Remembering nutrients Production ofBlood I can pick 12 wet frogs Iron Vitamin C Protein B12 Water Folate
34 Remembering nutrients Iron Water Carbohydrates Fats B group vitamins Protein I want cereal for brekky please
35 Exam question 5 Andrew, aged 17 has come to spend the year with his aunt and uncle in another city. His aunt is surprised by how much Andrew eats compared to her own son, Richard aged ten. a.Compare and contrast the nutrient requirements of Andrew and Richard (6 marks) b.Briefly outline what differences there might be in nutritional requirements for the two boys in 10 years time. (6 marks)
36 Answer plan for 5a Draw a Venn diagram showing the similarities and differences between the nutritional requirements for both boys. Answer plan for 5b What are the factors that influence energy requirements?
37 Answer for question 5. a)Changes in energy requirements in adolescence are due to: Growth spurt – body size, height, weight and high activity levels. b) Factors that influence energy requirements are: Gender – boys have higher BMR due to higher ratio of muscle to fat Growth – different rates between children Hormones – variation in hormones regulating metabolism Physical activity – variation in exercise levels State of Health – high energy use required to fight infection. Emotional well – being: stress levels affect energy use.
38 What is the role of nutrients in the following diseases:- Cardiovascular disease Obesity (not a disease but a condition) Type 2 diabetes Anaemia Dental caries Osteoporosis Colo-rectal cancer (colon cancer)
39 Match the nutrient with the disease Cardiovascular disease Anaemia Obesity Dental caries Osteoporosis Colo-rectal cancer (colon cancer) Type 2 diabetes Low Iron Saturated fats Low fibre Sugar Salt Low Calcium Lack of exercise