Presentation on theme: "FROM: FROM: Presented at the Regional Workshop on MAINSTREAMING AFRICA."— Presentation transcript:
FROM: http://www.sswm.infohttp://www.sswm.info FROM: http://designtaxi.comhttp://designtaxi.com Presented at the Regional Workshop on MAINSTREAMING AFRICA BIOENERGY POLICY FRAMEWORK AND GUIDELINES Organised by African Union and United Nations Economic Commission for Africa 16 – 18 September, Nairobi, KENYA Bioenergy Platforms and Technologies By Prof. Thomson Sinkala firstname.lastname@example.org CHAIRMAN, Biofuels Association of Zambia A powerful bioenergy feedstock from our body
CONTENTS Bioenergy production technologies Research, development, demonstration and deployment Institutional and technical capacity development Conclusions
Fuel wood Charcoal Agricultural waste Wood pellets Biogas Bioethanol (equivalent of gasoline) Biodiesel (equivalent of diesel), and Bioelectricity GENERAL ORGANISATION OF TECHNOLOGIES
A burden to carry Easy to harvest Strenuous to harvest Easy to transport A lot in store, few trips Little in store, many trips Clean cooking stove Unhealthy cooking Examples of Firewood Production Technologies and Use
Cost structure of charcoal Blantyre and Lilongwe FROM: Kambewa P. etal. 2007. Charcoal: the reality - A study of charcoal consumption, trade and production in Malawi. pubs.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/13544IIED.pdf. Based on the Malawi study, charcoal costs 6.0 to 10 US$/40 Kg bag (Malawi), or US$2,700/Ha for 15 tons of wood cleared. 6.0 to 10 US$/40 Kg bag (Malawi), or US$2,700/Ha for 15 tons of wood cleared. Pellets from wood shavings cost about 3.0 to 5 US$/40 Kg bag (Zambia, personal communications with Dr. Per Lofberg of Vagga till Vagga AB of Sweden) 3.0 to 5 US$/40 Kg bag (Zambia, personal communications with Dr. Per Lofberg of Vagga till Vagga AB of Sweden) Energy efficiency of selected cooking fuels Economics between charcoal and wood pellets
(FROM: http://www.google.co.zm/imgres?imgurl=)http://www.google.co.zm/imgres?imgurl= Example of Biogas Production
Agro/Bioenergy Production Synergies (FROM: biogas.ifas.ufl.edu)biogas.ifas.ufl.edu
(FROM: http://www.google.co.zm/imgres?imgurl=)http://www.google.co.zm/imgres?imgurl= Electricity Production from Biogas
Examples of Bioethanol Feedstocks + Grass and Wood
ITEMSUGARCANESWEET SORGHUMCASSAVAAGAVE AmericanaSUGAR BEET Feedstock unit cost0.3810.3840.15 – 0.470.5120.15 to 0.29 Yield, (Metric Tons/Ha)11020 - 10012 - 4080 60 to 80 Yield, (Litres/Metric Ton), fresh roots. 8045170125 110 Yield, (Litres/Ha/Harvest) 8,800900 – 4,5002,000 - 6,0003,600 - 12,000 4,800 – 10,000 Water Requirement, (mm/crop) 1500 - 2500450 to 700400 - 750500 600 Fertiliser Requirement, (Kg/Ha) 300 basal & 250 kg urea N 75-150 P 30-60, K 60-120. NPK N20:P10:K10, 9 (50 kg) bags (if necessary) 150 – 350 Kg Urea (if necessary) Gestation Period, (months) 12 - 144 – 4.312 - 1660 - 72 5 - 6 Rotation Crops Maize, sorghum, vegetables, legumes, rubber, oil palm, tropical sugarbeet (Gokhale, 2010). Corn, sorghum, vegetables, cassava (Gokhale, 2010) Examples of Immediate Revenue Diversification Food, Feed, Fiber, Biogas, Electricity, Fertilizer Food, Feeds, Fiber, Biogas, Starch, Electricity, Food, Feed, Fiber, Biogas, Electricity, Fertilizer Biogas, Electricity Remarks Can be stored as molasses. Harvested and processed s within a month. Stored as molasses. 10,000 – 15,000 plants per hectare, 80cm – 100cm spacing and rows. Can be processed from fresh roots or dry. Extensive experience in Mexico, but also Australia and USA recently. Must process fresh roots Bioethanol Feedstock Characteristics (Costs are for Zambia)
Bioethanol, bioelectricity and fertiliser (FROM: http://www.sseassociation.org/Publications/feasibilitystudyofsweetsorghum.pdf)http://www.sseassociation.org/Publications/feasibilitystudyofsweetsorghum.pdf
17 Liquefaction module Fermentation module Distillation module Dehydration module E.g. Mansego Modular Bioethanol Refinery Can be commissioned within 5 - 8 months. No need for large start-up capital. Can process multiple feedstocks. Minimum 500,000 L/year (1,670 L/day) bioethanol. Minimum 360,000 L/year (1,000 L/day) biodiesel. Modular Biorefineries and their Importance
Examples of Biodiesel Feedstocks Animal Fat, Waste Cooking Oil, Algae and Wood +
ITEMSOYPALMJATROPHAMORINGACASTORSUN FLOWER Feedstock unit cost, US$/Litre 0.4290.4260.4590.2900.5620.698 Yield, (Metric Tons /Ha) 3.515.86.03.01.02.0 Yield, (Litres/Metric Ton) 196230300400489398 Yield, (Litres/Ha)6864,8031,8001,200489796 Water Requirement, mm450 - 700 3 – 5mm per day during hot-dry season 500 - 600250 – 3000500-600600 -1000 Fertilizers Requirement, (Per Ha) 250 Basal, 100 Urea N170-230, P70-90, K220- 310 per Year 2.5 t Manure Appropriate amount of manure, when and if necessary N40,P40, K20 200 Basal, 150 Urea. Gestation Period, (months)4.5 to 524 – 3024 - 3612 - 244 - 64.2 to 4.5 Examples of Immediate Revenue Diversification Food, Feed Food, Electricity, Fodder, Building, Furniture Feed, Biogas, Electricity, Fertilizer Food, Feed, Biogas, Electricity, Fertilizer, Etc Fertilizer, Biogas Food, Feed, Biogas Remarks Currently experiencing high prices in the food market. When efficient, ONE worker can harvest 10- hectare (Fact Foundation, 2010) There is presently no “Cook Book” to give definite yields. Yields are currently location specific. Among the world’s most useful plants. A very important oil in high-tech industry as a lubricant. Biodiesel Feedstock Characteristics (Costs are for Zambia)
Biomass for Electricity Generation in Biodiesel Processing (SOURCE: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_bCNdcYdqloQ/S9jg4-iNsFI/AAAAAAAAAMA/E7jJT3RVEfQ/s1600/palmtree-biomass.jpg)http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_bCNdcYdqloQ/S9jg4-iNsFI/AAAAAAAAAMA/E7jJT3RVEfQ/s1600/palmtree-biomass.jpg
(SOURCE: http://www.mpoweruk.com/biofuels.htm)http://www.mpoweruk.com/biofuels.htm Electricity Generation from Biomass
Range in recent levelized cost of energy for selected commercially available renewable-energy technologies 24 FROM: www.unep.org/greeneconomywww.unep.org/greeneconomy
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, DEMONSTRATION AND DEPLOYMENT 25
26 Bioenergy Value Chain 1. PRELIMINARY ACTIVITIES 2. PRODUCTION INFRASTRUCTURE 3. FEEDSTOCK PRODUCTION and TRADE 4. BIOFUELS PROCESSING 5. BIOFUELS TECHNICAL SERVICE ACTIVITIES OTHER SERVICES Business Plans Sourcing funds Land acquisitions / lease contracts Impact assessments Obtaining permits and licences Securing markets Setting-up of bioenergy industry governance Technology assessments Etc Drilling boreholes Building dams and canals Assessing soils Building access roads and bridges Building houses and offices Building processing plants Etc,. Land clearance Land preparations Nurseries Plantation development Plantation management Weed and pest control Feedstock harvesting Feedstock trading Etc. Cassava peeling, chipping and drying Seed cleaning and packaging Oil extraction Molasses production Processing and refining of biofuels Byproducts production. Biofuels transportation Byproduct transportation Biofuels blending Biofuels transportation Engine conversion Importation of biofuels compliant vehicles and appliances Manufacturing of inputs and processing plants for the biofuels value chain Biofuels R&D Training in biofuels industry Biofuels quality control assessments Biofuels plant repair Development of appropriate cookstoves Etc. Education Health Recreation Etc Activities include identifying and addressing the challenges for sustainable bioenergy production through good industry governance, field trials, applied research, capacity building, modeling and analysis.
Feedstock for Wood, Charcoal and Pellets EXAMPLES OF RESEARCH AREAS Fast-growing and water-efficient forest plants Sustainable wood harvest Efficient/cost-effective forest management Incorruptible forestry governance and licensing
General Research, Development, Demonstration and Deployment FEEDSTOCK SUPPLY Identify sustainable, high- quality feedstock supply and quantify risk Baseline sustainable regional feedstock productivity Develop commercial-scale supply systems CONVERSION Reduce costs/improve quality of intermediates Reduce enzyme costs Develop fermentation organisms Enable high performance separations technologies Improve catalyst performance– cleanup/ conditioning and fuel synthesis Maximize carbon utilization Optimize reactor performance DEMONSTRATION & DEPLOYMENT Validate biorefinery operations Establish pioneer plants Support advanced biofuels compatibility testing Support biopower demonstration and deployment Cross-cutting areas SUSTAINABILITY Assess effects across full supply chain Establish baselines and targets for improving sustainability Develop best practices STRATEGIC ANALYSIS Define and validate technology performance targets Guide program planning Assess progress STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS Increase awareness of accomplishments Communicate new technology strategies Educate stakeholders on environmental and oil-displacement benefits (FROM: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov)http://apps1.eere.energy.gov
Feedstock Supply and Logistics Feedstock constitutes about 70% of final bioenergy product. Providing biomass for conversion into biofuels represents an economic opportunity for communities across Africa. This requires developing the technologies and systems needed to sustainably and economically deliver a broad range of biomass in formats that enable efficient use in biorefineries.
Feedstock Supply and Logistics (continued) The diverse biomass transformed by these technologies and systems must be consistent, quality-controlled commodity products that can be efficiently handled, stored, and transported to biorefineries for processing. This work requires a complementary focus on feedstock supply interfaces and logistics, as follows (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov).http://apps1.eere.energy.gov Interfaces: To develop compatibility at interfaces with commercial-scale handling equipment and conversion processes, R&D should explore biomass specifications and characteristics, the effects of various handling techniques, and the resulting impacts on conversion performance. Logistics: R&D is required for systems for harvesting, collecting, preprocessing, storing, and transporting diverse forms of biomass more efficiently. Therefore it is important to also research and develop equipment and systems to improve biomass quality, reduce costs, and increase productivity.
INSTITUTIONAL AND TECHNICAL CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT 32
INSTITUTIONAL AND TECHNICAL CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT Government Policies, regulations and standards Governance Information on value for investment (e.g. balance sheet approach) Etc Industry Feedstocks Technologies Production efficiencies Etc
Public / consumers Consumer information Value chain information Products Standards Etc Universities / Educational Institutions Mainstreaming bioenergy in curricula Research, development and demonstration Etc
NGOs Community needs and information Bioenergy industry participatory methods Community resource management Land rights Gender issues Etc RECs Identifying and providing info on best practices in bioenergy development Capacity building in cross-border bioenergy issues Etc
37 Africa has resources (material and human), but lacks productive action. Available technologies can be used to establish a vibrant bioenergy industry in Africa. Bioenergy is (probably) the only industry that can benefit all on sustainable basis. Economic empowerment from bioenergy industry, if well organised, can reduce conflicts and save the environment.