Presentation on theme: "Year 12 exam questions Organise your notes, summarise into dot points or mind maps, revise and then attempt the exam questions…"— Presentation transcript:
1Year 12 exam questionsOrganise your notes, summarise into dot points or mind maps, revise and then attempt the exam questions…
2Short cuts to remembering Measurements of health status:Mum doesn’t like ice-cream, mum buys healthy yogo pops instead.
3Groups at risk of ill health Jack and Jill went up the hill to meet an aboriginal. Jack fell down and lost his money and Jill came tumbling after.Remember the social determinants of health:
4Factors that influence health Social determinants FUSS and WASTESFoodUnemploymentSocioeconomic statusSocial exclusion
5Fuss and Wastes Work Addiction Stress Transport Early life experiences Social support
6How do we measure health? Measurements of health statusWhat is healthHealth statusMortality ratesLife expectancyHealthy life expectancyYears of life lostMorbidity dataPrevalenceIncidenceBurden of diseaseDalysInfant MortalityU5M
10Answer plan question 1a and1b Draw a Venn diagram to show the differences between males and females on the graph.Why do more males than females suffer from some diseases?Why do more females than males suffer from some diseases?
11Answer to question 1aMales- high incidence of injury, e.g. traffic accidents, suicide, drug abuse, e.g alcohol and heroin. Also high in mental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia.Females – high incidence in depression, social phobia and eating disorders
12Answer to question1bRoad traffic accidents are high for males because of their risk taking behaviour, eg. speed and drug use.Suicide and depression are high for males because men are less likely to communicate emotions, and more likely to hide feelings. Women seek help more often.Eating disorders for females are high because women are pressured to conform to unrealistic body images.
13What factors affect our health? The determinants of healthBiomedical factors – relate to the way the body worksLifestyle and behavioural factorsGenetic factorsEnvironmental factorsphysical environmentsocial environmenteconomic environmentpolitical backgroundEducationattitudes
17Reading the graph This graph is difficult to interpret. Circulatory diseases and cancers are on the same line
18Answer question 2aThe proportion of deaths from infectious diseases decreased this century, while circulatory diseases and cancers account for most of the deaths in males. Respiratory diseases and injuries have maintained a fairly constant contribution to the death rate.
19Answer Question 2bReduction in infectious diseases due to improved sanitation,medication,technology and vaccination.There has been an increase in diagnosis of circulatory diseases and cancers. Other causes include suicide and accidents.
20Exam question 3a. Discuss the contribution of lifestyle and behaviour choices to burden of disease inAustralia, as indicated in the graph above. (4 marks)b. Select an area of the National Health Priority Areas for Australia that is reflected byStatistics above. Outline a health promotion initiative that has focused on one of theserisk factor areas. (6 marks)
23Answer to exam question 3 a. Eight out of the ten risk factors are related to lifestyle choices. Hypertension and cholesterol are partly due to genetics.For men, drug use is markedly higher than for women, while females have higher risk from not exercising.b.NHPA areas include Cardiovascular health – an initiative would be the promotion of healthy foods in school canteens and sport participation in schools to reduce levels of obesity in children.
24Groups who are at risk of ill health in Australia Indigenous AustraliansSocioeconomically disadvantagedRural and Remote population groupsMen and women
25How to remember the four groups Jack and Jill (men and women)Went up the hill (rural and remote)Can you think of an ending that will include indigenous and socio-economically disadvantaged groups?
27Tick the box Factors that influence Health Socio-economically disadvantaged groupsRural and remotepopulationIndigenous AustraliansMen and womenSmokingobesityPhysical activityLowerExcessive drinking
28Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groupsRural and remote populationsIndigenous AustraliansMen and womenstressSocial isolationDespairLess likely to listen to health promotion messages
29Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groupsRural and remote populationsIndigenous AustraliansMen and womenaccidentsLower access to health careLack of fresh food, higher cost of foodLow incomeFewer employment opportunities
30Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groupsRural and remote populationsIndigenous AustraliansMen and womenDrought, floods and other environmental factorsPoorer housing and living conditionsdiscriminationPoor nutritionsuicide
31Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groupsRural and remote populationsIndigenous AustraliansMen and womenRisk takersLess health knowledge and less likely to adopt healthier lifestyleLess likely to seek medical advise
33Answer to exam question 4 Income affects money available to spend on food, medical services, housing, basic services, e.g. water and heating. Unemployment affects income, and may affect self-esteem and mental health. Education levels affect occupation choices, and knowledge of health and how to access health services.b. There is a general trend for young people with highest disadvantage to report their health status as only fair or poor. This trend relates to men more than women.
34Nutrition status can be defined as the state of health of an individual or group in relation to their nutrient intake. Nutrition status is measured by:-Food consumption surveys- Measure food being consumed or available to be consumedNutrition surveys- measure food and drink intake of a population and analyse the nutrient contentBody mass index – measures the amount of body fat on a person
35Nutrients required for hard and soft tissue, energy, blood and their food sources Put the information into a table so that you can look at the similarities and differences between the nutrients………………..
36nutrientproteincalciumironwaterVit CHard tissuenutrientsEssential component of cellsFor hardening of bonesSoft tissue nutrientsConnective tissueNutrients required for bloodHaemoglobin and red blood cellshaemoglobinMajor component of bloodUtilisation of iron for haemoglobinNutrients required for energyFood sourcesStage of the lifespan required
37nutrientFolateCarbohydratesSimple/complexfatB group VitaminsB12Hard tissuenutrientsSoft tissue nutrientsDevelopment of genetic material in cellsCell membraesNutrients required for bloodFormation of red blood cellsNutrients required for energyFood sourcesStage of the lifespan required
38nutrientIodineVit AphosphorusVit DHard tissuenutrientsSoft tissue nutrientsNutrients required for bloodNutrients required for energyFood sourcesStage of the lifespan required
39Remembering nutrients Hard tissue Fine Dentists and chiroA Vit A practors cuddle patientsD Vit DC Vit CC CalciumP ProteinP PhosphorusF flouride
40Remembering nutrients Soft tissue Fat funny people carry angry watermelonsProteinC Vit CWaterFolateFatsA Vit A
41Remembering nutrients Blood I can pick 12 wet frogsCPIB12FW
42Remembering nutrients CFPBII want cereal for brekky please
43Exam question 5Andrew, aged 17 has come to spend the year with his aunt and uncle in another city. His aunt is surprised by how much Andrew eats compared to her own son, Richard aged ten.Compare and contrast the nutrient requirements of Andrew and Richard (6 marks)Briefly outline what differences there might bein nutritional requirements for the two boys in 10 years time. (6 marks)
44Answer plan for 5aDraw a Venn diagram showing the similarities and differences between the nutritional requirements for both boys.Answer plan for 5bWhat are the factors that influence energy requirements?
45Answer for question 5.Changes in energy requirements in adolescence are due to:Growth spurt – body size, height, weight and high activitylevels.b) Factors that influence energy requirements are:Gender – boys have higher BMR due to higher ratio of muscle to fatGrowth – different rates between childrenHormones – variation in hormones regulating metabolismPhysical activity – variation in exercise levelsState of Health – high energy use required to fightinfection.Emotional well – being: stress levels affect energy use.
46What is the role of nutrients in the following diseases:- Cardiovascular diseaseObesity (not a disease but a condition)Type 2 diabetesAnaemiaDental cariesOsteoporosisColo-rectal cancer (colon cancer)
47Match the nutrient with the disease Cardiovascular diseaseAnaemiaObesityDental cariesOsteoporosisColo-rectal cancer (colon cancer)Type 2 diabetesLow IronSaturated fatsLow fibreSugarSaltLow CalciumLack of exercise