Presentation on theme: "1 Year 12 exam questions Organise your notes, summarise into dot points or mind maps, revise and then attempt the exam questions…"— Presentation transcript:
1 Year 12 exam questions Organise your notes, summarise into dot points or mind maps, revise and then attempt the exam questions…
2 Short cuts to remembering Measurements of health status: Mum doesnt like ice-cream, mum buys healthy yogo pops instead.
3 Groups at risk of ill health Jack and Jill went up the hill to meet an aboriginal. Jack fell down and lost his money and Jill came tumbling after. Remember the social determinants of health:
Factors that influence health Social determinants FUSS and WASTES Food Unemployment Socioeconomic status Social exclusion 4
Fuss and Wastes Work Addiction Stress Transport Early life experiences Social support 5
6 How do we measure health? Measurements of health status What is health Health status Mortality rates Life expectancy Healthy life expectancy Years of life lost Morbidity data Prevalence Incidence Burden of disease Dalys Infant Mortality U5M
7 Health status – how do we measure health? Who definition
8 Definitions of health measurements Mortality rates Life expectancy Healthy life expectancy U5MYears of life lost Morbidity data prevalenceincidenceBurden of disease
9 Exam question1
10 Answer plan question 1a and1b Draw a Venn diagram to show the differences between males and females on the graph. Why do more males than females suffer from some diseases? Why do more females than males suffer from some diseases?
11 Answer to question 1a Males- high incidence of injury, e.g. traffic accidents, suicide, drug abuse, e.g alcohol and heroin. Also high in mental disorders, e.g. schizophrenia. Females – high incidence in depression, social phobia and eating disorders
12 Answer to question1b Road traffic accidents are high for males because of their risk taking behaviour, eg. speed and drug use. Suicide and depression are high for males because men are less likely to communicate emotions, and more likely to hide feelings. Women seek help more often. Eating disorders for females are high because women are pressured to conform to unrealistic body images.
13 What factors affect our health? The determinants of health Biomedical factors – relate to the way the body works Lifestyle and behavioural factors Genetic factors Environmental factors physical environment social environment economic environment political background Education attitudes
14 Biomedical factors how do they affect health? Biomedical factors High blood Glucose levels overweight High blood pressure High cholesterol levels
15 What are the lifestyle and behavioural factors that affect health? Lifestyle and Behavioural factors Add your own smoking Add your own
16 Exam question 2
17 Reading the graph This graph is difficult to interpret. Circulatory diseases and cancers are on the same line
18 Answer question 2a The proportion of deaths from infectious diseases decreased this century, while circulatory diseases and cancers account for most of the deaths in males. Respiratory diseases and injuries have maintained a fairly constant contribution to the death rate.
19 Answer Question 2b Reduction in infectious diseases due to improved sanitation,medication,technology and vaccination.There has been an increase in diagnosis of circulatory diseases and cancers. Other causes include suicide and accidents.
20 Exam question 3 a. Discuss the contribution of lifestyle and behaviour choices to burden of disease in Australia, as indicated in the graph above. (4 marks) b. Select an area of the National Health Priority Areas for Australia that is reflected by Statistics above. Outline a health promotion initiative that has focused on one of these risk factor areas. (6 marks)
21 answer plan 3a Which factors are lifestyle choices? Tobacco Physical inactivity Overweight and obesity Lack of fruit and veg Illicit drugs Occupation Unsafe sex There are two factors that are affected by lifestyle but are also Environmental. These are hypertension and high blood cholesterol
22 Answer plan 3a. Factors influencing Men more than women Tobacco Overweight obesity Lack of fruit and veg High blood cholesterol Illicit drugs Occupation Unsafe sex
23 Answer to exam question 3 a. Eight out of the ten risk factors are related to lifestyle choices. Hypertension and cholesterol are partly due to genetics. For men, drug use is markedly higher than for women, while females have higher risk from not exercising. b.NHPA areas include Cardiovascular health – an initiative would be the promotion of healthy foods in school canteens and sport participation in schools to reduce levels of obesity in children.
24 Groups who are at risk of ill health in Australia Indigenous Australians Socioeconomically disadvantaged Rural and Remote population groups Men and women
25 How to remember the four groups Jack and Jill (men and women) Went up the hill (rural and remote) Can you think of an ending that will include indigenous and socio-economically disadvantaged groups?
26 Exam question 4
27 Tick the box Factors that influence Health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote population Indigenous Australians Men and women Smoking obesity Physical activity Lower Excessive drinking
28 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men and women stress Social isolation Despair Less likely to listen to health promotion messages
29 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men and women accidents Lower access to health care Lack of fresh food, higher cost of food Low income Fewer employment opportunities
30 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men and women Drought, floods and other environmental factors Poorer housing and living conditions discrimination Poor nutrition suicide
31 Factors that influence health Socio-economically disadvantaged groups Rural and remote populations Indigenous Australians Men and women Risk takers Less health knowledge and less likely to adopt healthier lifestyle Less likely to seek medical advise
32 Answer plan question 4a Low income Unemployment Education levels affect health through:- Less money to buy food depressionYour answer
33 Answer to exam question 4 a.Income affects money available to spend on food, medical services, housing, basic services, e.g. water and heating. Unemployment affects income, and may affect self-esteem and mental health. Education levels affect occupation choices, and knowledge of health and how to access health services. b. There is a general trend for young people with highest disadvantage to report their health status as only fair or poor. This trend relates to men more than women.
34 Nutrition status can be defined as the state of health of an individual or group in relation to their nutrient intake. Nutrition status is measured by:- Food consumption surveys- Measure food being consumed or available to be consumed Nutrition surveys- measure food and drink intake of a population and analyse the nutrient content Body mass index – measures the amount of body fat on a person
35 Nutrients required for hard and soft tissue, energy, blood and their food sources Put the information into a table so that you can look at the similarities and differences between the nutrients………………..
36 nutrientproteincalciumironwaterVit C Hard tissue nutrients Essential component of cells For hardening of bones Soft tissue nutrients Essential component of cells Connective tissue Nutrients required for blood Haemoglobin and red blood cells haemoglobinMajor component of blood Utilisation of iron for haemoglobin Nutrients required for energy Food sources Stage of the lifespan required
37 nutrientFolateCarbohydrates Simple/complex fatB group Vitamins B12 Hard tissue nutrients Soft tissue nutrients Development of genetic material in cells Cell membraes Nutrients required for blood Formation of red blood cells Nutrients required for energy Food sources Stage of the lifespan required
38 nutrientIodineVit AphosphorusVit D Hard tissue nutrients Soft tissue nutrients Nutrients required for blood Nutrients required for energy Food sources Stage of the lifespan required
39 Remembering nutrients Hard tissue Fine Dentists and chiro A Vit A practors cuddle patients D Vit D C Vit C C Calcium P Protein P Phosphorus F flouride
40 Remembering nutrients Soft tissue Fat funny people carry angry watermelons Protein C Vit C Water Folate Fats A Vit A
41 Remembering nutrients Blood I can pick 12 wet frogs C P I B12 F W
42 Remembering nutrients C F P B I I want cereal for brekky please
43 Exam question 5 Andrew, aged 17 has come to spend the year with his aunt and uncle in another city. His aunt is surprised by how much Andrew eats compared to her own son, Richard aged ten. a.Compare and contrast the nutrient requirements of Andrew and Richard (6 marks) b.Briefly outline what differences there might be in nutritional requirements for the two boys in 10 years time. (6 marks)
44 Answer plan for 5a Draw a Venn diagram showing the similarities and differences between the nutritional requirements for both boys. Answer plan for 5b What are the factors that influence energy requirements?
45 Answer for question 5. a)Changes in energy requirements in adolescence are due to: Growth spurt – body size, height, weight and high activity levels. b) Factors that influence energy requirements are: Gender – boys have higher BMR due to higher ratio of muscle to fat Growth – different rates between children Hormones – variation in hormones regulating metabolism Physical activity – variation in exercise levels State of Health – high energy use required to fight infection. Emotional well – being: stress levels affect energy use.
46 What is the role of nutrients in the following diseases:- Cardiovascular disease Obesity (not a disease but a condition) Type 2 diabetes Anaemia Dental caries Osteoporosis Colo-rectal cancer (colon cancer)
47 Match the nutrient with the disease Cardiovascular disease Anaemia Obesity Dental caries Osteoporosis Colo-rectal cancer (colon cancer) Type 2 diabetes Low Iron Saturated fats Low fibre Sugar Salt Low Calcium Lack of exercise