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Presentation on theme: "INTRODUCTION TO CLEANER PRODUCTION (CP) CONCEPTS AND PRACTICE"— Presentation transcript:

Prepared by the Institute of Environmental Engineering (APINI) Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania For UNEP, Division of Technology, Industry, and Economics

2 Contents 1. How did environmental strategies evolve? 2. What is CP?
3. How CP is applied in practice: CP practices Benefits and barriers Procedures 4. What is CP contribution to main stakeholders? Governments Financial institutions

3 Course Objective At the completion of this course the participants will have understanding of : Evolution of environmental strategies, concept of sustainable development Basic concepts of preventive environmental approaches Methodology of CP implementation in industrial enterprises How to develop and implement CP project

4 Passive environmental strategies
Dilute & disperse

5 Reactive environmental strategies
end-of-pipe approaches

6 Reactive environmental strategies
On - site recycling

7 Proactive environmental strategies: Cleaner Production
Prevention of Waste generation: Good housekeeping Input substitution Better process control Equipment modification Technology change On-site recovery/reuse Production of a useful by-product Product modification

8 What is waste? There are literally hundreds words for different types of waste: allowance BOD broke contaminated solids core loss customer returns damage draining dust effluent evaporation furnace loss greenhouse loss hidden losses leakage non-conforming material overfill packaging process loss rework second quality stock loss washings and etc.

9 !!! Waste is waste what ever you call it : take the opportunity to cut waste and increase profits!

10 Cleaner Production Financing
The “Cost of Waste” Iceberg Treatment & Disposal Regulatory Compliance THE HIDDEN COST OF WASTE Materials, Energy, Lost Raw Labor Company Image Liability Adapted from: Bierma, TJ., F.L. Waterstaraat, and J. Ostrosky “Chapter 13: Shared Savings and Environmental Management Accounting,” from The Green Bottom Line. Greenleaf Publishing:England.

11 Where are you now? Only a change in technology would eliminate waste completely We are optimising our processes and achieving big cost reductions Waste is coming down as we change the way we work We have identified our waste and monitoring it We plan to reduce waste Waste is cost and regulatory issue Waste is only disposal issue Waste is not an issue

12 Cleaner Production Definition
“The continuous application of an integrated preventive environmental strategy applied to processes, products, and services to increase overall efficiency and reduce risks to humans and the environment.” (United Nations Environment Programme)

13 Cleaner Production Definition
Continuous Products Processes Humans Preventive STRATEGY for Risk Reduction Integrated Services Environment

14 Properly implemented CP :
always reduces long-term liabilities which companies can face many years after pollution has been generated or disposed at a given site

15 Properly implemented CP :
usually increases profitability lowers production costs enhances productivity provides a rapid return on any capital or operating investments required increases product yield leads to the more efficient use of energy and raw materials

16 Properly implemented CP :
usually (continuation) results in improved product quality increases staff motivation relies on active worker participation in idea generation and implementation reduces consumer risks reduces the risk of environmental accidents is supported by employees, local communities, customers and the public

17 Properly implemented CP :
often avoids regulatory compliance costs leads to insurance savings provides enhanced access to capital from financial institutions and lenders is fast and easy to implement requires little capital investment

18 Cleaner Production principles
precaution principle preventive principle integration principle

19 How CP could be applied in practice?

20 Cleaner Production practices
1. Good housekeeping take appropriate managerial and operational actions to prevent: - leaks - spills - to enforce existing operational instructions

21 Cleaner Production practices
2. Input substitution substitute input materials - by less toxic - or by renewable materials - or by adjunct materials which have a longer service life-time in production

22 Cleaner Production practices
3. Better process control modify: operational procedures equipment instructions and process record keeping in order to run the processes more efficiently and at lower waste and emission generation rates

23 Cleaner Production practices
4. Equipment modification modify the existing production equipment and utilities in order: run the processes at higher efficiency lower waste and emission generation rates

24 Cleaner Production practices
5. Technology change replacement of: the technology processing sequence synthesis pathway in order to minimise waste and emission generation during production

25 Cleaner Production practices
6. On-site recovery/reuse - reuse of the wasted materials in the same process for another useful application within the company

26 Cleaner Production practices
7. Production of a useful by- product consider transforming waste into a useful by-product, to be sold as input for companies in different business sectors.

27 Cleaner Production practices
8. Product modification modify the product characteristics in order: to minimise the environmental impacts of the product during or after its use (disposal) to minimise the environmental impacts of its production

28 CP versus End-of-Pipe approach
Cleaner Production Continuous improvement Progress towards use of closed loop or continuous cycle processes Everyone in the community has a role to play; partnerships are essential Active anticipation and avoidance of pollution and waste Elimination of environmental problems at their source Involves new practices, attitudes and management techniques and stimulates technical advances Pollution Control and Waste Management One-off solutions to individual problems Processes result in waste materials for disposal a pipeline with resources in and wastes out Solutions are developed by experts often in isolation Reactive responses to pollution and waste after they are created Pollutants are controlled by waste treatment equipment and methods Relies mainly on technical improvements to existing technologies

29 What is not CP? Off-site recycling Transferring hazardous wastes
Waste treatment Concentrating hazardous or toxic constituents to reduce volume Diluting constituents to reduce hazard or toxicity

30 What are the benefits of Cleaner Production?
Improving environmental situation Continuous environmental improvement Increasing economical benefits Gaining competitive advantage Increasing productivity

31 CP barriers Internal to the companies:
- Lack of information and expertise - Low environmental awareness - Competing business priorities, in particular, the pressure for a short term profits - Financial obstacles - Lack of communication in firms - Middle management inertia - Labour force obstacles Internal to the companies:

32 CP barriers External to the companies:
-Difficulty in accessing cleaner technologies -Difficulty in accessing external finance The failure of existing regulatory approaches

33 CP motivators and drivers
Internal to the companies: - Improvements in productivity and competitiveness - Environmental management systems and continuous improvement - Environmental leadership - Corporate environmental reports - Environmental accounting

34 CP motivators and drivers
External to the companies: - Innovative regulation - Economic incentives - Education and training - Buyer – supplier relations - Soft loans from Financial institutions - Community involvement - International trade incentives

35 The role of international organizations in CP development
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) United Nations Industrial Development Organisation (UNIDO) Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) Development Finance Institutions (DFIs)

36 Team for CP success Managers, engineers and finance people in industry and commerce, in particular those responsible for business strategy, product development, plant operations and finance Government officials, both central and regional, who play an important role in promoting CP Media representatives who play an important role in disseminating information on good environmental practice

37 Cleaner Production procedures
The recognized need to minimise waste Planning and Organization The first step Assessment Phase The second step Feasibility Analysis Phase The third step Implementation The fourth step Successfully implemented CP projects

38 1. Planning & Organization
Obtain management commitment Identify potential barriers and solutions Set plant-wide goals Organize a project team

39 2. Assessment Identify sources Identify waste/ pollution causes
Generate possible options

40 Material and energy balances
The Industrial Process Heat Power The Energy Balance Cooling Raw Materials Products & Waste The Mass Balance

41 Why are material and energy balances so important?
The material and energy balances are not only used to identify the inputs and outputs of mass and energy but their economic significance is related to costs, such as: cost of raw material in waste cost of final product in waste cost of energy losses cost of handling waste cost of transporting waste cost of solid wastes disposal cost of pollution charges and penalties

42 Possible causes for waste generation
Process Management Planning & Information Systems Personnel Skills & Motivation Wastes & Emissions Choice & Quality of Input Materials Technical Status of Equipment Choice of Production Technology Efficiency Product Specifications

43 Option generation (1) Creative Problem Solving (CPS):
Find facts Identify the problem Generate ideas to solve the problems Define criteria to be used to select solutions/ideas Screening of ideas / options: Select all ideas/options that may be implemented immediately The remaining options/ideas should then be divided into three boxes: Good housekeeping Interesting options but more analysis is needed Waiting box + Rejected Weighted sum method to prioritise options in second group: What are the main benefits to be gained by implementing this option? Does the necessary technology exist to implement the option? How much does it cost? Does it appear to be cost effective, meriting in depth economic feasibility assessment? Can the option be implemented within a reasonable timeframe without disrupting production?

44 Option generation (2) Traditional brainstorming
Formulate problem (problem identification) Define objective of the brainstorming session Follow the rules of brainstorming: Select a secretary to write down all ideas (The secretary can't take part in the idea generation) Select a group leader (the group leader shall control that the four main rules are followed) Close the idea generation after minutes

45 CP assessment practices
Process On-site Recovery/ Reuse Production of Useful By-Product Product Modification Equipment Input Substitution Good Housekeeping Technology Change Better Process Control

46 3. Feasibility Studies Preliminary evaluation Technical evaluation
Economic evaluation Environmental evaluation Selection of feasible options

47 Annual operating cost savings
Payback Period Capital investment Annual operating cost savings Payback period = _____________________________ - period of time (years) needed to generate enough cash flow to recover the initial investment

48 4. Implementation & Continuation
Prepare a CP plan Implement feasible CP measures Monitor CP progress Sustain Cleaner Production

49 CP attacks the problem at several levels at once
CP attacks the problem at several levels at once. The implementation of an industry/plant level programme requires, the commitment of top management a systematic approach to CP in all aspects of the production processes

50 CP management system Marketing Top management commitment
Pre-assessment CP policy declaration The continuous CP loop Assessment Start CP project Project organization CP options Feasibility analysis Assessment report Project implementation Measure progress Final report Top Management reviews CP management system

51 CP and main stakeholders

52 How can governments promote CP?
Applying regulations Using economic instruments Providing support measures Obtaining external assistance

53 CP applicability for local governments
Corporate decision-making Local environmental management strategies Community and industry partnerships Sustainable economic development Public environmental education Specific local environmental problems Local environmental monitoring

54 CP and financial institutions
Environmental evaluation can help: Establish an exclusion list Identify environmental risks in every project Understand the financial institution’s exposure to environmental risks and liabilities Monitor the environmental risks of transactions and respond Evaluate risks and liabilities in foreclosure or re-structuring activities

55 What are the benefits of Cleaner Production?
Financial advantages: Usually a short Payback Period of only months Many low-cost options Quick to implement Improved cash flows Greater shareholder value Better access to capital and appeal to financial institutions Inherent preventive approach leads to insurance savings


57 Main factors affecting exposure to environmentally-derived risks
The nature of environmental risks inherent in business activity of the client The size and term of, and the security for, the transaction The client’s ability and commitment to adequately manage these risks

58 If a CP project is presented to a financial institution, it should be clear that the company already undertook voluntary actions aimed at: rationalising the use of raw materials, water and energy inputs, reducing the loss of valuable material inputs and therefore reducing operational costs reducing the volume and/or toxicity of waste, wastewater and emissions related to production improving working conditions and occupational safety in a company making organisational improvements improving environmental performance by the implementation of no-cost and low-cost measures from the company’s funds reusing and/or recycling the maximum of primary inputs and packaging materials

59 Environmental investment opportunities
loans to enterprises to finance required or desired investments in technologies resulting in direct and indirect environmental benefits loans to municipalities to finance investments in environmental infrastructure loan guarantees to both enterprises and municipalities for “soft” credits from national or regional environmental funds for environmental investments loans to finance businesses providing environmental goods and services

60 What have we learned? The CP approach reduces pollutant generation at every stage of the production process CP can be achieved through: good operating practices process modification technology changes raw material substitution redesign and/or reformulation of product The economic advantages of CP are: cost effectiveness increased process efficiency improved product quality and enterprise competitiveness cost of final treatment and disposal is minimised Effluent treatment, incineration, and waste recycling outside the production process are not regarded as CP

61 Broader Application of CP
CP is closely linked to: Environmental Management Systems Total Quality Management Health and Safety Management

62 Cleaner Production and Sustainable Development
Responsible Entrepreneurship Eco-efficiency Cleaner Production Compliance Government Agenda Business Agenda ICC Charter EMS EHS Auditing Sustainable development Agenda 21 Factor X Environmental space Time Sustainability Economic Instruments Co-regulatory agreements Command & control

63 !!! CP is a journey not a destination

64 “An understanding of the business value to be gained from efficient use of natural resources is an important first step toward sustainability: toward building a world in which resources are managed to meet the needs of all people now and in the future.” (J. Lash, President of the World Resources Institute)


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