Definition of Management 'the technique, practice, or science of managing or controlling'
Areas of Management General management of the organisation Marketing Finance Production or Service Personnel/Human Resources Others (such as Research & Development)
Management Pioneers F W Taylor - Scientific Management Max Weber - academic approach to managing organisations. Henri Fayol - listed 5 specific management operations L F Urwick; whose list of 7 processes are now among the most commonly accepted basic management processes.
The Management Processes Forecasting Planning Organising Motivating Controlling Co ‑ ordinating Communicating
Planning Assumes alternative courses of action are available Selection of the best course of action for the conditions which exist Planning must take into account feedback data from previous plans
When planning is complete it should be possible to see: The total job to be done The total resources available.
Organising Comprises of: Defining and distributing the responsibilities and duties of various personnel in the organisation. Recording types of formal relationships that exist between personnel; the pattern of accountability and paths of communication. The formulation and installation of standard procedures, preferred methods of working and operating instructions.
Motivating This is essentially a social process involving the functions of cultivating morale, inspiring loyalty and producing a climate conducive to the fulfilment of the tasks to be undertaken
People are an organisation's most valuable asset The workforce must have the necessary enthusiasm to work and fulfil the organisations plans Motivators need to be designed to satisfy the needs of the work force and the organisation; either directly or indirectly.
Needs can be divided into: Economic ‑ Wages, job-security and job- continuity, pensions, and future prospects. Social ‑ The work environment, relationship with other employees or supervisors, acceptance. Creative ‑ Achievement, job satisfaction.
Controlling The object of control is to check current achievements against predetermined targets, and adjust deployment of resources to attain desired objectives.
A good control system should establish: Realistic standards in terms of output, cost and quality. A good system of measuring and checking current performance against plans, goals and objectives. Action to be taken quickly by someone with the necessary authority. It should concentrate on essentials, be economical, comprehensive, timely, and acceptable within the organisation.
Co-ordination Co-ordination is the bringing together of people and the activities they perform, in order to achieve maximum efficiency and harmony. It is an essential product of the organising function and must be achieved throughout the structure of the organisation.
Communicating Communication is a common factor that links the other processes, allowing them to function effectively. It involves the passing on of plans and instructions from executives to supervisors, the co ‑ ordination of activities, the control of operations by supervisors, and the feedback of results.
It should: Be a two way process Provide a medium for the circulation of knowledge, ideas, decisions and reactions, Permit the free expression of suggestions at all levels of the enterprise Be concise, unambiguous and clearly understood
Exercise Discuss the importance of management and the processes that are involved.