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3442 Industrial Instruments 2 Chapter 8 Discrete-State Process Control Dr. Bassam Kahhaleh Princess Sumaya Univ. Electronic Engineering Dept.

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Presentation on theme: "3442 Industrial Instruments 2 Chapter 8 Discrete-State Process Control Dr. Bassam Kahhaleh Princess Sumaya Univ. Electronic Engineering Dept."— Presentation transcript:

1 3442 Industrial Instruments 2 Chapter 8 Discrete-State Process Control Dr. Bassam Kahhaleh Princess Sumaya Univ. Electronic Engineering Dept.

2 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 22 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Definitions The discrete state of the process at any moment is the set of all input and output values. An event in the system is defined by a particular state of the system, i.e. particular values of inputs and outputs. A discrete-state process control is a particular sequence of events through which the process accomplishes some objective

3 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 23 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Example Frost-free refrigerator/freezer Discrete-state I/P  Door open/closed  Cooler temp. high/low  Freezer temp. high/low  Power switch on/off  Frost detector on/off  Frost eliminator timer out/not out

4 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 24 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Example Frost-free refrigerator/freezer Discrete-state O/P  Light on/off  Compressor on/off  Timer on/off  Heater on/off  Baffle open/closed

5 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 25 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Discrete-State Variables  Continuous Control

6 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 26 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Discrete-State Variables  Continuous Control  Discrete Control

7 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 27 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Discrete-State Variables  Continuous Control  Discrete Control  Composite Discrete/Continuous Control

8 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 28 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Process Specifications  Process Objectives  Process Hardware Input Devices Input Devices Limit SwitchesLimit Switches ComparatorsComparators Push ButtonsPush Buttons Output Devices Output Devices LightsLights MotorsMotors SolenoidsSolenoids

9 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 29 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Event Sequence Description  Narrative Statements  Flowcharts  Binary-State X X / 0 1 / 1 0 / 0 X / 1

10 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 210 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Event Sequence Description Flowchart Example

11 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 211 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Event Sequence Description Flowchart Example

12 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 212 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Event Sequence Description Binary-State Example 1. Fill the tank to level A from valve A. 2. Fill the tank to level B from valve B. 3. Start the timer, heat, and stir for 5 minutes. 4. Open output valve C until the empty switch engages.

13 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 213 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Event Sequence Description Binary-State Example I/P Variables  LA  LB  LE  TU O/P Variables  VA  VB  VC  TM  S  H

14 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 214 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Event Sequence Description Binary-State Example State: LA LB LE TU VA VB VC TM S H

15 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 215 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams  Control Relays (Relay Sequencer)

16 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 216 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams  Ladder Diagram

17 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 217 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example

18 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 218 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example

19 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 219 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example

20 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 220 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example

21 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 221 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example 1.When the START button is pushed, the platform is driven to the down position. 2.When the STOP button is pushed, the platform is halted at whatever position it occupies at that time. 3.When the UP button is pushed, the platform, if it is not in downward motion, is driven to the up position. 4.When the DOWN button is pushed, the platform, if it is not in upward motion, is driven to the down position.

22 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 222 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example Start Stop

23 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 223 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example START STOP Power

24 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 224 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example START STOP Power ↓ Motor

25 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 225 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example Power Down STOP START ↑ Motor ↓ Motor UP

26 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 226 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Relay Controllers & Ladder Diagrams Ladder Diagram Example CR

27 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 227 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Hardwired Programming  Relay Sequencers Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)  Processor  Input Modules  Output Modules

28 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 228 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)  Input Module

29 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 229 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)  Output Module

30 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 230 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)  Logic Programming Using a NC switch to turn off a light with relay logic and with PLC programming: a)The button turns the light OFF. b)With relay logic the button turns the light ON. c)With a PLC program the button turns the light ON

31 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 231 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)  Logic Programming NO switches are considered INACTIVE when they are read as open circuit, and ACTIVE when they are read as closed circuit. In the ladder diagram, 01 must be ACTIVE while 03 must be INACTIVE to turn 08 ON.

32 Princess Sumaya University Industrial Instruments 232 / 32 8: Discrete-State Process Control End of Chapter 8


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