The study of thinking. 1) Problem-Solving 2) Reasoning
PerceptionMemoryThinking/Cognition Sensation Encoding Retrieval --------------------------------------------------------------------- Low Level Higher Level Thinking is a higher-level cognitive process that requires all sorts of cognitive operations (e.g. attention, perception, memory, language) and is often a conscious, controlled process Should we wait until we understand the lower-level processes first? Research in higher-level cognition might inform research at lower-level cognition and vice-versa.
The study of thinking Modern view: Thinking is an internal cognitive process The exact nature of these processes cannot be observed directly from behavior However, most cognitive theories lead to testable predictions. Behavioral experiments can test these predictions. Cognitive processes are inferred indirectly from behavior.
Well-defined & Ill-defined Problems Well-defined problems have completely specified initial conditions, goals, and operators works well with computer simulation Ill-defined problems have some aspects which are not completely specified sometimes requires insight to see problem in a new way 1. Writing a good paper = ? 2. solving an algebra problem = ? 3. conducting a statistical significance test = ? 4. designing a good experiment = ? 5. choosing a president = ? 6. reducing drunk driving = ? 7. being a nice person = ?
Well-defined problem solving INITIAL STATEGOAL STATE INITIAL STATE GOAL STATE ? Play the game: http://www.mazeworks.com/hanoi/http://www.mazeworks.com/hanoi/ - given state - goal state - obstacles - operators
problem solving strategies How to solve the maze? - trial and error - forward - backward - means-end analysis
Most problem solving situations involves a combination of planning (means-end analysis), trial and error, and reinforcement learning and perhaps... insight Reinforcement learning grew out of behaviorism Insight Gestaltists view Planning grew out of AI and cognitive psychology
Learning by Reinforcement Associationist theories of thinking -> thinking as response learning Three elements of associationist theory: 1)stimulus: a problem solving situation 2) response: a particular problem solving behavior 3) associations: strength between stimulus and response S R3R3 R2R2 R1R1
Thorndike’s work on cats in a puzzle box Cats initially solved the puzzle box problem by trial and error – trying various responses until one accidentally worked After being placed in the box many times, it learned the successful response and pulled the string almost immediately
Habit Family Hierarchy Try most dominant response first, then second strongest, etc.
1)Law of exercise: practice tends to increase S-R link 2) Law of effect: responses that solve a problem increase in strength. Responses that do not help solve problem lose strength S R3R3 R2R2 R1R1
What about response chains? E.g.: How can path from initial state to goal state be strengthened? How to avoid dead-ends? How can we reward a successful action that only much later in time leads to success? problem of delayed reinforcement Modern reinforcement learning involves passing strengths of successful responses back through a chain. start goal
Maze example Reinforcement learning example for mazes
Reinforcement Learning Behavior follows simple associations in response chains. No planning, no mental maps, no “insight” Learning from very simple feedback: failure or success Associative strengths between response chains are learned. Passing strength back in time start goal
Demo’s Reinforcement learning in mazes: http://www.ise.pw.edu.pl/~cichosz/rl-java/ http://www.ise.pw.edu.pl/~cichosz/rl-java/ Reinforcement learning in robot-arm control: http://www.fe.dis.titech.ac.jp/~gen/robot/robodemo.html Robot learning task of pole-balancing and devilsticking: http://www-clmc.usc.edu/movies/learning.html
Some Amazing Anagrams OriginalBecomes... DormitoryDirty Room DesperationA Rope Ends It The Morse CodeHere Come Dots Slot MachinesCash Lost in 'em AnimosityIs No Amity Snooze AlarmsAlas! No More Z's Alec GuinnessGenuine Class SemolinaIs No Meal The Public Art GalleriesLarge Picture Halls, I Bet A Decimal PointI'm a Dot in Place The EarthquakesThat Queer Shake Eleven plus twoTwelve plus one ContradictionAccord not in it To be or not to be: that is the question, whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune. In one of the Bard's best-thought-of tragedies, our insistent hero, Hamlet, queries on two fronts about how life turns rotten. "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind." -- Neil A. Armstrong A thin man ran; makes a large stride; left planet, pins flag on moon! On to Mars!
SR1R1 R2R2 R3R3 R4R4 StimulusResponse (a new letter combination) g o r w n g r o w n w r o n g w r g n o … Anagram solving time depends on: - familiarity of goal word - letter transition probability of goal word - letter transition probability of presented word - number of moves
Can all thinking be described by trial and error/ stimulus- response? What about insight? Gestaltist view What about planning? AI view
The Handcuffs Puzzle The Set-Up For this puzzle you need two people, some rope and some empty space to do the puzzle in. Each person will need a piece of rope with a loop tied in both ends, so it can be worn as handcuffs. The rope should be reasonably long, so that the person wearing it can easily step over it if they want. Each person puts on a complete set of handcuffs. Before putting them on, they loop their handcuffs around each other so they are tied together. Each person should wear a complete set of handcuffs. They then have to get themselves apart while following these rules: The handcuffs cannot be removed. Do not break, cut, saw through, bite through or in any other way damage the rope. Damaging each other is probably a bad idea too. content copied from: http://ccins.camosun.bc.ca/~jbritton/jbhandcuff.htmhttp://ccins.camosun.bc.ca/~jbritton/jbhandcuff.htm