Presentation on theme: "Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for Pressure Ulcers"— Presentation transcript:
1Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for Pressure Ulcers For Practitioners
2What is a Pressure Ulcer? Definition: A pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin or underlying tissue, usually over a bony prominence, that is a result of pressure or of pressure combined with shear or friction.Reported prevalence rates have ranged from 2.3 percent to 28 percent and reported incidence rates from 2.2 percent to 23.9 percentA pressure ulcer is a localized injury to the skin or underlying tissue, usually over a bony prominence, that is a result of pressure or of pressure combined with shear or friction. Several contributing or confounding factors are associated with pressure ulcers; however, the significance of these factors has yet to be clarified.1 Pressure ulcers should be distinguished from diabetic, ischemic, and venous ulcers (Table 1), as well as from those caused by trauma and dermatologic disease.Current published estimates of the prevalence and incidence of pressure ulcers in the long-term care setting are scant
3What is a Pressure Ulcer? 95% of pressure ulcers develop on the lower body (about 65% in the pelvic area and 30% in the lower extremities)2-6 times greater mortality riskEffective pressure ulcer treatment best achieved through interdisciplinary team approachAlmost 95 percent of pressure ulcers develop on the lower body (about 65 percent in the pelvic area and 30 percent in the lower extremities); common sites include the coccyx, heel, ischium, iliac crest, lateral foot, lateral malleolus, sacrum, and trochanter.A patient with a pressure ulcer has a 2-6 times greater mortality risk than one with intact skin.Effective pressure ulcer prevention and treatment are best achieved through an interdisciplinary team approach, in which the care team, patient, and family develop an effective plan of care that is consistent with the patient’s prognosis, goals, and expectations.
4Guidelines for Pressure Ulcers RecognitionDiagnosisPrevention and TreatmentMonitoringAMDA’s guideline for pressure ulcers consists of four major areas:Recognition: Early recognition of pressure ulcers and of any risk factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers is critical to their successful prevention and managementAssessment: The purpose of the assessment is to collect enough information to evaluate the patient's general condition, characterize a pressure ulcer, and identify related causes and complications.Prevention and Treatment: The cornerstone of pressure ulcer management is prevention. The purpose of the recognition and assessment phases for patients who have not yet developed a pressure ulcer is to provide the framework for implementation of a prevention strategy Monitoring of patient status and improvement in conditionMonitoring: Ulcer healing may not be achievable in all cases; however, in the absence of complications, some improvement in ulcer characteristics should be expected in most patients. Regular reassessment of ulcer healing should be based on the patient’s overall condition; the number, nature, causes, severity, and complications of existing wounds; and current standards of practiceWe’ll discuss the individual steps included in each of the four areas in further detail.
5Recognition StepsExamine the patient’s skin thoroughly to identify existing pressure ulcersIdentify risk factors for developing pressure ulcersReview records/resident interview to identify previous history of pressure ulcersPatient history of pressure ulcers can be obtained from the medical records, plan of care, transfer summary, other referral data and from the patient’s caregivers.Staff should be encouraged to perform skin examination as a part of routine care. Caregivers need to be educated to detect signs of breakdown – especially in the early stages.A history of pressure ulcers is a primary risk factor for the development of new pressure ulcers. Patients with a history of pressure ulcers are more than five times as likely to develop another pressure ulcer as are patients with no such history.. Need to put in something about the differences here…
6Distinguishing Features of Common Types of Ulcers Ulcer TypePathophysiologyLocationDiabeticPeripheral neuropathy secondary to small or large vessel disease in chronic, uncontrolled diabetesUsually lower extremitiesIschemicReduction in blood flow to tissues caused by coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, peripheral arterial disease, or smokingUsually distal lower extremitiesTips of toesPressureUnrelieved pressure resulting in damage to skin or underlying tissueUsually over bony prominences (e.g., buttocks, elbows, heels, ischium, medial and lateral malleolus, sacrum, trochanters)VenousVenous hypertension resulting fromincompetence of venous valves, post-phlebitic syndrome, or venous insufficiency. Tend to be irregularly shapedUsually lower leg regionAll staff need to understand the differences between pressure ulcers and vascular ulcers of the lower extremities because they have very different treatment strategies and prognoses
7F314 Surveyor Guidance: Risk Factors for Developing Pressure Ulcers According to the surveyor guidance accompanying F314, the risk factors that increase a patient’s susceptibility to developing pressure ulcers, or that may impair the healing of an existing pressure ulcer, include but are not limited to the following:Comorbid conditions (e.g., diabetes mellitus, end-stage renal disease, thyroid disease)Drugs that may affect ulcer healing (e.g., steroids)Exposure of skin to urinary or fecal incontinenceHistory of a healed Stage III or IV pressure ulcerImpaired diffuse or localized blood flow (e.g., generalized atherosclerosis, lower-extremity arterial insufficiency)CMS’s interpretive guidance for 42 CFR (F314) identifies risk factors and comorbid conditions that may increase the risk of the development of pressure ulcers. Conditions related to these risk factors should be evaluated and the findings documented in the patient’s medical record.
8F314 Surveyor Guidance: Risk Factors for Developing Pressure Ulcers Impaired or decreased mobility and functional abilityIncrease in friction or shearModerate to severe cognitive impairmentResident refusal of some aspects of care and treatmentUndernutrition, malnutrition, and hydration deficits(Adapted from CMS, 2007)
9AssessmentAssess the patient’s overall physical and psychosocial health and characterize the pressure ulcerIdentify factors that can affect ulcer treatment and healingIdentify priorities in managing the ulcer and the patient
10AssessmentA pressure ulcer should be assessed in the context of the patient’s overall clinical, functional, and cognitive status.Assess the status of each of the patient’s current medical conditions.Assess the patient’s nutritional status, including dietary and fluid intakeAssess for the presence of medical conditions that may interfere with independent feeding or decrease overall oral intakeIn most cases, weekly reassessment and documentation of ulcer characteristics is recommended. More frequent reassessment may be necessary for ulcers that are not responding to treatment or are worsening despite treatment. Consider photographing the ulcer as part of the assessment
11AssessmentIn patients with lower-extremity ulcers, assess for the presence of coolness, delayed capillary refill, dusky discoloration, or pedal pulses. The ankle-brachial index, determined by Doppler arterial studies, may be helpful in determining whether a lower-extremity ulcer is caused by vascular insufficiency or by pressure.Assess the patient’s bed and chair mobility and ability to sense and react to pain and discomfort.
12Other Factors That Should Be Assessed in a Patient With a Pressure Ulcer Comorbid conditions (e.g., anemia, congestive heart failure, diabetes, edema*, immune deficiency, malignancies, peripheral vascular disease, thyroid disease)Complications (e.g., cellulitis, osteomyelitis)PainPresence of:ContracturesDementiaDepressionTerminal illness
13Staging of pressure ulcers Suspected deep tissue injuryPurple or maroon localized area of discolored intact skin or blood-filled blister due to damage of underlying soft tissue from pressure and/or shear*. The area may be preceded by tissue that is painful, firm, mushy, boggy, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue. Further description: Deep tissue injury may be difficult to detect in individuals with dark skin tones. Evolution may include a thin blister over a dark ulcer bed. The ulcer may further evolve and become covered by thin eschar*. Evolution may be rapid, exposing additional layers of tissue even with optimal treatment.Stage IIntact skin with nonblanchable redness of a localized area, usually over a bony prominence. Darkly pigmented skin may not have visible blanching; its color may differ from the surrounding area. Further description: The area may be painful, firm, soft, warmer or cooler as compared to adjacent tissue. Stage I may be difficult to detect in individuals with dark skin tones. May indicate “at risk” persons (a heralding sign of risk).The physical examination should include identification of suspected deep tissue injury and staging of the ulcer or ulcers (see Table 4). If the ulcer is covered by eschar, however, the depth of damage to the underlying tissues may not be initially evident and the ulcer cannot be accurately staged. The MDS 2.0 requires that an ulcer with necrotic eschar be categorized as a Stage IV until the eschar has been debrided to allow staging.The coding of deep tissue injury on the MDS 2.0 is controversial because the MDS does not recognize this wound classification. Because the skin is intact, a deep tissue injury meets the MDS definition of a Stage I ulcer. A deep tissue injury wound may rapidly deteriorate to full-thickness skin loss If it is coded as a Stage I ulcer, it may appear on quality improvement reports that the wound has worsened. In this circumstance, the characteristics of the wound should be carefully documented in the progress notes.
14Staging of pressure ulcers Stage IIPartial thickness loss of dermis presenting as a shallow open ulcer with a red pink ulcer bed, without slough*. May also present as an intact or open/ruptured serum-filled blister. Further description: Presents as a shiny or dry shallow ulcer without slough or bruising. This stage should not be used to describe skin tears, tape burns, perineal dermatitis, maceration* or excoriation. Bruising indicates suspected deep tissue injury
15Staging of pressure ulcers Stage IIIFull thickness tissue loss. Subcutaneous fat may be visible but bone, tendon or muscle are not exposed. Slough may be present but does not obscure the depth of tissue loss. May include undermining* and tunneling*. Further description: The depth of a Stage III pressure ulcer varies by anatomical location. The bridge of the nose, ear, occiput and malleolus do not have subcutaneous tissue and Stage III ulcers can be shallow. In contrast, areas of significant adiposity can develop extremely deep Stage III pressure ulcers. Bone/tendon is not visible or directly palpable.
16Staging of pressure ulcers Stage IVFull thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon or muscle. Slough or eschar may be present on some parts of the ulcer bed. Often include undermining and tunneling. Further description: The depth of a Stage 4 pressure ulcer varies by anatomical location. The bridge of the nose, ear, occiput and malleolus do not have subcutaneous tissue and these ulcers can be shallow. Stage 4 ulcers can extend into muscle and/or supporting structures (e.g., fascia, tendon or joint capsule) making osteomyelitis possible. Exposed bone/tendon is visible or directly palpable.
17Staging of pressure ulcers UnstageableFull thickness tissue loss in which the base of the ulcer is covered by slough (yellow, tan, gray, green or brown) and/or eschar (tan, brown or black) in the ulcer bed. Further description: Until enough slough and/or eschar is removed to expose the base of the ulcer, the true depth, and therefore stage, cannot be determined. Stable (dry, adherent, intact without erythema* or fluctuance*) eschar on the heels serves as “the body’s natural (biological) cover” and should not be removed.National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel, 2007
18Factors that can affect ulcer treatment and healing Physiologic factorsFunctional factorsPsychosocial factorsEthical considerationsPhysiologic factors: Previous skin breakdown at the same site or other skin-integrity problems (e.g., dermatitis);Presence and severity of significant comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, fecal incontinence);Presence of malnutrition or cachexia due to underlying disease;Presence of contractures; andUse of medications (e.g., corticosteroids) that influence the immune system, host defenses, and skin characteristicsFunctional factors, including impaired mobility, a self-care deficit, and incontinence (especially fecal incontinencePsychosocial factors. The patient's ability and willingness to adhere to the treatment program will influence pressure ulcer management. Some patients (e.g. those who have behavioral disturbances associated with dementia, delirium, or psychosisEthical considerations. Review any advance directives or other care instructions (e.g., living will) that may limit the scope of ulcer-related or adjunctive treatments
19Identify Priorities in managing the ulcer and the patient Effective management of a pressure ulcer requires:Identification and treatment of causative factors when feasible,Identification and treatment of modifiable comorbid conditions,Provision of optimal nutritional support,Determination of the best topical care to facilitate ulcer healing,Prevention and management of infection* of the ulcer or adjacent tissue, andPain control related to the ulcer and any comorbid conditions.Depending on findings and interpretations up to this point, certain steps may have a higher priority than others (e.g., addressing predisposing or related systemic factors, managing infection, removing necrotic tissue, preventing additional skin breakdown, and addressing psychosocial factors that influence treatment selection). If the care team identifies multiple priorities, it is important to address systemic, life-threatening complications first and other issues as soon as possible.
20Prevention and Treatment Pressure Ulcer Prevention MeasuresCreate a turning and positioning schedule that is based on the patient’s individual risk factorsDo not massage reddened areas over bony prominencesEvaluate and manage urinary and fecal incontinenceInitiate a plan to prevent or manage a contractureInspect skin during bathing or daily personal careMaintain adequate nutrition and hydration if possibleMaintain the lowest possible head elevation to reduce the impact of shearPosition the patient to minimize pressure over bony prominences and shearing forces over the heels and elbows, base of head, and earsUse appropriate offloading or pressure-redistribution devicesUse lifting devices such as draw sheets or a trapezeUse proper transferring techniquesThe cornerstone of pressure ulcer management is prevention. The purpose of the recognition and assessment phases for patients who have not yet developed a pressure ulcer is to provide the framework for implementation of a prevention strategy that reduces the risk of pressure ulcer occurrence.
21Unavoidable Pressure Ulcers Under the surveyor guidance accompanying F314, an unavoidable pressure ulcer is a pressure ulcer that develops even though a facility has done the following:Evaluated the patient’s clinical condition and risk factors;Defined and implemented interventions consistent with patient needs, goals, and recognized standards of practice;Monitored and evaluated the impact of these interventions; andRevised the approaches as appropriate
22Unavoidable Pressure Ulcers The following clinical circumstances, among others, may impede or prevent healing or result in additional ulcer development that may be unavoidable:Cachexia,Metastatic cancer,Multiple organ failure,Sarcopenia,Severe vascular compromise, andTerminal illness.
23NutritionIncreased protein intake is often emphasized in patients with nonhealing wounds; adequate intake of any single nutrient, however, does not prevent pressure ulcer formation or facilitate healing.Many clinicians recommend caloric intake of 30 kcal/kg to 35 kcal/kg33 and daily protein intake of 1.2 to 1.5 g/kg of body weight34 for nutritionally compromised patients who have or are at risk of pressure ulcers
24Pain ManagementPain management. After assessing pain and defining its characteristics (e.g., frequency, intensity, possible aggravating factors) and causes, treat it aggressively by using appropriate pain management protocols. (See AMDA’s 2003 clinical practice guideline, Pain Management in the Long-Term Care Setting
25Turning and Positioning Proper positioning, turning, and transferring techniques are important to manage pressure and shearing forces, ensure weight redistribution on support surfaces, and protect uninvolved skin. Evidence does not support any specific time interval for turning patients as a preventive or healing strategy for pressure ulcers
26Manage PressureA systematic review of support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention found that the use of ordinary foam mattresses (less than 4 inches thick) presented a higher risk of pressure ulcer development than the use of higher-specification mattresses.45 Patients at risk of skin breakdown should be placed on a static support surface (e.g., foam overlay, foam mattress, static flotation device) rather than on a standard mattress.
27Necrotic TissuePressure ulcer healing may be delayed by the presence of necrotic tissue, which also provides a medium for bacterial growth. Any necrotic tissue observed during assessment of the ulcer should be debrided, provided that this intervention is consistent with overall patient care goals.
28Debridement of an ulcer When choosing a debridement method, considerUlcer size,Amount of slough and exudate,Presence and severity of pain associated either with the ulcer or with the method of debridement,Feasibility of performing sharp or surgical debridement, andRisks of transporting the patient outside of the facility vs. the benefits of surgical debridement.
29Heel UlcersIt is generally recommended not to debride heel ulcers with dry, hard eschar unless there is edema, erythema, fluctuance, or drainage. Monitor heel ulcers closely for evidence of infection, at which time debridement should occur.
30Cleaning the wound An effective antiseptic should: Act quickly; Be nonirritating;Be nontoxic to viable tissue;Have a broad spectrum of activity;Have low resistance potential; andWork in the presence of blood, fibrin, pus, and slough
31Ulcer Dressings The goals of dressing an ulcer are to: Keep the ulcer bed moist and the surrounding skin dry,Protect the ulcer from contamination, andPromote healing.
32Factors to Consider When Selecting Ulcer Care Products Burden to patient (i.e., number of daily dressing changes required)Cost-effectiveness of productCosts of ancillary supplies and equipment associated with treatmentEase of use and cost of staff time to use the productSafety, efficacy, and likelihood and potential severity of complicationsUlcer characteristics (e.g., depth, condition of surrounding skin, location near sources of contamination, presence and amount of exudate)
33F314 Surveyor Guidance: Monitoring Considerations Daily MonitoringEvaluate ulcer if no dressing is presentEvaluate status of dressing if present: Is dressing intact? Is drainage present? If so, is it leaking?Status of area surrounding ulcer that can be observed without removing the dressingPresence of possible complications (e.g., signs of increasing area of ulceration, soft tissue infection)Evaluate whether pain, if present, is adequately controlledDocument when a change or complication is identified
34F314 Surveyor Guidance: Monitoring Considerations Weekly or Dressing Change MonitoringLocation and staging of ulcerSize (perpendicular measurement of greatest extent of length and width of ulceration); depth; and presence, location, and extent of undermining, tunneling, or sinus tract*Presence of exudate; if present, type (e.g., purulent, serous), color, odor, approximate amountPresence of pain; if present, nature and frequency (e.g., episodic, continuous)Status of wound bed: color and type of tissue; evidence of healing (e.g., granulation tissue); necrosis (slough, eschar)Description of wound edges and surrounding tissue (e.g., rolled edges, redness, hardness/induration, maceration)
35F314 Surveyor Guidance: Monitoring Considerations Use of Photography in Pressure Ulcer MonitoringPhotography may be used in monitoring as part of the facility’s compliance efforts, if the facility has developed a protocol consistent with accepted standards, which include the following:Frequency of usePhotos taken at a consistent distance from the woundType of photographic equipment usedMeans to ensure that digital images are accurate and not modifiedInclusion of resident identification, ulcer location, dates, etc., within the photographic imageParameters for comparison over time
36IMPORTANT!It is important to establish goals consistent with the values and lifestyle of the individual and his/her family.