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**Query Optimization The Next-to-last Frontier**

Lecture #8 November 16th, 2000 Query Optimization The Next-to-last Frontier

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**Administration Last homework handed out by the weekend. Projects?**

Project demos: Dec. 4-6. Project reports due Dec. 4th. The (short) Toronto story. Outer joins.

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**Query Optimization Goal: Declarative SQL query**

Imperative query execution plan: buyer SELECT S.buyer FROM Purchase P, Person Q WHERE P.buyer=Q.name AND Q.city=‘seattle’ AND Q.phone > ‘ ’ City=‘seattle’ phone>’ ’ Inputs: the query statistics about the data (indexes, cardinalities, selectivity factors) available memory Buyer=name (Simple Nested Loops) Purchase Person (Table scan) (Index scan) Ideally: Want to find best plan. Practically: Avoid worst plans!

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**How are we going to build one?**

What kind of optimizations can we do? What are the issues? How would we architect a query optimizer?

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**Schema for Some Examples**

Sailors (sid: integer, sname: string, rating: integer, age: real) Reserves (sid: integer, bid: integer, day: dates, rname: string) Reserves: Each tuple is 40 bytes long, 100 tuples per page, 1000 pages (4000 tuples) Sailors: Each tuple is 50 bytes long, 80 tuples per page, 500 pages (4000 tuples). 3

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**Motivating Example RA Tree: R.bid=100 AND S.rating>5**

Reserves Sailors sid=sid bid=100 rating > 5 sname SELECT S.sname FROM Reserves R, Sailors S WHERE R.sid=S.sid AND R.bid=100 AND S.rating>5 Cost: *1000 I/Os By no means the worst plan! Misses several opportunities: selections could have been `pushed’ earlier, no use is made of any available indexes, etc. Goal of optimization: To find more efficient plans that compute the same answer. Reserves Sailors sid=sid bid=100 rating > 5 sname (Simple Nested Loops) (On-the-fly) Plan: 4

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**Alternative Plans 1 Main difference: push selects.**

Reserves Sailors sid=sid bid=100 sname (On-the-fly) rating > 5 (Scan; write to temp T1) temp T2) (Sort-Merge Join) Alternative Plans 1 Main difference: push selects. With 5 buffers, cost of plan: Scan Reserves (1000) + write temp T1 (10 pages, if we have 100 boats, uniform distribution). Scan Sailors (500) + write temp T2 (250 pages, if we have 10 ratings). Sort T1 (2*2*10), sort T2 (2*3*250), merge (10+250), total=1800 Total: page I/Os. If we used BNL join, join cost = 10+4*250, total cost = 2770. If we `push’ projections, T1 has only sid, T2 only sid and sname: T1 fits in 3 pages, cost of BNL drops to under 250 pages, total < 2000. 5

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**Alternative Plans 2 With Indexes**

(On-the-fly) Alternative Plans 2 With Indexes sname (On-the-fly) rating > 5 With clustered index on bid of Reserves, we get 100,000/100 = tuples on 1000/100 = 10 pages. INL with pipelining (outer is not materialized). (Index Nested Loops, sid=sid with pipelining ) (Use hash index; do bid=100 Sailors not write result to temp) Reserves Join column sid is a key for Sailors. At most one matching tuple, unclustered index on sid OK. Decision not to push rating>5 before the join is based on availability of sid index on Sailors. Cost: Selection of Reserves tuples (10 I/Os); for each, must get matching Sailors tuple (1000*1.2); total 1210 I/Os. 6

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**Building Blocks Algebraic transformations (many and wacky).**

Statistical model: estimating costs and sizes. Finding the best join trees: Bottom-up (dynamic programming): System-R Newer architectures: Starburst: rewrite and then tree find Volcano: all at once, top-down.

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**Query Optimization Process (simplified a bit)**

Parse the SQL query into a logical tree: identify distinct blocks (corresponding to nested sub-queries or views). Query rewrite phase: apply algebraic transformations to yield a cheaper plan. Merge blocks and move predicates between blocks. Optimize each block: join ordering. Complete the optimization: select scheduling (pipelining strategy).

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**Key Lessons in Optimization**

There are many approaches and many details to consider in query optimization Classic search/optimization problem! Not completely solved yet! Main points to take away are: Algebraic rules and their use in transformations of queries. Deciding on join ordering: System-R style (Selinger style) optimization. Estimating cost of plans and sizes of intermediate results.

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**Operations (revisited)**

Scan ([index], table, predicate): Either index scan or table scan. Try to push down sargable predicates. Selection (filter) Projection (always need to go to the data?) Joins: nested loop (indexed), sort-merge, hash, outer join. Grouping and aggregation (usually the last).

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**Relational Algebra Equivalences**

Allow us to choose different join orders and to ‘push’ selections and projections ahead of joins. Selections: (Cascade) (Commute) Projections: (Cascade) (Associative) Joins: R (S T) (R S) T (Commute) (R S) (S R) Show that: R (S T) (T R) S 10

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More Equivalences A projection commutes with a selection that only uses attributes retained by the projection. A selection on just attributes of R commutes with join R S. (i.e., (R S) (R) S ) Similarly, if a projection follows a join R S, we can ‘push’ it by retaining only attributes of R (and S) that are needed for the join or are kept by the projection. 11

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**Query Rewrites: Sub-queries**

SELECT Emp.Name FROM Emp WHERE Emp.Age < 30 AND Emp.Dept# IN (SELECT Dept.Dept# FROM Dept WHERE Dept.Loc = “Seattle” AND Emp.Emp#=Dept.Mgr)

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**The Un-Nested Query SELECT Emp.Name FROM Emp, Dept**

WHERE Emp.Age < 30 AND Emp.Dept#=Dept.Dept# AND Dept.Loc = “Seattle” AND Emp.Emp#=Dept.Mgr

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Semi-Joins, Magic Sets You can’t always un-nest sub-queries (it’s tricky). But you can often use a semi-join to reduce the computation cost of the inner query. A magic set is a superset of the possible bindings in the result of the sub-query. Also called “sideways information passing”. Great idea; reinvented every few years on a regular basis.

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**Rewrites: Magic Sets Create View DepAvgSal AS**

(Select E.did, Avg(E.sal) as avgsal From Emp E Group By E.did) Select E.eid, E.sal From Emp E, Dept D, DepAvgSal V Where E.did=D.did AND D.did=V.did And E.age < 30 and D.budget > 100k And E.sal > V.avgsal

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**Rewrites: SIPs Select E.eid, E.sal From Emp E, Dept D, DepAvgSal V**

Where E.did=D.did AND D.did=V.did And E.age < 30 and D.budget > 100k And E.sal > V.avgsal DepAvgsal needs to be evaluated only for departments where V.did IN Select E.did From Emp E, Dept D Where E.did=D.did And E.age < 30 and D.budget > 100K

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**Supporting Views 1. Create View PartialResult as**

(Select E.eid, E.sal, E.did From Emp E, Dept D Where E.did=D.did And E.age < 30 and D.budget > 100K) Create View Filter AS Select DISTINCT P.did FROM PartialResult P. Create View LimitedAvgSal as (Select F.did Avg(E.Sal) as avgSal From Emp E, Filter F Where E.did=F.did Group By F.did)

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**And Finally… Transformed query: Select P.eid, P.sal**

From PartialResult P, LimitedAvgSal V Where P.did=V.did And P.sal > V.avgsal

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**Rewrites: Group By and Join**

Schema: Product (pid, unitprice,…) Sales(tid, date, store, pid, units) Trees: Join groupBy(pid) Sum(units) groupBy(pid) Sum(units) Join Products Filter (in NW) Products Filter (in NW) Scan(Sales) Filter(date in Q2,2000) Scan(Sales) Filter(date in Q2,2000)

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**Rewrites:Operation Introduction**

Schema: (pid determines cid) Category (pid, cid, details) Sales(tid, date, store, pid, amount) Trees: groupBy(cid) Sum(amount) Join groupBy(cid) Sum(amount) groupBy(pid) Sum(amount) Join Category Filter (…) Category Filter (…) Scan(Sales) Filter(store IN {CA,WA}) Scan(Sales) Filter(store IN {CA,WA})

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**Query Rewriting: Predicate Pushdown**

Reserves Sailors sid=sid bid=100 rating > 5 sname Reserves Sailors sid=sid bid=100 sname rating > 5 (Scan; write to temp T1) temp T2) The earlier we process selections, less tuples we need to manipulate higher up in the tree. Disadvantages?

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**Query Rewrites: Predicate Pushdown (through grouping)**

Select bid, Max(age) From Reserves R, Sailors S Where R.sid=S.sid GroupBy bid Having Max(age) > 40 Select bid, Max(age) From Reserves R, Sailors S Where R.sid=S.sid and S.age > 40 GroupBy bid For each boat, find the maximal age of sailors who’ve reserved it. Advantage: the size of the join will be smaller. Requires transformation rules specific to the grouping/aggregation operators. Won’t work if we replace Max by Min.

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**Query Rewrite: Predicate Movearound**

Sailing wiz dates: when did the youngest of each sailor level rent boats? Select sid, date From V1, V2 Where V1.rating = V2.rating and V1.age = V2.age Create View V1 AS Select rating, Min(age) From Sailors S Where S.age < 20 Group By rating Create View V2 AS Select sid, rating, age, date From Sailors S, Reserves R Where R.sid=S.sid

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**Query Rewrite: Predicate Movearound**

Sailing wiz dates: when did the youngest of each sailor level rent boats? Select sid, date From V1, V2 Where V1.rating = V2.rating and V1.age = V2.age, age < 20 First, move predicates up the tree. Create View V1 AS Select rating, Min(age) From Sailors S Where S.age < 20 Group By rating Create View V2 AS Select sid, rating, age, date From Sailors S, Reserves R Where R.sid=S.sid

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**Query Rewrite: Predicate Movearound**

Sailing wiz dates: when did the youngest of each sailor level rent boats? Select sid, date From V1, V2 Where V1.rating = V2.rating and V1.age = V2.age, and age < 20 First, move predicates up the tree. Then, move them down. Create View V1 AS Select rating, Min(age) From Sailors S Where S.age < 20 Group By rating Create View V2 AS Select sid, rating, age, date From Sailors S, Reserves R Where R.sid=S.sid, and S.age < 20.

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Query Rewrite Summary The optimizer can use any semantically correct rule to transform one query to another. Rules try to: move constraints between blocks (because each will be optimized separately) Unnest blocks Especially important in decision support applications where queries are very complex. In a few minutes of thought, you’ll come up with your own rewrite. Some query, somewhere, will benefit from it. Theorems?

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**Cost Estimation For each plan considered, must estimate cost:**

Must estimate cost of each operation in plan tree. Depends on input cardinalities. Must estimate size of result for each operation in tree! Use information about the input relations. For selections and joins, assume independence of predicates. We’ll discuss the System R cost estimation approach. Very inexact, but works ok in practice. More sophisticated techniques known now. 8

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**Statistics and Catalogs**

Need information about the relations and indexes involved. Catalogs typically contain at least: # tuples (NTuples) and # pages (NPages) for each relation. # distinct key values (NKeys) and NPages for each index. Index height, low/high key values (Low/High) for each tree index. Catalogs updated periodically. Updating whenever data changes is too expensive; lots of approximation anyway, so slight inconsistency ok. More detailed information (e.g., histograms of the values in some field) are sometimes stored. 8

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**Cost Model for Our Analysis**

As a good approximation, we ignore CPU costs: B: The number of data pages P: Number of tuples per page D: (Average) time to read or write disk page Measuring number of page I/O’s ignores gains of pre-fetching blocks of pages; thus, even I/O cost is only approximated. 3

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**General External Merge Sort**

More than 3 buffer pages. How can we utilize them? To sort a file with N pages using B buffer pages: Pass 0: use B buffer pages. Produce sorted runs of B pages each. Pass 2, …, etc.: merge B-1 runs. INPUT 1 . . . INPUT 2 . . . . . . OUTPUT INPUT B-1 Disk Disk B Main memory buffers 7

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**Cost of External Merge Sort**

Number of passes: Cost = 2N * (# of passes) E.g., with 5 buffer pages, to sort 108 page file: Pass 0: = 22 sorted runs of 5 pages each (last run is only 3 pages) Pass 1: = 6 sorted runs of 20 pages each (last run is only 8 pages) Pass 2: 2 sorted runs, 80 pages and 28 pages Pass 3: Sorted file of 108 pages 8

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**Number of Passes of External Sort**

9

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**Simple Nested Loops Join**

For each tuple r in R do for each tuple s in S do if ri == sj then add <r, s> to result For each tuple in the outer relation R, we scan the entire inner relation S. Cost: M + (PR * M) * N. Page-oriented Nested Loops join: For each page of R, get each page of S, and write out matching pairs of tuples <r, s>, where r is in R-page and S is in S-page. Cost: M + M*N. 6

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**Index Nested Loops Join**

foreach tuple r in R do foreach tuple s in S where ri == sj do add <r, s> to result If there is an index on the join column of one relation (say S), can make it the inner. Cost: M + ( (M*PR) * cost of finding matching S tuples) For each R tuple, cost of probing S index is about 1.2 for hash index, 2-4 for B+ tree. Cost of then finding S tuples depends on clustering. Clustered index: 1 I/O (typical), unclustered: up to 1 I/O per matching S tuple.

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**Block Nested Loops Join**

Use one page as an input buffer for scanning the inner S, one page as the output buffer, and use all remaining pages to hold “block’’ of outer R. For each matching tuple r in R-block, s in S-page, add <r, s> to result. Then read next R-block, scan S, etc. R & S Join Result Hash table for block of R (k < B-1 pages) . . . . . . . . . Input buffer for S Output buffer 9

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Sort-Merge Join (R S) i=j Sort R and S on the join column, then scan them to do a ``merge’’ on the join column. Advance scan of R until current R-tuple >= current S tuple, then advance scan of S until current S-tuple >= current R tuple; do this until current R tuple = current S tuple. At this point, all R tuples with same value and all S tuples with same value match; output <r, s> for all pairs of such tuples. Then resume scanning R and S. 11

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**Cost of Sort-Merge Join**

R is scanned once; each S group is scanned once per matching R tuple. Cost: M log M + N log N + (M+N) The cost of scanning, M+N, could be M*N (unlikely!)

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**Hash table for partition**

Hash-Join B main memory buffers Disk Original Relation OUTPUT 2 INPUT 1 hash function h B-1 Partitions . . . Partition both relations using hash fn h: R tuples in partition i will only match S tuples in partition i. Partitions of R & S Input buffer for Si Hash table for partition Ri (k < B-1 pages) B main memory buffers Disk Output buffer Join Result hash fn h2 Read in a partition of R, hash it using h2 (<> h!). Scan matching partition of S, search for matches. 14

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Cost of Hash-Join In partitioning phase, read+write both relations; 2(M+N). In matching phase, read both relations; M+N I/Os. Sort-Merge Join vs. Hash Join: Given a minimum amount of memory both have a cost of 3(M+N) I/Os. Hash Join superior on this count if relation sizes differ greatly. Also, Hash Join shown to be highly parallelizable. Sort-Merge less sensitive to data skew; result is sorted. 16

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**Size Estimation and Reduction Factors**

SELECT attribute list FROM relation list WHERE term1 AND ... AND termk Consider a query block: Maximum # tuples in result is the product of the cardinalities of relations in the FROM clause. Reduction factor (RF) associated with each term reflects the impact of the term in reducing result size. Result cardinality = Max # tuples * product of all RF’s. Implicit assumption that terms are independent! Term col=value has RF 1/NKeys(I), given index I on col Term col1=col2 has RF 1/MAX(NKeys(I1), NKeys(I2)) Term col>value has RF (High(I)-value)/(High(I)-Low(I)) 9

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**Histograms Key to obtaining good cost and size estimates.**

Come in several flavors: Equi-depth Equi-width Which is better? Compressed histograms: special treatment of frequent values.

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**Plans for Single-Relation Queries (Prep for Join ordering)**

Task: create a query execution plan for a single Select-project-group-by block. Key idea: consider each possible access path to the relevant tuples of the relation. Choose the cheapest one. The different operations are essentially carried out together (e.g., if an index is used for a selection, projection is done for each retrieved tuple, and the resulting tuples are pipelined into the aggregate computation). 12

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**Example If we have an Index on rating: If we have an index on sid:**

SELECT S.sid FROM Sailors S WHERE S.rating=8 If we have an Index on rating: (1/NKeys(I)) * NTuples(R) = (1/10) * tuples retrieved. Clustered index: (1/NKeys(I)) * (NPages(I)+NPages(R)) = (1/10) * (50+500) pages are retrieved (= 55). Unclustered index: (1/NKeys(I)) * (NPages(I)+NTuples(R)) = (1/10) * ( ) pages are retrieved. If we have an index on sid: Would have to retrieve all tuples/pages. With a clustered index, the cost is Doing a file scan: we retrieve all file pages (500). 14

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**Determining Join Order**

In principle, we need to consider all possible join orderings: As the number of joins increases, the number of alternative plans grows rapidly; we need to restrict the search space. System-R: consider only left-deep join trees. Left-deep trees allow us to generate all fully pipelined plans:Intermediate results not written to temporary files. Not all left-deep trees are fully pipelined (e.g., SM join). C D B A B A C D 15

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**Enumeration of Left-Deep Plans**

Naïve approach: n! combinations. Principle of optimality: the best plan for the join of R1,…Rn-1 will be part of the best plan for the join of R1,…,Rn Enumerated using N passes (if N relations joined): Pass 1: Find best 1-relation plan for each relation. Pass 2: Find best way to join result of each 1-relation plan (as outer) to another relation. (All 2-relation plans.) Pass N: Find best way to join result of a (N-1)-relation plan (as outer) to the N’th relation. (All N-relation plans.) For each subset of relations, retain only: Cheapest plan overall, plus Cheapest plan for each interesting order of the tuples. 16

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**Enumeration of Plans (Contd.)**

ORDER BY, GROUP BY, aggregates etc. handled as a final step, using either an `interestingly ordered’ plan or an additional sorting operator. An N-1 way plan is not combined with an additional relation unless there is a join condition between them, unless all predicates in WHERE have been used up. i.e., avoid Cartesian products if possible. In spite of pruning plan space, this approach is still exponential in the # of tables. If we want to consider all (bushy) trees, we need only a slight modification to the algorithm. 16

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**Example Pass 1: (essentially, access-path selection)**

Sailors: B+ tree on rating Hash on sid Reserves: B+ tree on bid Example Reserves Sailors sid=sid bid=100 rating > 5 sname Pass 1: (essentially, access-path selection) Sailors: B+ tree matches rating>5, and is probably cheapest. However, if this selection is expected to retrieve a lot of tuples, and index is unclustered, file scan may be cheaper. Still, B+ tree plan kept (tuples are in rating order). Reserves: B+ tree on bid matches bid=100; cheapest. Pass 2: We consider each plan retained from Pass 1 as the outer, and consider how to join it with the (only) other relation. e.g., Reserves as outer: Hash index can be used to get Sailors tuples that satisfy sid = outer tuple’s sid value.

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