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L. Gerhardt Leadership and Seven Habits of Highly Effective People Based on literature by Stephen R. Covey South Seattle Community College With Paul L. Gerhardt
… the success of leadership can be measured by what kind of talent and structure one leaves behind. Vartan Gregorian, former president New York Public Library
Introduction Some Basics: ä Some people are consistently successful because of qualities and abilities they have developed in addition to their education and experience. ä Value, as perceived by the customer, will determine your worth. ä Genuine career happiness comes from achieving personal goals in harmony with organizational goals. ä The objective of this presentation is to present some strategies that a professional can use to improve their chances of a productive career.
What are the qualities of a great leader? ä Long-term success requires good leadership. ä Understands the Big Picture. ä Has vision and is a systems thinker ä The ability to effectively empower, develop, and lead people/teams. ä A great leader is able to see the context of the situation they are in -- whatever that is -- and react accordingly. They ADAPT to the situation and those they lead.
Personal Leadership ä Personal Strategic Planning combines strategic planning and time management together. ä Know where YOU fit in the organization and on your team. ä Continuous improvement in all areas of life ä Become a student of leadership and management styles ä Find a one or two mentors ä Read and take notes
Team Orientation / Learning Communities ä Leadership - ä Long-term success requires good leadership. ä Teamwork - ä Effective and empowered teams responsible for problem solving and product development. ä Culture - ä Core values and operating norms. Sense of community. ä It is important for you to know the status of each so you can assess your future.
Four Levels of Leadership ä PersonalTrustworthiness ä InterpersonalTrust ä ManagerialEmpowerment ä Organizational--Alignment
Seven Habits of Highly Effective People A. Inside Out 1. Be proactive 2. Begin with the end in mind 3. Put first things first 4. Think win-win 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood 6. Synergize 7. Sharpen the saw: physical, mental, emotional/social, spiritual B. Inside Out Again
Examples of Defective Habits: ä React-Blame all your problems on your friends, teachers, parents; take no responsibility for things that happen to you. ä Begin with No End in Mind-Have no goal or plan and never think about tomorrow. ä Put First Things Last-Always put off doing whats important by talking on your mobile and surfing the net. Always put off your homework until tomorrow.
Examples of Defective Habits: (Continued) ä Think Win-Lose-Dont let anyone else succeed at anything because if they win, you lose. ä Seek First to Talk, Then Pretend to Listen-If you want their opinion, give it to them. ä Dont Cooperate-Teamwork is for losers; be your own island. ä Wear Yourself Out-Make being busy the only thing that matters; never exercise or improve yourself.
The 7 Successful Habits... an overview. 7 Sharpen saw Independence Interdependence PUBLIC VICTORY Think win-win 4 Understand 5 Synergize 6 habit = knowledge + skill + desire Dependence 1 Be Proactive PRIVATE VICTORY 2 End in mind 3 1 st things 1 st
Developing Personal Potential ä Coveys first three habits deal with self-reliance and self- mastery. These are private victories; they only involve the follower ä Habit 1: Be Proactive® ä Be responsible, dont blame others ä Habit 2: Begin With The End In Mind® ä Start with a clear mental image of your destination ä Habit 3: Put First Things First® ä Focus on preserving and enhancing relationships and on accomplishing results
Effective Interdependence ä The first three habits build a foundation on independence, from which one can move to interdependencecaring, productive relationships with others which Covey calls public victories ä When a person moves to interdependence, he steps into a leadership role
Effective Interdependence ä Habit 4: Think Win-Win® ä Implies understanding that without cooperation, the organization cannot succeed ä Habit 5: Seek First To Understand, Then To Be Understood® ä Requires a nonjudgmental attitude. Emphatic listening gets inside another persons frame of reference
Effective Interdependence ä Habit 6: Synergize® ä Synergy is the combined action that occurs when people work together to create new alternatives and solutions. The essence of synergy is to value and respect differences ä Habit 7: Sharpen The Saw® ä Process of using and continuously renewing the physical, mental, spiritual, and social aspects of life
Trust: Emotional Bank Account ä Seeking first to understand ä Keeping promises ä Honest, Openness ä Kindnesses, courtesies ä Win-Win or no deal thinking ä Clarifying Expectations ä Loyalty to the Absent ä Apologies ä Receiving feedback and giving I messages ä Seeking first to be understood ä Breaking promises ä Smooth Manipulation ä Unkindnesses, Discourtesies ä Win-Lose or Lose-Win Thinking ä Violating Expectations ä Disloyalty, Duplicity ä Pride, conceit, Arrogance ä Not receiving feedback and giving you messages
7 Habits Stimulus Response StimulusResponse Proactive Freedom to Choose Reactive Self-awareness Imagination Conscience Independent Will
Habit One - Be Proactive ä Proactivity vs. Reactivity ä I am responsible for my life ä My choices control my behavior ä I stand for something ä Factors beyond my control create my life ä My conditions, conditioning, and feelings control my behavior
Habit 1: Be proactive. Not until you can say I am what I am today because of the choices I made yesterday.... can you say I choose otherwise. Examples of your reactive statements... and your proactive counterparts. What to do when frustrated? Discouraged? Imposter? What is your fix routine? Why not be proactive? What is the risk? Are you willing to risk failure? stimulus response the gap = our choice Victor Frankl, Mans Search for Meaning reactive (reverse acting, problem-bound, vague) I am not as smart as others in this company. People think Im too heavy. I wish our Monday evenings were better. circle of influence circle of concern no concern proactive (forward acting, opportunity-focused, clear) I will read one book per month in my field. I will exercise and attend Weight Watchers weekly. I will cook dinners for my wife every Monday.
Risking failure... a shining example! Less than one year of formal education. Ran for state legislature... lost. Bought a store to make a living... ended up with a huge debt. Interested in a girl... she died. Interested in another girl... she dumped him. Served four successive terms in the state general assembly. Became a lawyer. Engaged to be married... engagement broke... eventually got married. Had a son... then another who died... then another who died... then another. Ran for Congress... and lost... and again, and lost then elected...but was too unpopular to be re-elected. Became one of the leading lawyers in his state. Ran for Senate.. and lost. Ran for President... and won. Presided successfully over a war. Re-elected President. Write your failure resume. Did you risk time, energy, money, or reputation? Why did you fail (see reasons above)? Innovate or Die, Jack Matson 1 outside of your circle of influence 2 failure of planning 3 failure of action more failures but more successes!
Disowning vs. Owning ä Theres not enough time in the day ä I was never very good at public speaking ä I lost my temper ä Find out what the prof wants and do it ä Ive overscheduled myself ä Ive avoided public speaking because Im uncomfortable with it ä I gave way to my feelings ä I decide whats needed & get the system working on it
ä Identify one issue in your circle of concern, but not in your circle of influence ä Break this issue into areas of direct, indirect, and no control ä Outline how you might recast your concern so that you release the no control area, and do something about the areas of direct and indirect control.
Seven Habits - Number Two Habit Two: Begin with the end in mind P P Meaning of this habit P P All things are created twice P P The two creations P P Rescripting P P Personal mission statements P P Values at the center
Value of Habit Two Stating why we exist & what we are about is difficult Expression - putting into words - changes us What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny matters compared to what lies within us. Henry David Thoreau
Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind. Specifically … write what you want to reap. What do you HOPE for? A prestigious job? A girlfriend or boyfriend? Money? Write what you are willing to sow. Time? Personal energy? Money? Your friends? Any books or movies or models that guide you? The law of the farm: You reap what you sow. translated sacrifice vision = what you want to see mission = immediate next step(s) Both tend to focus priorities.
Begin With The End In Mind ä Identify the Target! To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where youre going so that you better understand where you are now, so that the steps you take are always in the right direction. Stephen Covey, Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
Stages in the Backward Design Process Identify desired results. Determine acceptable evidence. Plan learning experiences and instruction. What should students know and be able to do? How will we know that they know? What activities, skills, information and resources will be best?
Why backward? ä The stages are logical but they go against habits ä Were used to jumping to lesson and activity ideas before clarifying our performance goals for students ä The change in lesson design does not necessarily mean that we throw out everything that weve done but it is a matter of being more selective, ä It helps us modify and also helps us to decide what not to teach. ä By thinking through the assessments upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals and means that teaching is focused on desired results
Identify desired results Stages in the Backward Design Process Stage 1 What should students know and be able to do? What should others know and be able to do?
Worth being familiar with Important to know and to do Enduring Understanding Grant Wiggins & Jay McTighe Understanding by Design ASCD, Curricular Priorities There is usually more content than can be reasonably addressed.
1. On Your Own… Name a curricular topic that you will address with students this year. What enduring understandings about big ideas do you want students to leave with? 2. With a partner… Share your topic and enduring understandings. Partners ask questions and help clarify big ideas. Group Project
Stage 1 – Identify desired results ä Key: Focus on Big ideas ä Enduring Understandings: What specific insights about big ideas do we want clients to leave with? ä What essential questions will frame the process of learning, pointing toward key issues and ideas, and suggest meaningful and provocative inquiry into content?
Short Assignment With your partner, brainstorm some possible essential questions that will help you clarify a possible final goal in your life or work life. Stop
Key: Focus on Big ideas ä ä Enduring Understandings: What specific insights about big ideas do we want others to leave with?
Stages in the Backward Design Process Identify desired results. Determine acceptable evidence. What should others know? How will we know that they know?
The Six Facets of Understanding ä ä Facet #1 – Explanation: ä ä Sophisticated and apt explanations and theories, which provide knowledgeable and justified accounts of events, action, and ideas. ä ä Facet #2 – Interpretation: Narratives, translations, metaphors, images and artistry that provide meaning. ä ä Facet #3 – Application: Ability to use knowledge effectively in new situations and diverse contexts. ä ä Facet #4 – Perspective: Critical and insightful points of view. ä ä Facet #5 – Empathy: The ability to get inside another persons feelings and world view ä ä Facet #6 – Self-Knowledge: The wisdom to know ones ignorance and how ones pattern of thought and action inform as well as prejudice understanding. Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, 1998
Assessment of Understanding via the 6 facets i.e. You really understand when you can: ä explain, connect, systematize, predict it ä show its meaning, importance ä apply or adapt it to novel situations ä see it as one plausible perspective among others, question its assumptions ä see it as its author/speaker saw it ä avoid and point out common misconceptions, biases, or simplistic views
What this habit means Consider the end of your life P P image, picture, or paradigm P P criterion by which everything else is examined Start with a clear destination P P know where you are going P P understand where you are now P P take steps in the right direction
Habit 3: Put First Things First
Habit 3: Put first things first. urgentnot urgent important not important I: necessity crises deadlines maintaining ( ) II: opportunity PC activities planning & prevention commitment (65-15) III interruptions some meetings some reports (5-55) IV trivia busy work time wasters (5-5) We want Quadrant II > Quadrant I. Quadrant II comes from Quadrants III and IV. Estimate how much time you spend in Quadrant II (and what IS Quad IV?)... How do you plan your day? Datebook? Palm Pilot? How much is your time worth to you, in dollars/hour?
Habit 3... a demonstration. What is the lesson? 1 Identify big rocks (q2). 2 Schedule these FIRST! 3 Surround with other.
Time Management Systems ä Describe the system you use to keep up with appointments, notes, tasks that need to be done, phone numbers and addresses
What is the best system for me? ä Depends upon: ä Type of work you do (work with people vs. work with things) ä Amount of discretionary time you use (how much time is under your control)
Nature of Work 100% 0% 100% Work with People Work with Things Your work falls someplace on the diagonal line. The higher up the line you go, the more sophisticated your time management system needs to be.
Discretionary Time 0% 100% Amount of control you have over your time The higher up the line you go, the more sophisticated your time management system needs to be.
Time Management System ä Below the mid-point on both graphs? ä Use simple time management tools ä Above the mid-point on either graph? ä Use a more sophisticated system
Time Management Systems ä Primitive ä Simple ä Paper-based Organizers ä Hand Helds ä PIM (Personal Information Managers) - Software
Primitive ä Crisis Management ä Running around putting out fires
Primitive ä Priority Meandering ä Start on task a ä get distracted ä resume on task b ä get distracted ä jump to task c
Primitive ä Jump to Others ä Wait for others to tell me what to do
Primitive ä First Come - First Served ä Handle tasks in the order in which they arrive
Primitive ä Grouping ä Do all the same types of tasks at the same time (phone calls, writing letters, etc.)
Primitive ä Whimsical ä Do whatever you feel like doing
Simple ä Floating Pieces of Paper (including post- its, business cards, napkins) ä Write notes on assorted pieces of paper ä Sooner or later the paper floats
Simple ä To Do List ä A to do list is written on a notepad, business card, envelope, etc.
Simple ä Pocket Calendar ä A variety of small calendars are used to record appointments
Simple ä Desk Calendar ä Calendar stays on desk, typically four days behind
Simple ä Address book ä A variety of devices are used to record addresses and phone numbers
Simple ä Combination - typically a combination of simple devices are used
ä Paper Based Planners Day Runner Day-Timer Franklin Day Planner Day at a Glance Seven Habits Planner Priority Manager Rolodex
Habit Four – Think Win/Win ä WinWin Definition ä The win-win approach is a set of principles, practices, and tools, which enable a set of interdependent stakeholders to work out a mutually satisfactory (win-win) set of shared commitments.
Habit 4: Think win-win. Are there times when paradigms others than win-win are appropriate? How do you develop courage? Consideration? Emotional bank account? What causes conflict? Tools for conflict resolution? Your boundaries? lose-win (you get hard feelings) win-win or no deal (abundance mentality; get P and PC) lose-lose (never pays) win-lose (other person gets hard feeling) courage consideration
Win-lose Generally Becomes Lose-lose Actually, nobody wins in these situations
Key Concepts ä Win Condition: objective which makes a stakeholder feel like a winner ä Issue: conflict or constraint on a win condition ä Option: A way of overcoming an issue ä Agreement: mutual commitment to an option or win condition
Win Condition Agreement Option Issue involves addresses adopts covers Win/Win Negotiation Model WinWin Equilibrium State - All Win Conditions covered by Agreements - No outstanding Issues
Why Use Win/Win ? ä The alternatives dont work ä Win-lose often leads to lose-lose ä Avoids costly rework ä 100X cost to fix requirements after delivery ä Builds trust and manages expectations ä Looking out for others needs builds trust ä Balancing needs leads to realistic expectations ä Helps stakeholders adapt to change ä Shared vision and the flexibility of quick re-negotiation
Win/Win Critical Success Factors ä Appropriate staffing of stakeholder representatives, facilitator function ä Stakeholder representatives: empowered, committed, representative, collaborative, knowledgeable ä Facilitators: some understanding of stakeholder domains, collaboration management ability ä Good facilitators can be participants also ä Beginning of shared vision
Habit 5: First understand... then be understood. 4 tips for dealing with people Do not criticize, condemn, or complain. Express sincere appreciation. Give them emotional air and learn their story. Focus on their interests (know your best alternative coming in). What are some stranglers for emotional air? What are some ways we can express sincere appreciation? How often do you ask someone to a professional lunch? How do you meet a person? How do you greet a person? win-win area = L x h h = understand L = be understood Dale Carnegie How to Win Friends and Influence People Fisher & Ury, Getting to Yes
Actions for Success ä Exhibit a winning work ethic ä Show initiative ä Discover additional responsibilities ä Ask questions
What are Competencies? ä Knowledge ä Skills/abilities ä Understanding ä Behavior/motivation Competencies have definitions and key actions. Your actions demonstrate competencies.
Initiative Initiative (An example) Definition Taking prompt action to accomplish objectives; taking action to achieve goals beyond what is required; being proactive. Key Actions Responds quickly--Takes immediate action when confronted with a problem or when made aware of a situation. Takes independent action--Implements new ideas or potential solutions without prompting; does not wait for others to take action or to request action. Goes above and beyond--Takes action that goes beyond job requirements in order to achieve objectives.
Habit 6: Synergize. Animal school Once upon a time, the animals decided they must do something heroic to meet the problems of a New World, so they organized a school. They adopted an activity curriculum consisting of running, climbing, swimming, and flying. To make it easier to administer, all animals took all the subjects. In the end, the ducks web feet were so badly worn that he couldnt swim, the rabbit had a nervous breakdown and couldnt run, the eagle was disciplined severely for getting to the top of the tree without climbing, and an abnormal eel ended up doing best overall and winning valedictorian. What are your unique gifts? What talents do you need from others? What qualities often seem like a disadvantage, but are necessary? How do you contact or talk with people, if you are shy? (Carnegie)
Principles of Creative Communication ä Synergy ä The exercise of all the other habits prepares us for the habit of synergy. ä Synergy. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts. ä Few people experience synergy in their lives because most people have been scripted into defensive or protective communications. ä Synergy can be unnerving unless one has a high tolerance for ambiguity and gets security from integrity to principles and inner values.
Synergy in the Classroom ä Many truly great classes teeter on the very edge of chaos. ä Synergy is possible in the classroom when the group collectively agrees to subordinate old scripts and to write a new one.
Synergy in Business ä To achieve synergy in business requires that people become open and authentic. ä When we open ourselves up to the influence of others, we gain new insights and facilitate the generation of new options.
Synergy and Communication ä The lowest level of communication coming out of low trust situations is characterized by defensiveness, protectiveness, and legalistic language which covers all the bases and spells out qualifiers and escape clauses in the event things go sour. ä The middle level of communication is respectful communication -- where fairly mature people communicate. ä The highest level of communication is synergistic (win/win) communication.
Negative Synergy ä Most highly dependent people are trying to succeed in an interdependent reality. ä Many people don't realize that the real strength of any relationship is having alternative points of view.
Valuing the Differences ä Valuing the differences is the essence of synergy. ä The truly effective person has the humility and reverence to recognize his own perceptual limitations and to realize the rich resources available through interaction with the hearts and minds of other people. ä If two people have the same opinion, one person is unnecessary.
Force Field Analysis ä Any current level of performance or being is a state of equilibrium between the driving forces that encourage upward movement and the restraining forces that discourage it. ä Driving forces generally are positive, reasonable, logical, conscious, and economic. ä Restraining forces are often negative, emotional, illogical, unconscious, and social/psychological.
What is your personality? 4 categories I-E introvert (reserved) - extrovert (expressive) S-N sensory (observant) - intuitive (conceptual) T-F thinking - feeling P-J perceiving (probing) - judging (critiquing) ARTISANS (observant, probing) ESTP promoter (Roosevelt, Madonna) ISTP crafter (Bruce Lee, Earhart) ESFP performer (Elvis, Reagan) ISFP composer (Carson, Streisand) GUARDIANS (observant, critiquing) ESTJ supervisor (Colin Powell) ISTJ inspector (Truman) ESFJ provider (G Washington) ISFJ protector (Mother Teresa) IDEALISTS (intuitive, feeling) ENFJ teacher (Gorbachev, Billy Graham) INFJ counselor (Gandhi, E Roosevelt) ENFP champion INFP healer (Albert Schweitzer) RATIONALS (intuitive, thinking) ENTJ fieldmarshall (Gates, Greenspan) INTJ mastermind (D Eisenhower, Rand) ENTP inventor (Disney, Edison) INTP architect (Einstein, Darwin) David Keirsey, Please Understand Me II (similar to Myers-Briggs) no ranking dont feel boxed in! people are different
Habit 7: Sharpen the saw. When will YOU sharpen your saw? What measures will you use in each category? Physical endurance, strength, flexibility, sleep, eating Mental reading, journaling, discussing, seminars, meetings Spiritual battle of good versus evil (atheism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism) Social family, friends, service (notes, phone calls, s, visits)
Self-Management ä Self-Management when an individual consciously controls the learning process of acquiring new behavior through the interplay of environmental cues, consequences and cognitive processes
Creation Principle All things are created twice P P mental or first creation P P a physical or second creation Most non-productive endeavors fail with the first creation
The Two Creating Forces Managements main focus: How can I best accomplish certain things? Leaderships focus: What are things that I want to accomplish?
Rescripting Personal leadership: the first creation P P Through self-awareness, discover ineffective scripts, deeply embedded habits that are incongruent with values P P Proactively rescript
Personal Mission Statement The most effective way to begin with the end in mind is to develop a personal mission statement The key to the ability to change is a changeless sense of who you are, what you are about, what you are about, & what you value & what you value
Circle of Influence To create a mission statement begin with the center Principles & values: security, guidance, wisdom, & power The Circle of Influence
Mission Statement ä What are you first things? ä List those things that are most important in your life. ä How effective are you at keeping those things first in your life? Why?
Mission Statement ä If you were to do one thing in your professional life that would have the most positive impact, what would that one thing be? ä If you were to do one thing in your personal life that would have the most positive impact, what would that one thing be?
Mission Statement ä Record your personal mission statement, philosophy, or creed. Your mission statement is your personal contribution and represents the deepest and best within you.
Writing a Mission Statement Your personal constitution P P values P P purpose P P service/role in community P P what you will achieve P P how you will accomplish Not something written overnight P P goals P P hopes P P dreams Timeless... but review & revise
Whole Brain Activity Self-awareness empowers examination of thoughts Left side: P P Logical & verbal P P Parts & specifics P P Sequential thinking Right side: P P Intuitive & creative P P Wholes & relationships between parts P P Simultaneous & holistic thinking
Identify Roles & Goals Organize mission statement by specific role areas & goals that you want to accomplish in these areas P P Professional role P P Family role P P Community role P P Political role
Preparing for Turbulence ä Focus on core values ä Revisit goals ä Prioritize services ä Build for the future ä Measure and evaluate progress
Strategic Leadership ä Build a team Identify talent Identify talent Training and deploy as necessary Training and deploy as necessary ä Build community Establish and nurture partnerships Establish and nurture partnerships Establish support groups Establish support groups ä Build relationships Focus on people, not policies Focus on people, not policies Value diversity and inclusion Value diversity and inclusion
Envisioned Leadership ä Develop your personal portfolio Understand your power and influence Understand your power and influence Prepare relentlessly Prepare relentlessly ä Communicate your vision Have a plan Have a plan See the big picture See the big picture ä Focus on the organization Foster a collaborative and cooperative environment Foster a collaborative and cooperative environment Streamline operations Streamline operations ä Enjoy the journey!
Homework … Establish your big rocks – the important changes, not just the urgent. 1 Decide that you CAN in fact change your life. 2 Get away one weekend with a pen and pad of paper. Write down what you HOPE for in life, and what you feel called towards (e.g., family, work, opera). If you dont know … talk with friends or family. If you dont know … try things! Athletics, service, camping, animal rights, politics, research. If you dont know … read biographies and newspapers. If you dont know … look at Plan toward your vision. 3 Record how you spend a typical week … then decide how well it matches your vision. Use a daily planner (e.g., a date book, a Palm) to plan by weeks, focusing on today. If in a rut, find a small victory and win it. Sharpen the saw. mental: Learn a hobby (e.g., chess, golf, piano), or about people (Mars & Venus, Dale Carnegie) physical: Exercise, eat right, sleep. social: Find friends with whom you can share your deepest struggles, biggest triumphs, most guarded weaknesses and fears. spiritual: Good versus evil questions are the biggest youll face.
Summary ä Follower role includes responsibility, service, challenging authority, participating in change, knowing when its time to leave organization ä Developing Personal Potential ä Covey defines a habit as the intersection of knowledge, skill and desire ä He arranges seven habits along a continuum from dependence to interdependence ä When a person moves to interdependence, he steps into a leadership role
Seven Habits of Highly Successful People by Steven Covey ä Habit 1 - Be Proactive ä Habit 2 - Begin with the End in Mind ä Habit 3 - Put First Things First ä Habit 4 - Think Win/Win ä Habit 5 - Seek First to Understand, Then to Be Understood ä Habit 6 - Synergize ä Habit 7 - Sharpen the Saw
Overview ä Two leadership styles ä Variables that influence style ä Situational Leadership Model
Leadership Styles:2 Extremes DemocraticDemocratic Participatory Participatory Accepting input from subordinates Accepting input from subordinates Providing support, encouraging their efforts Providing support, encouraging their efforts Facilitating their involvement in decision-making and problem-solving Facilitating their involvement in decision-making and problem-solving Loosely supervising Loosely supervising AutocraticAutocratic ä Non-participatory ä Telling what to do, how to do it, where to do it, when to do it ä Closely supervising
ContinuumDemocratic Autocratic Followers/ Subordinates Boss Associates/ Peers Organization Type of Job Time What variables would determine which style to use?
Continuum Democratic Autocratic Followers/ Subordinates The Hersey and Blanchard Situational Leadership Model is based on this lone variable… because if you tried to consider all variables before deciding, youd become immobilized.
8 S3 S1S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPMENT LEVEL OF FOLLOWER(S) DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 THE FOUR LEADERSHIP STYLES DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (Low) SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR
Development Level of Followers Low skill Low skill New to job New to job Motivated Motivated Needs Needs specific specific direction direction Needs Needs close close supervision supervision EnthusiasticBeginner Low to Low to moderate moderate development development Unsure they Unsure they can do it can do it Leader gives Leader gives direction but direction but also seeks also seeks input input DisillusionedLearner Moderate Moderate to high to high skill level skill level Just absent Just absent adequate adequate motivation motivation Leaders Leaders key role is key role is facilitating facilitating ReluctantContributor High skill High skill and high and high motivation motivation Needs low Needs low direction direction or support or support Leader Leader empowers empowers followers followers PeakPerformer
S3 S1S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (Low) SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR Low skill Low skill New to job New to job Motivated Motivated Needs Needs specific specific direction direction Needs Needs close close supervision supervision High direction High direction Low support Low support Leader defines Leader defines roles of followers roles of followers Leader initiates Leader initiates problem solving problem solving and decision and decision making making One-way One-way communication communicationEnthusiasticBeginner
S3 S1S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (Low) SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR Low to Low to moderate moderate development development Unsure they Unsure they can do it can do it Leader gives Leader gives direction but direction but also seeks also seeks input input High direction High direction High support High support Leader now Leader now solicits ideas, solicits ideas, opinions opinions Two-way Two-way communication communication Leader still Leader still controls controls decisions decisionsDisillusionedLearner
S3 S1S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (Low) SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR Moderate Moderate to high to high skill level skill level Just absent Just absent adequate adequate motivation motivation Leaders Leaders key role is key role is facilitating facilitating High support High support Low direction Low direction Control shifts Control shifts to followers to followers Leader listens Leader listens actively and actively and provides provides recognition recognitionReluctantContributor
S3 S1S4 S2 Low Supportive and Low Directive Behavior High Directive and Low Supportive Behavior High Directive and High Supportive Behavior High Supportive and Low Directive Behavior DEVELOPED DEVELOPING HIGH LOW MODERATE D4 D1 D2 D3 DIRECTIVE BEHAVIOR (High) (Low) SUPPORTIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORTIVE BEHAVIOR High skill High skill and high and high motivation motivation Needs low Needs low direction direction or support or support Leader Leader empowers empowers followers followers Low support Low support Low direction Low direction Leader does Leader does discuss & define discuss & define problem to be problem to be solved solved Followers make Followers make decisions, run decisions, run the show the showPeakPerformer
Look at it this way… ä Its all about matching the style (of the leader) to the level (of the followers) ä Think of leaders needing to fill in whats missing… provide their people with what they cant do for themselves at the moment ä Mismatch results in… ä Over-supervision (gets you frustrated followers) ä Under-supervision (gets you insufficient results)
And finally… ä What about changing styles? When would you change styles? Would you… ever? ä Yes! As the name implies, Situational Leadership is task-specific ä Change it when warranted by change in task or change in personnel doing it ä Your goal… ä Build your followers development level so you can use less time-consuming styles (S3 and S4) and still get high quality results
SUMMARY ä Two leadership styles ä Variables that influence style ä Situational Leadership Model