6 Level 1 Accreditation requirements General coaching principles – in-class/onlineReference: Beginning Coaching Level 1 manual, Australian Sports Commission, 2009.Online:Canoe polo specific – off water and on waterReference: Canoe Polo – basic skills and tactics, I Beasley, Stern Turn Publishing, 2008.Practical assessment – plan, organise and conduct a coaching sessionFirst Aid qualificationCode of ethicsApply for accreditation
7 Business Services Unit Australian CanoeingHigh Performance UnitDevelopmentUnitProgramsBusiness Services UnitBoard of DirectorsHonours CommitteeEducation and SafetyCanoe PoloCanoe SprintMarathonSlalomWildwaterPresidentTechnicalCommittees* Australian Canoeing is affiliated with the International Canoe Federation
8 International Canoe Federation Executive CommitteeBoard of DirectorsPresidentEducation and SafetyCanoe PoloCanoe SprintCanoe MarathonCanoe SlalomWildwaterDragon BoatMedical and Anti-dopingAthletesCanoe FreestyleCanoeing for AllStandingCommitteesContinental AssociationsAfrica America Asia Europe Oceania National FederationsOver 130 countries The ICF is the International Sports Federation responsible for canoeing and other paddle sports and is recognised by the International Olympic Committee.
9 Coaching structure Australian Canoeing State Associations National Canoe PoloTechnical CommitteeNationalCoachesState CoachesState Canoe Polo Technical CommitteeAustralian Sports CommissionAustralian Coaching CouncilClubLevel 3CoachingCourseLevel 2Level 1
10 Australian Sports Commission Beginning Coaching The following subjects were covered in the beginning coaching course:The role of the coachPlanning and reviewingRisk managementCoaching communicationDeveloping sports skillsGame senseGroup managementAthlete development
12 Risk management Refer to Beginning Coaching Course manual Complete a risk management planning template from the manualConsider risk factors and mitigation specifically for the venue and for canoe polo.
13 Risk management - identify the risks EnvironmentalWeather, terrain, venueSharing water with others – swimmers, rowers, speed boatsHuman/people factorsCommunications, rules, cost, special needsEquipmentPoorly sized or faulty boats and equipmentAssembling and placing goals, field set upProcesses/proceduresEmergency contacts, evacuation procedures, First AidTransportTransportation to the venue, roads, traffic, parkingCarrying equipment, boats, paddles and gear to the to water
16 Injury preventionThe coach plays an important role in injury prevention. By making players aware of potential injuries and promoting good habits, the coach provides a strong foundation to reduce injuries and for a player’s ongoing education and development.Injury prevention is considered in the following areas:health and fitnessrules of playequipmenttechniquetraining
17 Injury prevention Health and fitness A good level of health and fitness ensures effective training and reduced risk of injury.The coach should be aware of:the fitness levels of each playerthe existence and influence of existing injuriesany special needs – for example: juniors, older playersnutrition and sleep requirementsdisabilities and health issueshydration, hypothermia, sun stress.
18 Injury prevention Rules of play The rules of canoe polo have been developed to minimise the risk of injury during playPlayers must know the rulesThe rules should be enforced at training sessions.EquipmentAll equipment and gear must be well maintained and suitable for its intended useScrutineer boats, paddles, and gear for sharp edges and loose partsGoal frames – no protrusions or sharp edges, firmly anchoredBoundary ropes and markers – suitable and safe.
19 Injury prevention Technique Good paddling and ball handling technique is essential for building strong skills, but is critical for reducing the chance of injury.TrainingWarm up and stretchingSessions prepared to suit skills of the playersSessions designed to progressively increase in intensityBe aware of various skills levels that may be in a session and how they impact each otherCool down.
21 Rules of playAll competitions in Australia are played in accordance with the ICF Canoe Polo Competition Rules.The rules are available at:
22 Referee hand signals – 1 1. START/INFRINGEMENT 2. COMPLETION OF HALF/FULL TIME3. GOAL4. DISALLOWED GOAL5. SIDELINE THROW/CORNER6. GOAL LINE THROW7. TIME OUT8. REFEREE'S BALL
23 Referee hand signals – 2 9. OBSTRUCTION/HOLDING 13. PLAY ON/ADVANTAGE 10. ILLEGAL TACKLE11. 5 SECONDS/POSSESSION12. ILLEGAL USE OF PADDLE13. PLAY ON/ADVANTAGE14. FREE THROW15. FREE SHOT16. GOAL PENALTY SHOT17. SHOWING CARDS
24 Penalty cards Penalty cards may be used at any time during a game: Green card – a warning. Awarded for dangerous play, talking back to the referee, or for unsporting behaviour. (A third green card to the same player, for any reason, automatically becomes a yellow card.)Yellow card – two minutes penalty. Awarded for a deliberate or dangerous foul that prevents the scoring of a near certain goal, for deliberate or dangerous play, repeated and continuous dispute of the referee’s decisions, foul or abusive language, or illegal substitution (A second yellow card to the same player, for any reason, automatically becomes a red card.)Red card – rest of game penalty. Awarded where a player disputes a yellow card, or a yellow card has not had the desired effect of causing the player to control their play or attitude, for a personal attack on another player, for repeated and continuous foul or abusive language.
26 ScrutineeringScrutineering of gear and equipment before play is essential to ensure player safety and player confidence.Check the following before allowing a player or equipment to participate:helmets – proper fit, passes poke testPFD – proper fit, no rips, no loose strapsspray deck – good fit on kayak, has release strap, no holespaddles – correct thickness, no sharp edges, no loose tapekayaks – no sharp edges, no loose screws, no loose bumpers, no loose tapepersonal – no watches, no jewelleryRefer to the IFC Rules of Play for detailed scrutineering requirements.
28 Equipment Participants Different sizes and shapes of kayaks suit different peopleDifferent constructions suit different abilities – plastic boats and paddles are appropriate for clubs but not for national team athletesDifferent paddle shapes and lengths are suitable for different positions, ability, size and age of paddler.Training venueAvailability – space, time, cost, location, facilitiesRisks – swimmers, other boats, trees, snags, water quality, water access.GoalsSuitable, safe, and safely secured.
29 Choice of kayak Length Affects speed, nose control, tail control Width Affects speed, stabilityDesignRocker from end to endShape of edges (chine)VolumeWhere it is and how much control the paddler hasConstructionPlastic, fibreglass, Kevlar, carbon-fibreFitFirm and comfortable
30 Choice of paddle Shape of blade Symmetrical, asymmetrical Can vary with techniqueCan speed up player just by changing blade shape to suit techniqueArea of bladeDepends on strength of paddlerLengthVaries with height, arm length, technique and position on fieldConstruction/weightAluminium, plastic, Kevlar, carbon fibreSymmetrical and asymmetrical blade
31 Other equipment Helmet Good fit Adequate protection to base of skull and earsMake sure it floats!FacemaskCorrectly fittedFully protects the facePFDCorrect size, comfortablePadding extends around the sidesSpray deckGood fit on boatGood fit around waist
35 Coaches roles and styles Coaches may call on a variety roles and styles that vary with the level of athletes being coached and individual athletes personalities.Coaches must constantly ask themselves “What am I trying to achieve?” and “What style suits this athlete?”It is a good idea to ask yourself before coaching a group or individual: “Why am I coaching?”It is also useful to know and understand what parents/employers want from you as a coach.
36 Coaching outlook Encourage participation, fun, and learning Encourage self discipline and high standardsBe firm but fairInclude everyoneBe punctualTake an interest in individualsKeep everyone involved and active.
37 Group management Group players according to skill level Plan for the the different needs and expectations of players – high performance, women, juniors, seniors, and noviceBe aware of the age and development differences:a 17 year male can be a daunting opponent to a pre pubescent 14 year oldsome less skilled athletes can be disheartened by more skilled athletesKeep paddlers focused and activeKeep paddlers together and within controlSet boundaries to the training areaDo not let paddlers wanderIf a large group, appoint an assistant coach.
38 Group management Men vs women Big vs small Skilled vs less skilled No problem with fitness and most ball skills training, but big problems with offence/defence or 1-on-1.Limit strength difference by using appropriate drills and match ups eg: press work with mixed teams – men mark men, girls mark girls.Big vs smallBe aware in junior age groups of size issues.Try to keep match ups of similar size, especially in competitive drills.Skilled vs less skilledTry to keep groups of similar skill levels togetherOr limit dominant group eg: use left hand only, no dribbling, etc
39 Teaching sports skills Understanding the three stages of learning motives good practise:Early stage – learning a new skill; actions must be thought through and carefully monitored. There tends to be many errors and movement is often clumsy.Intermediate stage – a basic command of the skill; allowing better control and coordination but still requiring a conscious effort.Final stage – the new skill is happening automatically and unconsciously.If poor technique is tolerated in the early stage, it becomes the technique used in the final phase.
40 Skill drillsDrills are an essential coaching tool for building individual skills as well as team skills.Drills may be used for:warm up, warm downpassing, shooting, blockingpaddling, tacklingdefence and offence tacticsChoose drills that are:appropriate to the level of participantsas game-like as possiblefun and interestingchallenging to the players.
41 Skill drills It is important to: continually change drills to prevent boredom and to avoid players simply ‘going through the motions’provide quality not quantity – 5-10 mins of passing between two people is more beneficial than minutes of passing in a circleprogress between drills within a session and from session to sessiondemonstrate a high level of correctness.
42 Teaching sports skills – DEDICT For consistent and reliable instruction use the DEDICT approach.Demonstrate the skillExplain its purpose and emphasise three coaching pointsDemonstrate againImitate – let them try itCorrection – provide feedbackTrial – put the new skill under pressure.
43 Teaching sports skills – game sense Use a game sense approach to develop tactics and skills in a fun environment.CHANGE ITCoaching style – eg: use of questionsHow to score/winArea – eg: size of fieldNumber of playersGame rules – eg: no dribblingEquipment – eg: small ball, lower goalInclusion – eg: everyone touches the ball before the team can scoreTime – eg: how many passes in 30 seconds
44 Coaching aids and resources Observation – subjective analysis of playersVideo analysis – correcting paddling and throwing technique and analysing game playTraining diary – records training programs, athlete’s progressOther resources – manuals, books, DVDs, InternetPeople – other coaches, professionals, elite athletes and parentsTools – magnetic whiteboard with boat and ball shapesBook – Canoe Polo – basic skills and tactics
46 Failing to plan, is planning to fail. Why is a training program needed?What does the coach/player want to achieve?Need to set goals:where am I now?where do I want to be?what do I need to do get there?What shape will the program take?What other considerations affect planning?
47 Goal settingRemember SMART when setting goals:Specific – the goal is well defined and has a clear outcome.Measurable – the goal can be measured so that progress toward it can be seenAchievable – the goal is practical and can be achievedRealistic – the resources, equipment and time available to support the goal are appropriateTime-based – set a time frame to achieve the goal.
48 Planning considerations Who you are coaching?Males vs females, juniors vs seniors, beginners vs experiencedWho is coming?How many people?What is the time commitment ?Why do they play?What motivates them? Is it high performance, general fitness, or social?Is there a competition or championship?Is it club, state, national or international?What facilities are available?Access, playing area, change roomsBoats, gear, goalsWeather.Interactive session with white board going through an example of a yearly plan
49 Program The program must identify: length of program the phases of the programthe detail of the programThe training plan must identify:session aimsspecific drills, exercises, and time allocationreview and evaluationExample:A novice team wishes to graduate to the next grade but to do so must win the season grand final. The season is four months long and the program must address individual skills, team skills and fitness. The players must lift their skills in forward paddling, turning, rolling, zone defence, and aerobic fitness.
50 Typical training session format Warm upforward paddlingstretchespassing(10 minutes)Light paddling, stretching and passing to warm and loosen the body ready for more demanding activities.2. Individual skillsstrokesboat skillsball skillspaddle skills(20 minutes)Focused sessions to build specific individual skills such as turning, passing, dribbling, tackling, blocking.Team skillsdefenceoffencegamesSkills such as zone defence, press and double drives, or corners and incorporate these into games.Fitnessaerobic fitnessanaerobic fitnessIntensive exercise and drills to build stamina and recovery ability.Cool downpaddlingRelaxed exercise and stretches to wind down and complete training.
51 Example training session Warm upRelaxed paddling and passingIndividual skillsPassing and catching – 1 ball between 2Baseball pass, chest pass, round arm passPassing on the move – simple cutting drill, Southern CrossDribbling – simple relay – 1 ball between 3Team skills1-3-1 zone defencePossession game to finish – team that keeps ball for longest winsFitnessDistance paddle to build staminaCool DownRelaxed paddle and stretching
54 Technique fundamentals Fit in boatHipsLegsFeetPostureUpright, relaxedMaximise distance between sternum and navalPaddle gripRight tight vs left tightSymmetricalBody rotationFace where you want to goPaddle parallel with shoulders
55 Technique fundamentals To reduce shoulder dislocation:avoid moving the arm to a position that places the shoulder in an awkward positionkeep arms bent to absorb shock and reduce forces transmitted to the shoulderelbows should not extend pass the line of the backavoid hyperextension of arms.To reduce risk of rotator cuff injuries:keep elbows close to the bodystrengthen rotator cuff muscles by doing external rotation exercises with elastic or light weights.