Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BoC 04.11.10 Communication Assessment for People who engage in Behaviours Of Concern (BOC) Module 5 : Functional Communication Training Hilary Johnson,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "BoC 04.11.10 Communication Assessment for People who engage in Behaviours Of Concern (BOC) Module 5 : Functional Communication Training Hilary Johnson,"— Presentation transcript:

1 BoC Communication Assessment for People who engage in Behaviours Of Concern (BOC) Module 5 : Functional Communication Training Hilary Johnson, Nick Hagiliassis, Barbara Solarsh, Teresa Iacono, Jo Watson, Teena Caithness This is Module 5: Functional Communication Training Learning Objectives for this short module are: Office of the Senior Practitioner, Disability Services, Victoria Module 5 Functional Communication Training

2 Functional Communication Training (FCT)
BoC CRITICAL QUESTION What are the differences between functional communication training (FCT) and teaching an individual to communicate in everyday situations (with a variety of partners, in a variety of settings)? What are the similarities? Functional Communication Training (FCT) FCT – Replacing socially unacceptable behaviour with acceptable communication responses” – Chapter 4 Exemplary Practices for Beginning Communicators Implications for AAC (2002) by Joe Reichle, David R Beukleman and Janice C Light. Basically it’s about a mand. Excellent chapter by David Wacker, Wendy Berg and Jay Harding. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

3 Functional Communication Training (FCT)
BoC Functional Communication Training (FCT) FCT defined as a systematic intervention in which the behavior of concern is replaced by more socially appropriate behavior. (Sigafoos & Meikle, 1996) Replacement behavior is intended to serve the same purpose as the challenging behavior (Carr, 1988) Underlying notion that challenging behaviors are communicative intents (Durand, 1993; Skinner, 1957) Replacing socially unacceptable behaviour with a mand (acceptable communicative response) Unacceptable behaviour needs to be suppressed or reduced. MAND Module 5 Functional Communication Training

4 Functional Equivalence
BoC Functional Equivalence Myth #1 If I teach the person to communicate, unacceptable behaviour will no longer occur. Fact #1 Teach a mand that serves the same function as the unacceptable behaviour. The relationship between the mand and unacceptable behaviour is the key variable. Functional Equivalence (Carr, 1988) refers to the relation between responses. If two responses serve the same function, they are said to be equivalent. Although this is usually a necessary component for effective replacement of one response with another, often it is not sufficient. In addition, to being equivalent in function, the replacement response must be as efficient; that is, it can not require increased effort (Horner & Day, 1991). It must also have a greater possibility of being reinforced that the response it is replacing. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

5 Step Description Rationale
BoC Step Description Rationale 1. Identify the functions of the unacceptable behaviour Conduct a functional analysis of the unacceptable behaviour If function is known, then use a response that is functionally equivalent. 2. Ensure the efficiency of the communicative responses that compete with unacceptable behaviour Select a efficient communication response 1) physical effort 2) amount of reinforcement and 3) delay to reinforcement ↑ effort &/or ↓ response &/or greater delay to reinforcement for communicative response, then no change to behaviour 3. Evaluate the reinforcers provided for unacceptable behaviour and communicative responses Eliminate or ↓reinforcement for the unacceptable behaviour and ↑ reinforcement for the communicative response = effort = response = reinforcement Both will occur Steps for selecting an acceptable communicative response - David Wacker, Wendy Berg and Jay Harding (2002). This table is an example of how to select an efficient communication response. Delay to reinforcement – Basically the individual needs to be taught a system of what to do and when to do it. To ensure that this is successful all behaviours need to be analysed to establish the function of the behaviour. This could be done with a descriptive assessment, which includes interviews and survey of parents or care providers, daily behaviour logs, A-B-C charts (antecedent-behaviour-consequence), functional analysis. Here in Victoria we can use Functional Assessment of Behaviour, including A-B-C charts, STAR charts, daily logs that chart the intensity, frequency and duration of the behaviour. Then in thinking of a functional equivalent – there are three factors to consider that all contribute to the efficiency of the new communicative response. They are 1) physical effort, 2) amount of reinforcement and 3) delay to reinforcement. So really, an individual would be less inclined to use the replacement communicative response or behaviour if it took more effort to do it, didn’t give the same amount of reinforcement and they had to wait some time until they were reinforced. This can be a problem with some replacement behaviours, especially if there is a long delay before the payoff occurs. Individuals will often give up or ramp up their use of unacceptable behaviours. Let’s have a look at the example of Kenneth. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

6 Functional Communication Training
BoC Functional Communication Training Kenneth hits his Mum with a closed fist Request for “Take me for a drive in the car” Teach Kenneth to sign “car” as a request BOC Function FCT Select KWS as a mand Review Kenneth is 38 years old. He lives with his parents. The family own a newsagent and post office agency. Kenneth’s parents worked there together whilst Kenneth attended special school. His mother was very involved prior to Kenneth attending school, however, as soon as Kenneth grew older and especially when he grew taller and stronger she reported that his behaviour was hard to manage at home. Rather than challenge Kenneth or set boundaries, both parents were most likely to give Kenneth what he requested. Usually this was about food, watching dvds and insisting on viewing specific television programs. Once Kenneth left school his parents found he was more demanding of their time. A-B-C chart. A = Kenneth is bored and wants to go for a drive in the car. B = Kenneth hits his mother with a closed fist C = Kenneth gets to drive in the car with his mother Background. Kenneth was introduced to Key Word Signing at school, and used to use about six KWS regularly. He never combined signs but would vocalise either distress or happiness (like/want and dislike/reject). Kenneth’s parents never used KWS with him at home. They had not attended any of the training events held by the school. No-one else in their community used KWS and they believed that their son would learn to talk one day. Look for the functional equivalent… Module 5 Functional Communication Training

7 Delay to Reinforcement
BoC Behaviour Effort of Response Delay to Reinforcement Aggression (hitting his mother) Kenneth must approach his mother and move his hand to his mother’s face or body Minimal Signing “car” Less than aggression however he is already fisting his hands * Longer than aggression (must be observed) Touching a word card Less than aggression Using a voice output communication aid Same as aggression (gives an auditory cue to his mother if message matches intent) Table for Kenneth based on Table 4.2 comparison of unacceptable and acceptable responses based on efficiency - David Wacker, Wendy Berg and Jay Harding (2002). Example of selecting an efficient communication response. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

8 Functional description
BoC Procedure Functional description Functional effect Reprimand, redirect, or discuss Kenneth is given attention by his mother, although he does not go in the car Hitting is reinforced Reduce amount / quality of attention Brief neutral attention provided for hitting. More attention given for use of KWS Reinforcement occurs, but the relative value & amount of reinforcement weakens the behaviour Planned ignoring (extinction) Hitting is ignored Reinforcement of hitting is eliminated Time-out (nonexclusionary) Mother looks away for a brief period for time (eg: 30 seconds) whenever hitting occurs Reinforcement of hitting is eliminated, and Kenneth receives no attention for a brief period Table for Kenneth based on Table 4.3 Functional consequences for aggression maintained by attention - David Wacker, Wendy Berg and Jay Harding (2002). Therefore within FCT there are really clear guidelines as to respond to the communication response. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

9 Functional Communication Training
BoC Functional Communication Training FCT involves assessment to determine the functions of behaviour and teaching the use of a more appropriate form of behaviour that serves the same function. There are 3 stages: 1. Identify the Communicative Function of the BOC 2. Select an appropriate communicative alternative 3. Implement systematic instruction to teach the communicative alternative The relationship between the unacceptable and acceptable behaviours as well as the reinforcers that are associated with each response are key to developing replacement behaviours. Firstly, it must be ensured that the behaviours serve the same function, and the bias the responding in favour of the desired communicative response by focusing in efficiency and on the amount and quality of reinforcement. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

10 BoC FCT Systematic Review of Literature Miriam Chacon & Oliver Wendt (2006) Evidence Based Practice (EBP) Provide evidence about the effectiveness of FCT for practitioners Provide a systematic review which uses quantitative measures to determine treatment effectiveness Last review published in 1997 (Mirenda) Research Question Is FCT an effective treatment in decreasing aggressive behaviors in individuals with autism? Miriam Chacon and Oliver Wendt looked at the Outcomes of Functional Communication Training (FCT) to reduce challenging behaviours in individuals with Autism. They were keen to provide evidence about the effectiveness of FCT for practitioners to make professional decisions regarding treatment. See handout Module 5 Functional Communication Training

11 BoC FCT Systematic Review of Literature Miriam Chacon & Oliver Wendt (2006) Speech (n=3) Vocalizations – replacement behaviour* Braithwaite & Richdale (2000) Day, Horner, & O’Neill (1994) Sigafoos & Meikle (1996) Manual Signs & Gestures (n=3) A combination of ASL manual signs and gestures* Wacker, et al. (1990) Graphic Symbols (n=3) Line drawings and word cards* Horner & Day (1991) Schindler & Horner (2005) They looked at a small number of studies out of 24 studies, 10 met the inclusion criteria, which were FCT was operationally defined Subjects were diagnosed as having autism (other PDD’s excluded) Single-subject research design True experimental design only, no pre-experimental Published in peer-reviewed journals from Aggressive behaviors were targeted in the intervention Module 5 Functional Communication Training

12 FCT Systematic Review Results Miriam Chacon & Oliver Wendt (2006)
BoC FCT Systematic Review Results Miriam Chacon & Oliver Wendt (2006) FCT ranged from fairly effective to highly effective in the studies reviewed FCT yielded greater reduction of challenging behaviors when speech & manual signs/gestures were used as the replacement behaviors graphic symbols yielded the least amount of reduction of challenging behaviours TABLE Median PND PRD speech 97% 98% manual signs & gestures 100% graphic symbols 65% 88% Module 5 Functional Communication Training

13 Functional Communication Training
BoC Functional Communication Training FCT is successful although alone, it does not produce changes in the long run if other measures are not also addressed. Fading, extinction and other measures should be combined to ensure that the individuals continue to gain other skills while decreasing the use of challenging behaviours (Carr & Durand, 1985; Wacker et al, 1990) Continues research on FCT is needed Boesch, M. C. & Wendt, O. (2009) Reducing self-injurious behaviors in individuals with autism: Benefits of functional communication training EBP Briefs 4(2), 1-11. EBP briefs provide a scholarly forum for guiding evidence-based practices in speech-language pathology. Both Miriam and Oliver work at Purdue University. Miriam has produced articles and presentations under the surnames Chacon and now Boesch. They are both greatly influenced by Ralf Schlosser and use the process of EBP and systematic reviews. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

14 Where does FCT fit into a BSP?
Under the section Proactive Strategies “Teaching Skills” Communication Skills Independence * Coping skills * However, you may also be working on receptive and expressive communication supports for independence and coping skills in the three proactive strategy areas Change the Environment, Teaching Skills and Short-term Change Strategies

15 Functional Communication Training
Proactive strategies What to do to prevent the behaviour Immediate response strategies What might help when the behaviours occur; beginning with least restrictive strategies? Change the environment Train communication partners to look for new skill Add resources to support FCT Teaching skills Teach new skill to replace BOC (long term) Short-term change strategies for rapid change to behaviour Teach new skill to replace BOC (immediate) Do not expect the individual to use FCT Follow BSP

16 SUMMARY Pat Howlin (2006) pages 90-97
BoC SUMMARY Pat Howlin (2006) pages 90-97 Developing communication in less able individuals Examining communicative functions important in BoC Analysis of “maladaptive” behaviours finds they are often most effective BoC lead to rapid and usually predictable responses from others Highly intensive experimental settings → lead to teach alternative ways (FCT) Detailed analysis of possible functions of undesirable behaviours required Quick fix 4 functions: Durand & Crimmins (1988) Motivational Assessment Scale Identify primary function of behaviour → alternate forms taught (FCT) Increasing general communicative ability Transition from school to adulthood Need to recognise an individual’s potential ability Possible to teach emotions – better if you start young Module 5 Functional Communication Training

17 BoC Transporters Prof Simon Baron-Cohen Academic research behind The Transporters The Transporters series has been evaluated by the Autism Research Centre for its effectiveness for children aged 4 to 8 with ASC (autistic spectrum condition). The results are very exciting. In all tasks on which the children were tested, most caught up their typically developing peers. The results suggest that The Transporters DVD is an effective way to teach emotion recognition to children with ASC and that the learning generalises to new faces and new situations. Children with ASC who did not watch the DVD remained below typically developing levels. Interview: The scientist and the parent's view Professor Simon Baron Cohen, Director of the Autism Research Centre at Cambridge, talks about how the animations work and a parent talks about how the series helped her son. Watch the movie Find out what others have said about the series. How the research was conducted Researchers compared children with ASC who watched the DVD for 15 minutes every weekday for one month with children with ASC who didn't watch the DVD. They were also compared to typically developing children who did not watch the DVD. The children were matched for age and verbal IQ and the children with ASC were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Children were assessed on four different emotion recognition tasks. Emotional vocabulary - children were asked to define the 15 emotion words from the DVD and give examples of situations that evoked them. Familiar matching task - children were told a familiar scenario that they would have seen in The Transporters DVD. They were asked to choose the correct facial expression from a choice of three animated familiar Transporters faces. Close generalisation of skills - children were asked to match animated familiar Transporters faces to situations they had not seen before. Distant generalisation to real human faces - children were asked to match animated unfamiliar faces to unfamiliar situations. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

18 The CAT Kit Dr Tony Attwood http://catkit-us.com/
BoC Developed by Dr. Tony Attwood, Dr. Kirsten Callesen and Dr. Annette Moller Nielsen Cognitive Affective Training (CAT) visual representation of feelings and emotions Includes a Manual, CAT-organizer, 9 Basic Feelings, The Measure, the Body, My circles, Timetables, Behaviour Palettes, the Wheel, CAT-book labels The CAT-kit Components (With the exception of the manual, all elements are laminated so they can be written on again and again with any dry-erase marker.) The Manual will walk you through the CAT-kit elements using easy-to-read, nontechnical language. The first part of the manual is a theoretical introduction to Cognitive Affective Training, while the second part is a practical introduction to each of the elements and how to effectively use them. The 50-page manual can be read in about 30 minutes, so you can begin using the kit immediately. The CAT-organizer is a visual tool that helps to structure a meaningful conversation with a student about behavior. It breaks the conversation down into several parts in order to facilitate a high level of understanding for both student and adult. Conversations are usually prompted by an event that lends itself to a learning opportunity, where the student can describe their interpretation of what happened. The other elements in the CAT-kit are designed to support the different parts of the conversation. Nine Basic Feelings are presented in the CAT-kit: joy, sorrow, fear, love, anger, pride, shame, surprise, and safety. There are 10 more specific feelings under each basic feeling category, making 90 emotions available for students to choose from. There is a word piece and a face piece for each of the 90 emotions and they are all affixed with Velcro. They can be attached to The Measure tool to establish emotion intensity and The Day tool to establish time references. There are also blank pieces where students can write in other feelings or draw unique faces. The Measure is similar to a thermometer and it is divided into intervals from 0 to 10. Circles of Velcro are affixed at each interval so that you can apply faces, feelings words and other visual symbols interactively. In this manner, the user can mark the intensity of feelings, thoughts, experiences and interests. The Body is a simplified body figure used to facilitate conversations about the connections between thoughts/feelings and body/behavior. The student can identify where certain emotions affect them physically (e.g., perhaps a stomachache during anxiety, a headache during stress, etc.) and how they express those emotions with their body. This knowledge can then lead to better control and/or prevention of those reactions through self-awareness. My Circles works as a visual model on which the student's relationships, friendships, and interests can be illustrated. The most elementary way of using My Circles is by writing the names of people who the student interacts with inside the five levels of centrality: Circle 1 – me; Circle 2 – family, Circle 3 – friends; Circle 4 – professionals; Circle 5 – Strangers. This is a great tool for teaching appropriate social skills! You can teach Theory of Mind skills by placing someone else in Circle 1 and defining what their social circles may be. It can also be used to rank interests, events, and other concepts in an infinite possibility of contexts. Timetables help develop and support the concept of time. Using The Day, The Week and The Year tools, students can place events in order and associate different emotions to those events. This can help the child understand how a person can be very happy and feel comfortable in one situation and then a second later become angry or sad. As part of the child's description of what happened, the intensity of the feeling can be measured on the Measure and the duration of the feeling can be measured on the Day. These can also be used to present daily, weekly, or yearly schedules to students ahead of time in order to avoid stress in times of change. Behavior Palettes are charts that contain written descriptions of different behaviors, starting with the thoughts and feelings behind behaviors, and working up to the effects the behaviors may have on other people. Four different types of behavior are presented within four colors: Red (outright aggressive), Yellow (passive aggressive), Grey (submissive) and Green (assertive). These tools promote understanding and help develop the student’s ability to self-regulate. The Wheel is a visual personality organizer that promotes self-awareness. By using words, drawings, colors, or other symbols that work well for the student, you can help create a customized reflection of the student's personality. Using The Wheel as a sort of pie chart, each trait or characteristic is drawn in as a different “piece” and named according to the child's self-perception, externalizing internal traits. Different parts may have different sizes to symbolize that traits may be stronger or weaker according to how the student acts in different circumstances. CAT-Book Labels are intended for the various do-it-yourself books that can be used in conjunction with the CAT-kit. A CAT-book may be a workbook, a notebook, a homemade book, or a binder with dividers and folders. There are two labels for each suggested book: a Feelings book, a Diary, a Success book and a book of Special Interests. These books are optional but are a great way to extend the effectiveness of the CAT-kit and allow the student to record ideas in unique ways. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

19 Emotion Based Social Skills Training EBSST http://sigmaweb. com
BoC 2004 HFASD + AS children 8-14 years + parents Pilot Study 2006 HFASD + AS children 8-14 years + parents RCT 2008 ASD + ID children 8-12 years + parents Pilot Study 2010 EBSST in Schools 7-12 years + parents Pilot Study To Contact EBSST - us at: Fax us at : Call us at : Emotion-based Social Skills Training (EBSST) is a program that aims to promote the well-being of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and prevent the onset of mental health concerns. Developed and researched since 2004, EBSST uses evidence-based treatment methods to promote emotional understanding, perspective taking skills, problem solving, and emotional management. EBSST has programs for children and adolescents, parents, teachers, and EBSST practitioners and aims to develop networks of skill development and support for children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and those who care for them. WHAT WILL MY STUDENT LEARN IN EBSST? EBSST aims to build emotional resiliency in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. EBSST focuses on teaching emotion-based skills because to have successful social interactions, a student must also have insight into the emotions of themselves and others. Through EBSST, students learn how to: recognise their own feelings; recognise the feelings of others; understand that people have different thoughts and feelings than their own; problem solve in social situations; and manage feelings such as sadness, anxiety, and anger. WHAT WILL I LEARN IN EBSST? Teachers will learn how to be an emotion coach for their student. Emotion coaching is about helping children to better understand their feelings. This is achieved through: teachers recognising for themselves their student’s feelings (e.g. through their body cues, language, and behaviour); helping their student to identify their own body cues and emotion-driven behaviour; helping their student to label their own and others’ emotions; developing a common language with which to talk about feelings; and creating a supportive environment that promotes safe sharing of emotional experiences. Parents will learn how to be an emotion coach for their child. Emotion coaching is about helping children to better understand their feelings. This is achieved through: parents recognising for themselves their child’s feelings (e.g. through their body cues, language, and behaviour); helping their child to identify their own body cues and emotion-driven behaviour; helping children to label their own and others’ emotions; Module 5 Functional Communication Training

20 Dr Karen James University of Sydney karen.james@sydney.edu.au
BoC Dr Karen James University of Sydney 22 July Learning to communicate at school 21 July 2010 Adolescents years – Western Sydney One school for young people with severe behavioural difficulties has been trialling a quite direct approach to turning around kids' engagement at school. It doesn't focus on discipline, or counselling, but communication. They have piloted a program that teaches students what many of us might think of as very basic communication skills. The pilot program successfully decreased truancy rates, improved language skills, improved social skills and increased reading and writing scores at Plumpton House, a transitional school for adolescents with severe behavioural problems in Sydney's west. It program even led to five students being re-integrated into mainstream schools, TAFE or work programs. "Children with language impairments have substantial difficulty coping with the requirements of a school curriculum. As a result they 'act out' and get labelled as having behavioural problems," Karen said. "Students with behavioural problems and fewer social skills are more likely to be expelled from mainstream schools, have poorer job prospects and higher rates of incarceration. "By focusing on language and basic social skills like interpreting body language, considering the consequences of your actions or even just waiting your turn, we were able to address the causes of some of the more basic behavioural problems students had. "Rolling out the program to the entire school meant everyone learnt the same thing at the same time and no one student was singled out. By the end, students said they came to school instead of truanting or tried hard not to be suspended so they didn't miss out on the sessions!" The 12 week program used weekly hour long social skill lessons followed by one-on-one speech pathology sessions, where students were encouraged to set their own goals. Following the Conference, Karen's work continues to receive a good coverage in local print media and on ABC radio. If you would like to know more about the program, contact Karen James Module 5 Functional Communication Training

21 Strengths-based model Uses Narrative therapy
The Good Way Model Lesley Ayland and Bill West, NZ BoC Strengths-based model Uses Narrative therapy Originally developed for young people with DD Good Way Good House / Bad House Good Life Gang of 3 for abusive behaviour Mr Sneaky, Mr Bully, Mr Just Do The 3 Wise Men and their Box of Tools The Good Way model is strengths-based, uses narrative therapy approaches and encompasses relapse prevention. The model encourages therapists, clients and families to be creative and resourceful in exploring and finding solutions to abuse-related and other problems. It was developed using the language and concepts of the young people themselves; preliminary indications from a New Zealand wide research project suggest that clients and their families readily assimilate this model. It is especially useful for young people with developmental delay and with older children and younger adolescents. There are two streams to the model. The first (Good Way/Bad Way) focuses on the young people understanding that they have choices over their behaviour, including their abusive behaviour, and assists them to develop their strengths and their ability to choose the "Good Way" in any given situation. The other stream (Good House/Bad House) deals with their own experience of loss and trauma and assists them to do their own healing, to appreciate the impact on others of their abusive behaviour, to take steps to repair relationships, and to develop the skills needed for their "Good Life". The Good Way model was originally developed for working with youth with intellectual difficulties who have sexually abused and is also now being used with adults with intellectual disabilities and non-disabled adolescents. The model is practical and has been developed to address the need for a common, coherent narrative with which clients and therapists can effectively discuss behaviour and experiences. It has been developed through a process of listening to the clients' descriptions of their experiences and then adapting our conceptual framework accordingly. The model is essentially a strengths-based programme using a narrative therapy approach and incorporates relapse prevention. There are two streams to the model: the first (Good Way/Bad Way) focuses on the young person identifying their strengths and the components of their “Good Life”, developing an understanding of the consequences of their actions including their abusive behaviour, and developing their ability to choose the “Good Way”. The other stream (Good House/Bad House) deals with the young person's experience of loss and trauma, and assists them to develop an appreciation of the impact on others of their abusive behaviour and to take steps to repair relationships where possible. Current indications of success are shown by the young people and their families readily using the language, and applying the concepts to describe and monitor their behaviour. To date, none of the young people who have completed the programme are known to have sexually re-offended. Keywords: Therapy; strength-based; narrative therapy; youth; adolescent; intellectual disability; sexual offending; sexual abuse; The Good Way model The Good Way Model A strengths-based approach for working with young people, especially those with intellectual difficulties, who have sexually abusive behaviour. Lesley Ayland and Bill West Journal of Sexual Aggression 2006 Vol 12:22, Pages Module 5 Functional Communication Training

22 Dr Pat Mirenda University of British Columbia pat.mirenda@ubc.ca
BoC Dr Pat Mirenda University of British Columbia Worth seeing if you ever get a chance Possible visit to Australia in 2011 Planting Two Trees with One Seed: Communication supports for Problem Behaviour (2008) Dr. Mirenda is on the Editorial Board of the Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions and is one of the founding members of Making Connections, a committee that sponsors an annual BC conference on Effective Behaviour Support (EBS) in schools.  In 2000, she completed an extensive evaluation of the EBS initiative in BC for the Ministry of Education and presented her finding at several major conferences.  At UBC, she teaches one course on functional assessment and positive behaviour support, EPSE The website includes Dr. Mirenda's positive behaviour support-related articles and chapters. Module 5 Functional Communication Training

23 BoC References Sigafoos, J., Arthur-Kelly, M. & Butterfield, N (2006) Enhancing Everyday Communication for Children with Disabilities (2006) Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co: Maryland USA ISBN Koegel, L.K., Koegel, R.L & Dunlap, G. (1996) Positive Behavioral Support: Including People with Difficult Behavior in the Community Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co: Maryland USA ISBN Module 5 Functional Communication Training

24 BoC References Howlin, P. (2004) Autism and Asperger Syndrome: Preparing for Adulthood (2nd edn) London: Routledge. ISBN Reichle, J., Beukelman, D.R., & Light, J.C. (2002) Exemplary Practices for Beginning Communicators: Implications for AAC Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co: Maryland USA ISBN X Module 5 Functional Communication Training

25 Focus Questions Functional Communication Training (FCT)
Who assesses the behaviour? Who provides a hypothesis for the function of the behaviour? Who decides on the replacement behaviour? Who creates the communication supports or strategies? Who trains the replacement behaviour? Who collects data to support the effectiveness or not of the replacement behaviour? Who reviews the success or not of FCT?


Download ppt "BoC 04.11.10 Communication Assessment for People who engage in Behaviours Of Concern (BOC) Module 5 : Functional Communication Training Hilary Johnson,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google