Presentation on theme: "IONS Big Idea Atoms can gain or lose electrons to form charged particles called IONS."— Presentation transcript:
1 IONSBig IdeaAtoms can gain or lose electrons to form charged particles called IONS
2 Orbitals and Energy Levels Each electron in an atom has a definite amount of energy.Electrons in orbitals further from the nucleus have more energy.Orbitals that are FULL of electrons are most stable.Which electrons in this atom have the most energy?
3 What are Ions?Atoms are neutral particles because they have the same number of positive protons and negative electrons.An ion is a charged particle.An ion is formed when an atom gains or loses electrons.
4 Forming Ions Type of Ion How Formed? Example Negative Ion = anion Formed by gaining negative electronsF F-1Positive Ion= cationFormed by losing negative electronsNa Na+1
5 Ions want noble gas orbitals! Noble gases have stable energy levels for their orbitals.Atoms want to form ions with the most stable energy levels.To form ions atoms in groups 1, 2, 13 will lose valence electrons.To form ions atoms in groups 15, 16, 17 will gain valence electrons.
6 Forming a Fluorine Anion Fluorine Ion has a -1 charge!Fluorine Atom (F)Atomic mass = 19+Atomic Number = 99p10n# protons = 9# neutrons = 10# electrons = 9Total charge in fluorine atom = +9 plus -9 = 0Total charge in fluorine ion = +9 plus -10 = -1
7 Forming a Magnesium Cation The neutral magnesium atom Mg hasAtomic mass=24Atomic number=1212 protons12 neutrons12 electronsTotal charge on magnesium atom=0A magnesium ion is formed by losing 2 valence electrons.12p12nThis forms a cation, Mg+2
8 Pattern for Ionic Charges Group #12131415161718Gain or Loss of Electrons?LossXGainHow Many Electrons?3Ionic Charge?+1+2+3-3-2-1
9 Noble Gas OrbitalsWhen the orbital contains a full set of electrons, the atom is said to have a stable noble gas orbital.First orbital : 2 electrons to be full (complete)Second orbital : 8 electrons to be full (complete)Third orbital : 8 electrons to be full (complete)Group 14 and 18 elements do NOT form ions!!!
10 Test Yourself What ion will calcium form? Ca+2 Will sulphur gain or lose electrons to form an ion?Gain 2 electronsHow is a cation formed?By losing electrons, so there are more positive protons left.