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Classifying the Diversity of Living Organisms

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Presentation on theme: "Classifying the Diversity of Living Organisms"— Presentation transcript:

1 Classifying the Diversity of Living Organisms

2 What is classification?
Classification is the grouping of organisms according to characteristics Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms based on physical characteristics Our taxonomic system was developed by Carolus Linneaus in the 1700’s 2

3 Classifying Species All organisms are slotted into eight nested levels of taxonomic categories known as ranks Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species

4 Sample Classification of a Panther

5 Kingdom Phylum/Division Class Order Family Genus Species
Human Box Elder Tree Bobcat Canadian lynx Kingdom Animalia Plantea Phylum/Division Chordata Anthophyta Class Mammalian Dicotyledonae Mammalia Order Primates Sapindales Carnivora Family Hominidae Aceracae Felidae Genus Homo Acer Lynx Species sapiens nugundo rufus canadensis 5

6 What is a Domain? A domain is the highest level of taxonomic classification The three domains are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya Bacteria and Archaea are also names of kingdoms The domain Eukarya contains the other 4 kingdoms of Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia

7 The 6 Kingdoms Classification often skips the domain and starts with the kingdoms shown below: Archaea – separated from Monera in the 1990’s Bacteria, also called Monera or Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia 7

8 Binomial Nomenclature
Each organism has a two part scientific name The first name is the genus which is always capitalized The second name is the species which is always lowercase Names are in Latin because it was the language of scholars. 8

9 What is a scientific name?
Each species has a unique scientific name but many organisms have a variety of common names Scientific names of organisms are always italicized or underlined For example Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens The three ways to identify a species focus on the biological species concept of fertile offspring, the phylogenetic species concept based on evolutionary history and the morphological species concept based on body features 9

10 Dichotomous Key Dichotomy---to divide in two
A dichotomous key is commonly used by scientists to classify living organisms. At each step there are two alternatives offered, and the choice of one of those alternatives determines the next step. 10

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