Presentation on theme: "Classification is the grouping of organisms according to characteristics Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms based on physical characteristics."— Presentation transcript:
Classification is the grouping of organisms according to characteristics Taxonomy is the science of classifying organisms based on physical characteristics Our taxonomic system was developed by Carolus Linneaus in the 1700s
All organisms are slotted into eight nested levels of taxonomic categories known as ranks Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species
Human Box Elder Tree Bobcat Canadian lynx K ingdom AnimaliaPlanteaAnimalia P hylum/Division ChordataAnthophytaChordata C lass MammalianDicotyledonaeMammalia O rder PrimatesSapindalesCarnivora F amily HominidaeAceracaeFelidae G enus HomoAcerLynx S pecies sapiensnugundorufuscanadensis
A domain is the highest level of taxonomic classification The three domains are Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya Bacteria and Archaea are also names of kingdoms The domain Eukarya contains the other 4 kingdoms of Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia
Classification often skips the domain and starts with the kingdoms shown below: Archaea – separated from Monera in the 1990s Bacteria, also called Monera or Eubacteria Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia The 6 Kingdoms
Each organism has a two part scientific name The first name is the genus which is always capitalized The second name is the species which is always lowercase Names are in Latin because it was the language of scholars.
Each species has a unique scientific name but many organisms have a variety of common names Scientific names of organisms are always italicized or underlined For example Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens The three ways to identify a species focus on the biological species concept of fertile offspring, the phylogenetic species concept based on evolutionary history and the morphological species concept based on body features
Dichotomy---to divide in two A dichotomous key is commonly used by scientists to classify living organisms. At each step there are two alternatives offered, and the choice of one of those alternatives determines the next step.